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International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET) e-ISSN: 2395-0056
Volume: 05 Issue: 12 | Dec 2018 www.irjet.net p-ISSN: 2395-0072
© 2018, IRJET | Impact Factor value: 7.211 | ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal | Page 1539
An Overview of Electric Vehicle Concept and its Evolution
Usha Sharma1, Abhishek Panchal2, Kumar Rai3, Eshan Pandya4
1Assistant Professor, Dept. of Electrical Engg., Aravali Institute of Technical Studies Udaipur, Rajasthan, India
2,3,4Student, Dept. of Electrical Engg., Aravali Institute of Technical Studies Udaipur, Rajasthan, India
---------------------------------------------------------------------***---------------------------------------------------------------------
Abstract:- A growing concern in today’s world is
environmental protection and energy conservation.
Automotive manufacturers are developing alternatives to
existing fossil fuel-driven vehicles. This has paved way for the
development of Electric Vehicles (EV) and Hybrid Electric
Vehicles (HEV). In this paper an overview of basic concept of
electric vehicle is explained. Also explained the all possible
types of eclectic vehicle such as (1) Plug-in Hybrid Electric
Vehicle, (2) Battery Electric Vehicle, (3) Fuel Cell Electric
Vehicle and (4)Hybrid Electric Vehicle. At last we explained
the brief evolution of electric vehicle.
Key Words: Electric Vehicle, Hybrid Electric Vehicle,Plug-in
Hybrid Electric Vehicle, Battery Electric Vehicle, Fuel Cell
Electric Vehicle and Hybrid Electric Vehicle.
1. INTRODUCTION
In recent years, many existing automobile manufacturers
and new dedicated companies have put a remarkable effort
in transforming the conventional vehicle into an Electric
Vehicle that provides green and reliable solution.Interms of
market share, EV demand is raising [2]. It starts replacing
conventional vehicle In USA, Europe and Asia. With
revolutionized perspective and competitive price (Entry
range), EV is a smart choice for any end user, however, an
extra effort is required to enhance the range of autonomy
and vary applications [3].
A vehicle which is propelled by one or more electric motors
and draws power from onboard electric source is an electric
vehicle. They are more durable and mechanically simpler
than gasoline powered vehicles. They produce lesspollution
than gasoline-powered vehicles. While HEVs tend to reduce
the emissions from internal combustion vehicles as a result
of greater fuel efficiency, they do not completely solve the
problem. Electric vehicles on the other hand are much more
energy efficient, produce absolutely no tail pipe emissions
and requires less maintenance as compared to the
conventional internal combustion engine (ICE) vehicles [4].
However, the reason the automotive industry has not gone
pure electric or able to compete favorably with existing
gasoline cars, lies in the inherent problem of existingbattery
technologies.
The advantages of using electric vehicles over gasoline
powered engines are as follows-
1. They do not create any pollution.
2. They are noise free.
3. They help us save fossil fuels.
4. They have high starting torque.
5. They can be charged at home without going to
stations.
The above advantages have made electric cars popular in
market and their numbers are increasing day by day.
The most common electrical energy storage device used in
vehicles is a battery. Batteries have been the technology of
choice for most applications, because they can store large
amounts of energy in a relatively small volume and weight
and provide suitable levels of power for many applications.
Shelf and cycle life have been a problem/ concern with most
types of batteries, but designers have learnedtotoleratethis
shortcoming due to the lack of an alternative. In recent
times, the power requirements in a number of applications
have increased markedlyandhaveexceededthecapabilityof
batteries of standard design.
An electric vehicle stores its energy on board- typically in
batteries, but alternatively with capacitors or flywheel
storage devices. A more recent development is the hybrid
electric vehicle (HEV), which uses both an electric motor
or motors and a gasoline or diesel engine, which charges
the batteries in order to extend the car's range and
often to provide additional power [5]. Regardless of the
energy source, an electric car needs a controller, which is
connected to the accelerator pedal, for directing the flow of
electricity from the energy source to the motor. This paper
presents the brief overview on the concept of electrical
vehicle with its types. In last section we discussed about the
evolution of electric vehicle.
2. WORKING PRINCIPLE OF ELECTRIC VEHICLE
The basic motive of using electric vehicles is to save fossil
fuels. To fulfill this energy sources used are batteries,
capacitors, flywheels etc. energy can also begeneratedusing
fuel cells. Earlier in the starting era only ‘pure’ electric
vehicles were in use which use only battery as a energy
source and needs charging frequently. Nowadays electric
vehicles use combination of energy sources and are called
hybrid electric vehicles [6]. They are better than the pure
electric vehicles as the auxiliary device used can support
battery, increase range of vehicles and can help in transient
operations. For e.g. when we use hybrid system of battery
and super capacitor the super capacitor supports battery
during high loads and transient loads which makes system
efficient and maintains battery’s health.
Most electric vehicles use lead-acid batteries, but new
types of batteries, including zinc-chlorine, nickel metal
hydride, and sodium-sulfur, are becoming more common .
The motor of an electric car harnesses the battery's
International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET) e-ISSN: 2395-0056
Volume: 05 Issue: 12 | Dec 2018 www.irjet.net p-ISSN: 2395-0072
© 2018, IRJET | Impact Factor value: 7.211 | ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal | Page 1540
electrical energy by converting it to kinetic energy. The
driver simply switches on the power selects "Forward" or
"Reverse" with another switch and steps on the accelerator
pedal. While the internal-combustion engine of a
conventional car has many moving parts and must
convert the linear motion of pistons and rods into rotary
motion at the wheels, an electric motor has only a
single rotating element. Like a gasoline-powered car, an
electric car has a system (called a power train) of gears,
shafts, and joints that transmit motion from the motor to
the vehicle wheels. Most electric vehicles do not have
clutches or multispeed transmissions. In order to go
backward, the flow of electricity through the motor is
reversed, changing the rotation of the motor and causing
the power train to make the wheels rotate in the other
direction.
Most electric vehicles have a regenerative braking system
which acts as a battery charger. When the vehicle slows
down or when brakes are applied the motor starts working
as generator and supply electricitytobattery.Thisbrakingis
called regenerative braking and it often works as a battery
charger [7]. Converting the kinetic energy into electric
energy slows the vehicle. Electric vehicles also have a brake
pedal and a traditional brakingsystem, whichusesfrictionto
slow the vehicle for quick and emergency stopping. These
friction brakes convert kinetic energy to heat. In gasoline-
powered vehicles this energy is wasted. The heat being
dissipated into thesurroundingair.However,issoimportant
that engineers found a way to recover the heat and use it -
for example, by heating the passenger compartment. The
block diagram below shows the architecture of a simple
battery powered electric vehicle
Fig -1: Architecture of a battery powered vehicle
As the above block diagramshowsa batterypoweredvehicle
consist of a battery, controller, motor and the transmission
system. Battery is the energy source and the controller
controls the flow of energy from energy source to themotor.
The transmission system is for the transfer of energy.
3. TYPES OF ELECTRIC VEHICLE
Choosing a new vehicle can be difficult at the best of times,
but it is even harder if you are trying to get to grips with all
of the different types of hybrid vehicles that are on the
market. The different types of vehicles are explained below-
3.1 Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEV)
Plug-in Hybrid vehicles also combine an electric motor with
a traditional internal combustion engine. However, plug-in
electric motors are charged up by plugging the vehicle into a
special power station. These vehicles can work as both
electric as well as gasoline powered vehicles. When they are
used for long range driver can switch it to fuel powered
when motor stops giving power. The averagerangeforthese
vehicles when they are being used in electricmodeisaround
35 miles. When the vehicle is being used in electric power
mode, there are no tailpipe emissions; however emissions
levels are standard when the car is being driven in
traditional fuel mode. This type of vehicle is ideal of city
driving, because they are most efficient when they are being
driving in this environment.
3.2 Battery Electric Vehicles (BEV)
Battery electric vehicles (BEV) consist of an electric motor
which is power by a battery connected to it. Battery is the
internal source of energy in these vehicles. Battery gives
these vehicles advantage of operating with zero emission. A
technology named ‘energy recovery’ technology is used in
them. In this electric motor works as both a propulsion
source as well as a generator when braking and when
vehicle moves down a slope and moves freely under gravity.
This increases the efficiency of vehicle [8].
In traffic BEVs proves to be a good option because of high
torque of the electric motor that is transmittedtothewheels
and the smoother acceleration (and deceleration)compared
to vehicles with internal combustion engines (ICE – Internal
Combustion Engine). BEVs are noiseless while operating the
electric motor and they don't produce pollutant emissions.
These aspects make BEVs the ideal vehicles to be used in
cities and/or urban areas. But besidestheaboveadvantages,
there are some disadvantages to using BEVs:
1. High production costs.
2. Reduced overall size (compared to vehicles
equipped with ICE).
3. Limited autonomy and top speed.
4. Large recharging time or the need for special
charging places.
5. The lack of electric motor noise can cause traffic
accidents (persons with hearing disabilities,
pedestrians, cyclists, etc.).
The two types of battery electric vehicles classifies on the
basis of the mode of transmission of electric power are as
follows-
1. The internal combustion engine is replaced by the
electric motor. The power produced by the electric
motor is transmitted to the wheels via transmission
(gearbox).
International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET) e-ISSN: 2395-0056
Volume: 05 Issue: 12 | Dec 2018 www.irjet.net p-ISSN: 2395-0072
© 2018, IRJET | Impact Factor value: 7.211 | ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal | Page 1541
2. Each drive wheel is fitted with an electric motor
(hub motor)
The use of a central electric motor design offers the
advantage of using the same design as existing vehicles on
the market. Also using the gearboxincreasesthe efficiencyof
the usage of the power developed by the electric motor
depending on load being placed on the vehicle based on
traffic conditions. However, it should be mentioned that the
use of a gear box lowers the overall efficiency due to
inherent friction in the mechanisms that compose it.
Fig -2: Simplified architecture of electric vehicle
(a)Battery vehicle (b)Hybrid vehicle (c)Rang extended
vehicle (d)Fuel cell vehicle
3.3 Fuel Cell Electric Vehicles (FCEV)
FHEV are powered by an electric motor which is charged-up
by combining hydrogen and oxygen to create a chemical
reaction. The fuel cell draws in oxygen from around the
vehicle which reacts with stored hydrogen. Electricity is
generated which powers the motor and moves the vehicle.
There are zero harmful emissions from the vehicle during
this reaction, although water is produced as a waste by-
product [8].
The hydrogen cell must be topped-up in a similar way to the
way that traditional fuel vehiclesaretopped-up,although the
process of filling the cell does take a few minuteslongerthan
it takes to top-up a fuel tank. The production of hydrogenfor
these fuel cells creates about the same emissions levels as
charging a plug-in vehicle with fossil fuel electricity.
3.4 Hybrid vehicle
A Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV) is a vehicle that uses two or
more sources of power. The two sources are electricity from
batteries and mechanical power from an internal
combustion engineoranyauxiliarysource.Thiscombination
offers very low emissions of vehicles with the power and
range of gasoline vehicles. They also offer up to 30 more
miles per gallon perform as well or better than any
comparable gasoline powered vehicle and never have to be
plugged in for recharging. A hybrid road vehicle is one in
which the propulsion energy during specified operational
missions is available from two or more kinds or types of
energy stores, sources, or converters, of which at least one
store or converter must be on board [9].Usinghybridenergy
storage system improves the efficiency of main energy
source as the auxiliary source can support it and can save it
from high and varying loads.
4. EOLUTION OF ELECTRIC VEHICLE
The first electric vehicle was built by Thomas Davenport
from Brandon, UK in 1834, he built a battery to supply an
electric motor and he used it to drive a small vehicle that
managed to go a short ride on rail. In 1881, Frenchman
Gustave built EV includes a DC motor that fed by lead-acid
batteries, the whole vehicle and its driver weighed
approximately 160 kg. Two years later, a vehicle similar to
this was built by two British professors. These early
realizations did not attract much attention from the public
because the technology was not mature enough to compete
with horse carriages. Speeds of 15 km/h and a range of 16
km were not exciting for potential customers. The following
20 years were an era during which electric vehicles
competed with their gasoline counterparts. This was
particularly true in America, where there were not many
paved roads outside few cities. The limited range of electric
vehicles was not a problem. However, in Europe, the rapidly
increasing number of paved roads called for extended
ranges, thus favoring gasoline vehicles.
In 1894, the first commercial electric vehiclewasMorrisand
Salom’s Electroboat show. This vehicle was operated as a
taxi in New York City by its inventors company. The
Electroboat proved to be more profitable than horse cabs
despite a higher purchase price (around 3000 vs. 1200$ in
that era). It could be used for three shifts of 4h with 90-min
recharging periods in between. It was powered by two 1.5
hp motors that allowed a maximum speed of 32 km/h and a
40-km range.
Fig -3: Morris and Salom’s Electroboat used as cab in New
York
The most significant technical advance of that era was the
invention of regenerative braking by Frenchman M.A.
Darracq on his 1897 coupe.Thismethodallowsrecuperating
the vehicle’s kinetic energy whilebrakingandrechargingthe
batteries, which greatly enhances the driving range. It isone
of the most significant contributions to electric and hybrid
electric vehicle technology as it contributes to energy
efficiency more than anything else in urban driving [10]. In
addition, among the most significant electric vehicles of that
era was the first vehicle ever to reach 100 km/h. It was "La
Jamais Contente" built by Frenchman Camille Jenatzy in
International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET) e-ISSN: 2395-0056
Volume: 05 Issue: 12 | Dec 2018 www.irjet.net p-ISSN: 2395-0072
© 2018, IRJET | Impact Factor value: 7.211 | ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal | Page 1542
1899. Electric vehicles started to disappear because of their
limited driving range and performance that really impaired
them unlike their gasolinecounterparts,whichbecamemore
powerful, more flexible, and above all, easier to handle. The
last commercially significant electric vehicles were released
around 1905. During nearly 60 years, the only electric
vehicles sold were common golf carts and delivery vehicles.
In 1945, the innovation of the transistor and thyristor
allowed switching high currents at high voltages. This made
it possible to regulate the power fed to an electric motor
without the very inefficient rheostats, and allowed the
running of AC motors at variable frequency. During the
1960s and 1980s, about the environment triggered some
researches on electric vehicles and many carmakers
produced prototypes and small series of electric vehicles
designed especially for specific markets.
However, despite advances in batterytechnologyand power
electronics, their range and performance were still an
obstacle [11]. The modern electric vehicle era culminated
during the 1980s and early 1990s with the release of a few
realistic vehicles by firms such as GM with the EV1 and PSA.
Although these vehicles represented a real achievement,
especially when compared with early realizations,itbecame
clear during the early 1990s that electric automobiles could
never compete with gasoline automobiles for range and
performance [12]. The reason is in batteries, the energy is
stored in the metal of electrodes, which weigh far more than
gasoline for the same energy content.
4.1 Development of commercial Electric Vehicle
Nissan Alliance reached 200,000 all-electric vehicles
delivered globally, representing a 58% share of the global
light-duty all-electric market segment.
The world's top selling all-electric cars in 2014 were the
Nissan Leaf (61,507), Tesla Model S (31,655), BMW i3
(16,052), and the Renault Zoe (11,323). Accountingforplug-
in hybrids, the Leaf and the Model S also ranked first and
second correspondingly among the world's top 10 selling
plug-in electric cars. All-electric modelsreleasedtothe retail
customers in 2014 include the BMW Brilliance Zinoro
1E, Chery eQ, Geely-Kandi Panda EV, Zotye Zhidou E20, Kia
Soul EV, Volkswagen e-Golf, Mercedes-Benz B-Class Electric
Drive, and Venucia e30.
The world's top selling highway-capable electric car in
history became the Nissan Leaf with over 200,000unitssold
in 2015. The Tesla Model S, with global deliveries of more
than 100,000 units, is the world's second best selling all-
electric car of all-time. The Model S ranked as the world's
best selling plug-in electric vehicle in 2015, up from second
best in 2014.
Fig -4: Nissan Leaf Electric Car
Talking about the recent developments Tesla Model 3 was
unveiled on 31 March 2016. With pricing starting
at US$35,000 and an all-electric range of 215 mi (346 km),
the Model 3 is Tesla Motors first vehicle aimed for the mass
market. Retail deliveries of the Chevrolet Bolt EV began in
the San Francisco Bay Area on 13 December 2016. In
December 2016, Nissan reported that Leaf owners
worldwide achieved the milestone of3billionkm(1.9billion
miles) driven collectively through November 2016, saving
the equivalent of nearly 500 million kg (1,100 million lb) of
CO2 emissions. Global Nissan Leafsalespassed250,000units
delivered in December 2016. The Tesla Model S was the
world's best-selling plug-in electric car in 2016 for the
second year running, with 50,931 unitsdeliveredglobally.In
February 2017 Consumer Reports named Tesla as the top
car brand in the United States and ranked it 8th among
global carmakers. Global sales of the Nissan Leaf achieved
the 300,000 unit milestone in January 2018.
This paper deals with the basics of electric vehicles. It gives
introduction to electric vehicles and their needs. Types of
electric vehicles are explained with the system of proposed
electric vehicle and its topologies. Further studies can be
done to improve the hybrid system. Various other energy
sources like fuel cells, flywheels etc. Can be made to work
with each other to form a efficient hybrid system.
REFERENCES
[1] Siang Fui Tie, Chee Wei Tan, " A Review of Power and
Energy Management Strategies in Electric Vehicles"
2012 4th International Conference on Intelligent and
Advanced Systems (ICIAS2012), 2012, pp. 412-417. M.
Young, The Technical Writer’s Handbook. Mill Valley,
CA: University Science, 1989.
[2] Hongjun Chen, Fei Lu, Fujuan Guo, “Power Management
System Design for Small Size Solar-Electric Vehicle”,
2012 IEEE 7th International Power Electronics and
Motion Control Conference - ECCE Asia,2012,pp. 2658-
2662. K. Elissa, “Title of paper if known,” unpublished.
5. CONCLUSION
International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET) e-ISSN: 2395-0056
Volume: 05 Issue: 12 | Dec 2018 www.irjet.net p-ISSN: 2395-0072
© 2018, IRJET | Impact Factor value: 7.211 | ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal | Page 1543
[3] B. Ganji and A. Z. Kouzani, "A study on look-ahead
control and energy management strategies in hybrid
electric vehicles," 2010 8th IEEE International
Conference on Control andAutomation(ICCA),2010,pp.
388-392.
[4] F. R. Salmasi, "Control Strategies for Hybrid Electric
Vehicles: Evolution, Classification, Comparison, and
Future Trends," IEEE Transactions on Vehicular
Technology, vol. 56, 2007, pp. 2393-2404.
[5] L. Rosario, P.C.K.Luk, J.T.Economou, B.A. White, “A
Modular Power and Energy Management Structure for
Dual-Energy Source Electric Vehicles”, IEEE Vehicle
Power and Propulsion Conference, 2006, pp:1-6.
[6] Emil B. Iversen, Juan M. Morales, Henrik Madsen,
“Optimal charging of an electric vehicle using a Markov
decision process”, Applied Energy 123(2014),2014,pp.
1-12.
[7] Chi-Sheng Tsai, Ching-Hua Ting, “Evaluation of a Multi-
Power System for an Electric Vehicle” , International
Conference on Control, Automation and Systems 2010,
2010, pp. 1308-1311
[8] Camara, M. B., Gualous, H., Gustin, F. and Berthon, A.
2006. Control strategy of Hybrid sources for Transport
applications using supercapacitors and batteries. In
proceedings of 5th International Power Electronics and
Motion Control Conference, IPEMCl. 2006, pp : 1-5.
[9] Akar, F., Tavlasoglu, Y. and Vural, B. 2016. An Energy
Management Strategy for a Concept
Battery/Ultracapacitor Electric Vehicle with Improved
Battery Life. IEEE Transactions on Transportation
Electrification 3 : 191-200
[10] Agarwal, V. and Dev, M. 2013. Introduction to Hybrid
Electric Vehicles: State of Art. In proceedings of
Engineering and Systems (SCES), Students Conference
2013, pp : 1-6.
[11] Abdelhedi. A., Ammari, A.C., Lahyani, A. 2016. Optimal
power sharing between batteriesandsupercapacitorsin
electric vehicles. In: Proceedings of 7th International
Conference on Sciences of Electronics, Technologies of
InformationandTelecommunications(SETIT)2016,pp:
97-103.
[12] Zhang, M., Yang, Y. and Mi, C.C. 2012. Analytical
Approach for the Power Management of Blended-Mode
Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles. IEEE Transactions On
Vehicular Technology 61 : 1554-1566.

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IRJET- An Overview of Electric Vehicle Concept and its Evolution

  • 1. International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET) e-ISSN: 2395-0056 Volume: 05 Issue: 12 | Dec 2018 www.irjet.net p-ISSN: 2395-0072 © 2018, IRJET | Impact Factor value: 7.211 | ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal | Page 1539 An Overview of Electric Vehicle Concept and its Evolution Usha Sharma1, Abhishek Panchal2, Kumar Rai3, Eshan Pandya4 1Assistant Professor, Dept. of Electrical Engg., Aravali Institute of Technical Studies Udaipur, Rajasthan, India 2,3,4Student, Dept. of Electrical Engg., Aravali Institute of Technical Studies Udaipur, Rajasthan, India ---------------------------------------------------------------------***--------------------------------------------------------------------- Abstract:- A growing concern in today’s world is environmental protection and energy conservation. Automotive manufacturers are developing alternatives to existing fossil fuel-driven vehicles. This has paved way for the development of Electric Vehicles (EV) and Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEV). In this paper an overview of basic concept of electric vehicle is explained. Also explained the all possible types of eclectic vehicle such as (1) Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle, (2) Battery Electric Vehicle, (3) Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle and (4)Hybrid Electric Vehicle. At last we explained the brief evolution of electric vehicle. Key Words: Electric Vehicle, Hybrid Electric Vehicle,Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle, Battery Electric Vehicle, Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle and Hybrid Electric Vehicle. 1. INTRODUCTION In recent years, many existing automobile manufacturers and new dedicated companies have put a remarkable effort in transforming the conventional vehicle into an Electric Vehicle that provides green and reliable solution.Interms of market share, EV demand is raising [2]. It starts replacing conventional vehicle In USA, Europe and Asia. With revolutionized perspective and competitive price (Entry range), EV is a smart choice for any end user, however, an extra effort is required to enhance the range of autonomy and vary applications [3]. A vehicle which is propelled by one or more electric motors and draws power from onboard electric source is an electric vehicle. They are more durable and mechanically simpler than gasoline powered vehicles. They produce lesspollution than gasoline-powered vehicles. While HEVs tend to reduce the emissions from internal combustion vehicles as a result of greater fuel efficiency, they do not completely solve the problem. Electric vehicles on the other hand are much more energy efficient, produce absolutely no tail pipe emissions and requires less maintenance as compared to the conventional internal combustion engine (ICE) vehicles [4]. However, the reason the automotive industry has not gone pure electric or able to compete favorably with existing gasoline cars, lies in the inherent problem of existingbattery technologies. The advantages of using electric vehicles over gasoline powered engines are as follows- 1. They do not create any pollution. 2. They are noise free. 3. They help us save fossil fuels. 4. They have high starting torque. 5. They can be charged at home without going to stations. The above advantages have made electric cars popular in market and their numbers are increasing day by day. The most common electrical energy storage device used in vehicles is a battery. Batteries have been the technology of choice for most applications, because they can store large amounts of energy in a relatively small volume and weight and provide suitable levels of power for many applications. Shelf and cycle life have been a problem/ concern with most types of batteries, but designers have learnedtotoleratethis shortcoming due to the lack of an alternative. In recent times, the power requirements in a number of applications have increased markedlyandhaveexceededthecapabilityof batteries of standard design. An electric vehicle stores its energy on board- typically in batteries, but alternatively with capacitors or flywheel storage devices. A more recent development is the hybrid electric vehicle (HEV), which uses both an electric motor or motors and a gasoline or diesel engine, which charges the batteries in order to extend the car's range and often to provide additional power [5]. Regardless of the energy source, an electric car needs a controller, which is connected to the accelerator pedal, for directing the flow of electricity from the energy source to the motor. This paper presents the brief overview on the concept of electrical vehicle with its types. In last section we discussed about the evolution of electric vehicle. 2. WORKING PRINCIPLE OF ELECTRIC VEHICLE The basic motive of using electric vehicles is to save fossil fuels. To fulfill this energy sources used are batteries, capacitors, flywheels etc. energy can also begeneratedusing fuel cells. Earlier in the starting era only ‘pure’ electric vehicles were in use which use only battery as a energy source and needs charging frequently. Nowadays electric vehicles use combination of energy sources and are called hybrid electric vehicles [6]. They are better than the pure electric vehicles as the auxiliary device used can support battery, increase range of vehicles and can help in transient operations. For e.g. when we use hybrid system of battery and super capacitor the super capacitor supports battery during high loads and transient loads which makes system efficient and maintains battery’s health. Most electric vehicles use lead-acid batteries, but new types of batteries, including zinc-chlorine, nickel metal hydride, and sodium-sulfur, are becoming more common . The motor of an electric car harnesses the battery's
  • 2. International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET) e-ISSN: 2395-0056 Volume: 05 Issue: 12 | Dec 2018 www.irjet.net p-ISSN: 2395-0072 © 2018, IRJET | Impact Factor value: 7.211 | ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal | Page 1540 electrical energy by converting it to kinetic energy. The driver simply switches on the power selects "Forward" or "Reverse" with another switch and steps on the accelerator pedal. While the internal-combustion engine of a conventional car has many moving parts and must convert the linear motion of pistons and rods into rotary motion at the wheels, an electric motor has only a single rotating element. Like a gasoline-powered car, an electric car has a system (called a power train) of gears, shafts, and joints that transmit motion from the motor to the vehicle wheels. Most electric vehicles do not have clutches or multispeed transmissions. In order to go backward, the flow of electricity through the motor is reversed, changing the rotation of the motor and causing the power train to make the wheels rotate in the other direction. Most electric vehicles have a regenerative braking system which acts as a battery charger. When the vehicle slows down or when brakes are applied the motor starts working as generator and supply electricitytobattery.Thisbrakingis called regenerative braking and it often works as a battery charger [7]. Converting the kinetic energy into electric energy slows the vehicle. Electric vehicles also have a brake pedal and a traditional brakingsystem, whichusesfrictionto slow the vehicle for quick and emergency stopping. These friction brakes convert kinetic energy to heat. In gasoline- powered vehicles this energy is wasted. The heat being dissipated into thesurroundingair.However,issoimportant that engineers found a way to recover the heat and use it - for example, by heating the passenger compartment. The block diagram below shows the architecture of a simple battery powered electric vehicle Fig -1: Architecture of a battery powered vehicle As the above block diagramshowsa batterypoweredvehicle consist of a battery, controller, motor and the transmission system. Battery is the energy source and the controller controls the flow of energy from energy source to themotor. The transmission system is for the transfer of energy. 3. TYPES OF ELECTRIC VEHICLE Choosing a new vehicle can be difficult at the best of times, but it is even harder if you are trying to get to grips with all of the different types of hybrid vehicles that are on the market. The different types of vehicles are explained below- 3.1 Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEV) Plug-in Hybrid vehicles also combine an electric motor with a traditional internal combustion engine. However, plug-in electric motors are charged up by plugging the vehicle into a special power station. These vehicles can work as both electric as well as gasoline powered vehicles. When they are used for long range driver can switch it to fuel powered when motor stops giving power. The averagerangeforthese vehicles when they are being used in electricmodeisaround 35 miles. When the vehicle is being used in electric power mode, there are no tailpipe emissions; however emissions levels are standard when the car is being driven in traditional fuel mode. This type of vehicle is ideal of city driving, because they are most efficient when they are being driving in this environment. 3.2 Battery Electric Vehicles (BEV) Battery electric vehicles (BEV) consist of an electric motor which is power by a battery connected to it. Battery is the internal source of energy in these vehicles. Battery gives these vehicles advantage of operating with zero emission. A technology named ‘energy recovery’ technology is used in them. In this electric motor works as both a propulsion source as well as a generator when braking and when vehicle moves down a slope and moves freely under gravity. This increases the efficiency of vehicle [8]. In traffic BEVs proves to be a good option because of high torque of the electric motor that is transmittedtothewheels and the smoother acceleration (and deceleration)compared to vehicles with internal combustion engines (ICE – Internal Combustion Engine). BEVs are noiseless while operating the electric motor and they don't produce pollutant emissions. These aspects make BEVs the ideal vehicles to be used in cities and/or urban areas. But besidestheaboveadvantages, there are some disadvantages to using BEVs: 1. High production costs. 2. Reduced overall size (compared to vehicles equipped with ICE). 3. Limited autonomy and top speed. 4. Large recharging time or the need for special charging places. 5. The lack of electric motor noise can cause traffic accidents (persons with hearing disabilities, pedestrians, cyclists, etc.). The two types of battery electric vehicles classifies on the basis of the mode of transmission of electric power are as follows- 1. The internal combustion engine is replaced by the electric motor. The power produced by the electric motor is transmitted to the wheels via transmission (gearbox).
  • 3. International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET) e-ISSN: 2395-0056 Volume: 05 Issue: 12 | Dec 2018 www.irjet.net p-ISSN: 2395-0072 © 2018, IRJET | Impact Factor value: 7.211 | ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal | Page 1541 2. Each drive wheel is fitted with an electric motor (hub motor) The use of a central electric motor design offers the advantage of using the same design as existing vehicles on the market. Also using the gearboxincreasesthe efficiencyof the usage of the power developed by the electric motor depending on load being placed on the vehicle based on traffic conditions. However, it should be mentioned that the use of a gear box lowers the overall efficiency due to inherent friction in the mechanisms that compose it. Fig -2: Simplified architecture of electric vehicle (a)Battery vehicle (b)Hybrid vehicle (c)Rang extended vehicle (d)Fuel cell vehicle 3.3 Fuel Cell Electric Vehicles (FCEV) FHEV are powered by an electric motor which is charged-up by combining hydrogen and oxygen to create a chemical reaction. The fuel cell draws in oxygen from around the vehicle which reacts with stored hydrogen. Electricity is generated which powers the motor and moves the vehicle. There are zero harmful emissions from the vehicle during this reaction, although water is produced as a waste by- product [8]. The hydrogen cell must be topped-up in a similar way to the way that traditional fuel vehiclesaretopped-up,although the process of filling the cell does take a few minuteslongerthan it takes to top-up a fuel tank. The production of hydrogenfor these fuel cells creates about the same emissions levels as charging a plug-in vehicle with fossil fuel electricity. 3.4 Hybrid vehicle A Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV) is a vehicle that uses two or more sources of power. The two sources are electricity from batteries and mechanical power from an internal combustion engineoranyauxiliarysource.Thiscombination offers very low emissions of vehicles with the power and range of gasoline vehicles. They also offer up to 30 more miles per gallon perform as well or better than any comparable gasoline powered vehicle and never have to be plugged in for recharging. A hybrid road vehicle is one in which the propulsion energy during specified operational missions is available from two or more kinds or types of energy stores, sources, or converters, of which at least one store or converter must be on board [9].Usinghybridenergy storage system improves the efficiency of main energy source as the auxiliary source can support it and can save it from high and varying loads. 4. EOLUTION OF ELECTRIC VEHICLE The first electric vehicle was built by Thomas Davenport from Brandon, UK in 1834, he built a battery to supply an electric motor and he used it to drive a small vehicle that managed to go a short ride on rail. In 1881, Frenchman Gustave built EV includes a DC motor that fed by lead-acid batteries, the whole vehicle and its driver weighed approximately 160 kg. Two years later, a vehicle similar to this was built by two British professors. These early realizations did not attract much attention from the public because the technology was not mature enough to compete with horse carriages. Speeds of 15 km/h and a range of 16 km were not exciting for potential customers. The following 20 years were an era during which electric vehicles competed with their gasoline counterparts. This was particularly true in America, where there were not many paved roads outside few cities. The limited range of electric vehicles was not a problem. However, in Europe, the rapidly increasing number of paved roads called for extended ranges, thus favoring gasoline vehicles. In 1894, the first commercial electric vehiclewasMorrisand Salom’s Electroboat show. This vehicle was operated as a taxi in New York City by its inventors company. The Electroboat proved to be more profitable than horse cabs despite a higher purchase price (around 3000 vs. 1200$ in that era). It could be used for three shifts of 4h with 90-min recharging periods in between. It was powered by two 1.5 hp motors that allowed a maximum speed of 32 km/h and a 40-km range. Fig -3: Morris and Salom’s Electroboat used as cab in New York The most significant technical advance of that era was the invention of regenerative braking by Frenchman M.A. Darracq on his 1897 coupe.Thismethodallowsrecuperating the vehicle’s kinetic energy whilebrakingandrechargingthe batteries, which greatly enhances the driving range. It isone of the most significant contributions to electric and hybrid electric vehicle technology as it contributes to energy efficiency more than anything else in urban driving [10]. In addition, among the most significant electric vehicles of that era was the first vehicle ever to reach 100 km/h. It was "La Jamais Contente" built by Frenchman Camille Jenatzy in
  • 4. International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET) e-ISSN: 2395-0056 Volume: 05 Issue: 12 | Dec 2018 www.irjet.net p-ISSN: 2395-0072 © 2018, IRJET | Impact Factor value: 7.211 | ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal | Page 1542 1899. Electric vehicles started to disappear because of their limited driving range and performance that really impaired them unlike their gasolinecounterparts,whichbecamemore powerful, more flexible, and above all, easier to handle. The last commercially significant electric vehicles were released around 1905. During nearly 60 years, the only electric vehicles sold were common golf carts and delivery vehicles. In 1945, the innovation of the transistor and thyristor allowed switching high currents at high voltages. This made it possible to regulate the power fed to an electric motor without the very inefficient rheostats, and allowed the running of AC motors at variable frequency. During the 1960s and 1980s, about the environment triggered some researches on electric vehicles and many carmakers produced prototypes and small series of electric vehicles designed especially for specific markets. However, despite advances in batterytechnologyand power electronics, their range and performance were still an obstacle [11]. The modern electric vehicle era culminated during the 1980s and early 1990s with the release of a few realistic vehicles by firms such as GM with the EV1 and PSA. Although these vehicles represented a real achievement, especially when compared with early realizations,itbecame clear during the early 1990s that electric automobiles could never compete with gasoline automobiles for range and performance [12]. The reason is in batteries, the energy is stored in the metal of electrodes, which weigh far more than gasoline for the same energy content. 4.1 Development of commercial Electric Vehicle Nissan Alliance reached 200,000 all-electric vehicles delivered globally, representing a 58% share of the global light-duty all-electric market segment. The world's top selling all-electric cars in 2014 were the Nissan Leaf (61,507), Tesla Model S (31,655), BMW i3 (16,052), and the Renault Zoe (11,323). Accountingforplug- in hybrids, the Leaf and the Model S also ranked first and second correspondingly among the world's top 10 selling plug-in electric cars. All-electric modelsreleasedtothe retail customers in 2014 include the BMW Brilliance Zinoro 1E, Chery eQ, Geely-Kandi Panda EV, Zotye Zhidou E20, Kia Soul EV, Volkswagen e-Golf, Mercedes-Benz B-Class Electric Drive, and Venucia e30. The world's top selling highway-capable electric car in history became the Nissan Leaf with over 200,000unitssold in 2015. The Tesla Model S, with global deliveries of more than 100,000 units, is the world's second best selling all- electric car of all-time. The Model S ranked as the world's best selling plug-in electric vehicle in 2015, up from second best in 2014. Fig -4: Nissan Leaf Electric Car Talking about the recent developments Tesla Model 3 was unveiled on 31 March 2016. With pricing starting at US$35,000 and an all-electric range of 215 mi (346 km), the Model 3 is Tesla Motors first vehicle aimed for the mass market. Retail deliveries of the Chevrolet Bolt EV began in the San Francisco Bay Area on 13 December 2016. In December 2016, Nissan reported that Leaf owners worldwide achieved the milestone of3billionkm(1.9billion miles) driven collectively through November 2016, saving the equivalent of nearly 500 million kg (1,100 million lb) of CO2 emissions. Global Nissan Leafsalespassed250,000units delivered in December 2016. The Tesla Model S was the world's best-selling plug-in electric car in 2016 for the second year running, with 50,931 unitsdeliveredglobally.In February 2017 Consumer Reports named Tesla as the top car brand in the United States and ranked it 8th among global carmakers. Global sales of the Nissan Leaf achieved the 300,000 unit milestone in January 2018. This paper deals with the basics of electric vehicles. It gives introduction to electric vehicles and their needs. Types of electric vehicles are explained with the system of proposed electric vehicle and its topologies. Further studies can be done to improve the hybrid system. Various other energy sources like fuel cells, flywheels etc. Can be made to work with each other to form a efficient hybrid system. REFERENCES [1] Siang Fui Tie, Chee Wei Tan, " A Review of Power and Energy Management Strategies in Electric Vehicles" 2012 4th International Conference on Intelligent and Advanced Systems (ICIAS2012), 2012, pp. 412-417. M. Young, The Technical Writer’s Handbook. Mill Valley, CA: University Science, 1989. [2] Hongjun Chen, Fei Lu, Fujuan Guo, “Power Management System Design for Small Size Solar-Electric Vehicle”, 2012 IEEE 7th International Power Electronics and Motion Control Conference - ECCE Asia,2012,pp. 2658- 2662. K. Elissa, “Title of paper if known,” unpublished. 5. CONCLUSION
  • 5. International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET) e-ISSN: 2395-0056 Volume: 05 Issue: 12 | Dec 2018 www.irjet.net p-ISSN: 2395-0072 © 2018, IRJET | Impact Factor value: 7.211 | ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal | Page 1543 [3] B. Ganji and A. Z. Kouzani, "A study on look-ahead control and energy management strategies in hybrid electric vehicles," 2010 8th IEEE International Conference on Control andAutomation(ICCA),2010,pp. 388-392. [4] F. R. Salmasi, "Control Strategies for Hybrid Electric Vehicles: Evolution, Classification, Comparison, and Future Trends," IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology, vol. 56, 2007, pp. 2393-2404. [5] L. Rosario, P.C.K.Luk, J.T.Economou, B.A. White, “A Modular Power and Energy Management Structure for Dual-Energy Source Electric Vehicles”, IEEE Vehicle Power and Propulsion Conference, 2006, pp:1-6. [6] Emil B. Iversen, Juan M. Morales, Henrik Madsen, “Optimal charging of an electric vehicle using a Markov decision process”, Applied Energy 123(2014),2014,pp. 1-12. [7] Chi-Sheng Tsai, Ching-Hua Ting, “Evaluation of a Multi- Power System for an Electric Vehicle” , International Conference on Control, Automation and Systems 2010, 2010, pp. 1308-1311 [8] Camara, M. B., Gualous, H., Gustin, F. and Berthon, A. 2006. Control strategy of Hybrid sources for Transport applications using supercapacitors and batteries. In proceedings of 5th International Power Electronics and Motion Control Conference, IPEMCl. 2006, pp : 1-5. [9] Akar, F., Tavlasoglu, Y. and Vural, B. 2016. An Energy Management Strategy for a Concept Battery/Ultracapacitor Electric Vehicle with Improved Battery Life. IEEE Transactions on Transportation Electrification 3 : 191-200 [10] Agarwal, V. and Dev, M. 2013. Introduction to Hybrid Electric Vehicles: State of Art. In proceedings of Engineering and Systems (SCES), Students Conference 2013, pp : 1-6. [11] Abdelhedi. A., Ammari, A.C., Lahyani, A. 2016. Optimal power sharing between batteriesandsupercapacitorsin electric vehicles. In: Proceedings of 7th International Conference on Sciences of Electronics, Technologies of InformationandTelecommunications(SETIT)2016,pp: 97-103. [12] Zhang, M., Yang, Y. and Mi, C.C. 2012. Analytical Approach for the Power Management of Blended-Mode Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles. IEEE Transactions On Vehicular Technology 61 : 1554-1566.