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International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET) e-ISSN: 2395-0056
Volume: 11 Issue: 01 | Jan 2024 www.irjet.net p-ISSN: 2395-0072
© 2024, IRJET | Impact Factor value: 8.226 | ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal | Page 737
A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF RCC ELEMENT OF SLAB WITH STARK
STEEL (HYSD STEEL) AND TMT STEEL
Vipul Jadhav1, A.B. Pujari2, S.K. Patil3, A.R. Undre4
1Student Department of Civil Engineering KJ College of Engineering & Management Research, Pune, India
234 Professor Department of Civil Engineering KJ College of Engineering & Management Research, Pune, India
---------------------------------------------------------------------***---------------------------------------------------------------------
Abstract - The manufacturing industry consistently seeks
innovations in materials and techniques to enhance the
strength, longevity, andcost-efficiencyofstructures. Thisstudy
offers a thorough comparison of Stark Steel and Thermo-
Mechanically Treated (TMT) Steel, two frequently employed
reinforcement materials in construction, with a primaryfocus
on their application in a two-way reinforced concrete slab
design. The investigation commences with an examination of
the characteristics of Stark Steel and TMT Steel, including
their mechanical strength, ductility, corrosion resistance, and
durability. Both materials undergo rigorous mechanical
testing to establish their tensile and yield strengths, forming
the basis for a direct strength evaluation. A two-way slab
design is executed, adhering to design codes and standards,
with the determination of trial depth, effective span, and load
considerations. The performance assessment encompasses
deflection analysis, stability against wind and seismic forces,
and displacement criteria. Comparative insights are drawn
between the deflection characteristics of the two designs, and
their structural stability is evaluated. The project extends to a
comprehensive cost-effectiveness analysis, accounting for
initial material costs, long-term durability, maintenance
expenses, and overall life cycle costs for both Stark Steel and
TMT Steel. The findings yield valuable insights into the
economic implications of material selection, offering
recommendations based on the analysis toassistprofessionals
in choosing the most suitable reinforcement material for
specific construction scenarios. The ramifications of these
findings for structural design, material selection, and
construction practices are examined. This comprehensive
analysis bridges the gap between theoretical knowledge and
practical application, providing a nuanced understanding of
the performance and suitabilityofStarkSteelandTMTSteelin
contemporary construction. The outcomesofthisstudyinform
decision-making processes, with the aim of promoting a more
resilient, sustainable, and cost-effective built environment.
Key Words: Construction durability; Cost-effectiveness;
HYSD bar; Reinforcement materials; Structural design;
Structural strength; Stark Steel; Stark Steel; Thermo-
Mechanically Treated (TMT) Steel; Tensile strength; TMT;
Yield strength.
1.INTRODUCTION
This project involves a detailed examination of Stark Steel
and Thermo-Mechanically Treated (TMT) Steel, two crucial
materials in contemporary structural engineering. The
central objective is to provideinsightsforinformeddecision-
making in structural design through a thorough comparison
of these materials.
Stark Steel, known for its strength of 1700 N, is contrasted
with the more common TMT Steel, which has a maximum
strength of 550 N. The project aims to systematically assess
the advantages, limitations, and applicability of these
materials acrossvariousscenarios,offeringa comprehensive
understanding of their practical implications.
Significance is placed on different aspects, including design
intricacies, strength evaluation, performance analysis, and
cost considerations. The study explores the interplay
between structural strength, durability, and economic
feasibility, fostering an environment where theoretical
insights and practical implications converge.
Through precise calculations, simulations, and critical
analysis, the project navigates the complexities of two-way
slab design and reinforcement. Parameters such as
deflection, stability against wind and seismic forces, and
displacement criteria are compared to provide a holistic
evaluation of Stark Steel and TMT Steel.
This project goes beyond numerical analysis, delving into
engineering judgment, code adherence, and contextual
nuances influencing structural decisions.Thegainedinsights
are intended to guide professionals in the construction
industry, including engineers and architects, in making
informed choiceswhenselectingreinforcementmaterialsfor
diverse structural projects.
The ultimate aim is to highlight the synergy between
theoretical knowledge and practical application, fostering a
nuanced understanding of how material choices impact the
core structure of our built environment. Through this
comprehensive effort, the project explores the intricacies
that shape the landscapes we inhabit, providing a basis for
improving the efficiency, safety, and sustainability of
construction practices in the future.
International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET) e-ISSN: 2395-0056
Volume: 11 Issue: 01 | Jan 2024 www.irjet.net p-ISSN: 2395-0072
© 2024, IRJET | Impact Factor value: 8.226 | ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal | Page 738
1.1 2. Methods of analysis
1. Analysis of Model Using Software
ETABS is a cutting-edge software widely employed in civil
engineering and architecture for structural analysis and
design. It facilitates the creation of precise 3D models of
buildings, allowing for in-depth modeling of complex
structures with considerations for diverse load conditions,
material properties, and design constraints. The software
serves as a platform for simulating real-world structural
behavior under various scenarios. Its use significantly
streamlines the analysis process, enhances accuracy, and
enables the exploration of multiple design alternatives,
making it a valuable and efficient tool in contemporary
structural engineering.
ETABS is a cutting-edge software widely employed in civil
engineering and architecture for structural analysis and
design. It facilitates the creation of precise 3D models of
buildings, allowing for in-depth modeling of complex
structures with considerations for diverse load conditions,
material properties, and design constraints. The software
serves as a platform for simulating real-world structural
behavior under various scenarios. Its use significantly
streamlines the analysis process, enhances accuracy, and
enables the exploration of multiple design alternatives,
making it a valuable and efficient tool in contemporary
structural engineering.
1.2 Manual Calculation
Manual calculations, involving the application of basic
engineering principles and mathematical equations, are a
fundamental aspect of assessing the structural performance
of systems. This hands-on approach to doing math by hand
provides a tangible connectiontothetheoretical foundations
of structural engineering. Beyond relying solely on digital
tools, engineers perform manual calculations to verify and
cross-check the resultsobtainedfromsoftwareanalysis.This
meticulous process includes checking critical parameters
such as stresses, deflections, and load distribution to ensure
the accuracy and reliability of the digital analysis.
2. Objectives
This project thoroughly examines Stark Steel and TMT Steel
to understandtheirproperties,manufacturingprocesses,and
performance in two-way slab design. It involves designing a
two-way slab with both materials, adhering tostandardsand
determining critical parameters. The study includes a
detailed analysis of deflection characteristics and stability
under various loads, comparing the performance of Stark
Steel and TMT Steel.
Mechanical testing is conducted to quantify the tensile
strengthand yield strengthsof bothmaterials.Additionally,a
comprehensive cost-efficiency evaluation considers initial
material costs, long-term durability, maintenance expenses,
and overall life cycle costs for Stark Steel and TMT Steel. The
project concludes with practical recommendations for
selecting the most suitable material forspecific construction
projects, discussing implications for structural design and
construction practices.
2. Methodology
2.1 Model brief for Multi-story (G+5) building:
2.2 Tensile and Share Test and Results for TMT
and Stark steel
No Parameters Value
1 No. of Stories Base+5
2 Base to plinth 0.6 m
3 Floor Rise
Ground floor to 1st floor: 4
m,
1st to 5th floor: 3.2 m,
4 Internal Wall
Interior & Exterior wall:
150 mm thick
5 Material
Concrete: M30 &
Reinforcement: Fe500
6 Frame Size
Building size: 10.66m
(34.97 ft.) * 13.40m
(43.96ft).
7 Sizes of Columns(mm) 300 X 600
8 Sizes of Beams(mm) 230 X 450
9 Depth of Slab(mm) 150
10 Total height 20.60 m
International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET) e-ISSN: 2395-0056
Volume: 11 Issue: 01 | Jan 2024 www.irjet.net p-ISSN: 2395-0072
© 2024, IRJET | Impact Factor value: 8.226 | ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal | Page 739
Material
Diameter
(mm)
Yield
stress
(MPa)
Modulus
of
Elasticity
(GPa)
Elongation
(%)
STARK
Steel
Rebar
5.2 1776 195 5.37
 The average yield loadis37.7kN andcorresponding
yield strength is 1776 MPa.
 The average ultimate load is 40.8 kN and
corresponding ultimate strength is 1921 MPa. The
elastic modulus is 195 MPa.
 The average strain at failure of 5.37%.
Sr
no
Design
Properties
for rebar
material
Values
in
MPa
Sr.no Design
Properties
for rebar
material
Values
in
MPa
1 Minimum
yield
strength,
(Fy)
500 1 (Fy) 1700
2 Tensile
strength
requirement,
(Fu)
545 2 (Fu) 1900
3 anticipated
yield power,
(Fye)
550 3 (Fye) 1776
4 Expected
tensile
strength,
(Fue)
599.5 4 (Fue) 1921
Parameter STARK
STEEL RODS
Grade Fe -
1700
8.0 mm dia.
Hot Rolled
TMT Steel
Grade Fe -
550
10.0 mm
dia. Hot
Rolled TMT
Steel Grade
Fe - 550
Diameter 5.2 mm 8.00 mm 10.00 mm
area cross-
sectional
21.2 sq. mm 50.24 sq.
mm
78.5 sq.mm
Surface
Finish
Three High
Tensile Rods
of 3mm
thickness are
twisted with
each other
like strands
giving it ribs
all around
Having ribs
all around
Having ribs
all around
Condition Cold drawn, Hot rolled Hot rolled
twisted and
Stress
relieved by
heat
treatment
for improved
Yield
Strength
and water
quenched for
improved
Mechanical
Strength
and water
quenched for
improved
Mechanical
Strength
Yield
Strength
(The load at
which it will
enter plastic
deformation
i.e.
(irreversible
deformation
1700
N/mm2
550 N/mm2 550 N/mm2
Steel
Composition
Low
phosphorous
& sulphur
content S&P
% max.
0.045
High
phosphorous
& sulphur
content S&P
% max.
0.105
High
phosphorous
& sulphur
content S&P
% max.
0.105
2.3 Manual calculation summary Model 1
Certainly, here's a summary of the results for both TMT
steel and Stark steel designs:
TMT Steel Design:
1. Shorter Span (Mx):
- Required Steel Area (Ast): 102.76 mm²
- Bar Diameter: 10 mm
- Bar Spacing (S): 300 mm (or 3d)
- Recommended: Provide 10 mm bars at 300 mm c/c
distance.
2. Longer Span (My):
- Required Steel Area (Ast): 29 mm²
- Bar Diameter: 10 mm
- Bar Spacing (S): 300 mm (or 3d)
- Recommended: Provide 10 mm Ø at 300 mm c/c
distance.
Stark Steel Design:
1. Shorter Span (Mx):
- Required Steel Area (Ast): 63.30 mm²
- Bar Diameter: 5.2 mm
- Bar Spacing (S): 300 mm (or 3d)
- Recommended: Provide 5.2 mm bars at 300 mm c/c
distance.
2. Longer Span (My):
- Required Steel Area (Ast): 29 mm²
International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET) e-ISSN: 2395-0056
Volume: 11 Issue: 01 | Jan 2024 www.irjet.net p-ISSN: 2395-0072
© 2024, IRJET | Impact Factor value: 8.226 | ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal | Page 740
- Bar Diameter: 5.2 mm
- Bar Spacing (S): 300 mm (or 3d)
- Recommended: Provide 5.2 mm bars at 300 mm c/c
distance.
Both designs use the same bar spacing of 300 mm for
convenience. The specific diameters of bars have been
determined based on the calculated steel areas, and the
spacing conforms to the specified limit of 300 mm or 3 times
the effective depth (3d), whichever is smaller. Please ensure
that these results are reviewed by a structural engineer or a
professional in the field for accuracy and compliance with
relevant codes and standards before proceeding with any
construction.
Sure, I can help you compare the summary of the TMT
steel reinforcement detailsand the Stark steelreinforcement
details you've provided:
2.4 Manual calculation summary Model 2
TMT Steel:
1. Horizontal Reinforcement (Top and Bottom):
- Bar Diameter: 8mm
- Ast: 341.97 mm²
- Spacing: 140mm c/c
2. Vertical Reinforcement (Mesh):
- Bar Diameter: 8mm
- Ast: 251.86 mm²
- Spacing: 190mm c/c
3. Torsion Steel:
- Bar Diameter: 8mm
- Ast: 188.89 mm²
- Spacing: 199.55mm c/c
4. Steel in Edge Strip
- Bar Diameter: 8mm
- Ast: 181.2 mm²
- Spacing: 280mm c/c
Stark Steel:
1. Torsion Steel:
- Bar Diameter: 5.2 mm
- Ast: 53.865 mm²
- Spacing: 259.60 mm
2. Mesh Reinforcement:
- Bar Diameter: 5.2 mm
- Size of Mesh: 800 mm
- Spacing: 250 mm in both X and Y directions
3. Edge Strip Reinforcement:
- Bar Diameter: 5.2 mm
- Steel in Edge Strip: 181.2 mm² (0.12% of gross area)
- Spacing: 110 mm
3.0 Summary And Detailing
1. Bar Diameter:
- TMT Steel: 8mm
- Stark Steel: 5.2mm
2. Torsion Steel:
- TMT Steel: Larger Ast and spacing compared to Stark
Steel.
- Stark Steel: Smaller Ast and spacing.
3. Mesh Reinforcement:
- Both use the same bar diameter, but TMT Steel has
larger Ast and spacing compared to Stark Steel.
4. Edge Strip Reinforcement:
- Both use the same bar diameter, but TMT Steel has
larger Ast and spacing compared to Stark Steel.
In summary, the TMT steel reinforcement details
generally have larger area of steel (Ast) and spacing (c/c)
compared to the Stark steel reinforcement details.Thiscould
indicate that the TMT steel is being used in higher load or
more demanding structural applications, as larger Ast and
spacing values are often used to provide higher strength and
load-bearing capacity.
3.1 Results and parameters for comparison
Steel TMT Stark
Dia(mm) 10 mm 5.2mm
Yield stress (N/mm^2) 500 1776
Shear strength (N/mm^2) 430.546 1736
Slab deflection IS 456-
2000 (mm)
3.384 3.969
BS 8110 Part 1(mm) 2.19 2.64
Elongation (%) 8.310 5.37
Spacing
Horizontal Reinforcement
(Top and Bottom):
140 (X direction)
190 (Y direction)
250 (Both X
and Y
direction)
Edge Strip
Reinforcement(mm)
280 110
Torsional 280 259
Weight (GM per meter) 620 165
International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET) e-ISSN: 2395-0056
Volume: 11 Issue: 01 | Jan 2024 www.irjet.net p-ISSN: 2395-0072
© 2024, IRJET | Impact Factor value: 8.226 | ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal | Page 741
Parameters for compares ofrebarsofBuildingstructure
in manual and test results.
Based on the provided data, we can draw the following
conclusions:
1. Material Properties:
- TMT steel has a lower yield stress (500 N/mm^2)
compared to Stark steel (1776 N/mm^2), indicating that
Stark steel is significantly stronger in terms of resisting
deformation under load.
- TMT steel has a slightly lower shear strength (430.546
N/mm^2) compared to Stark steel (1736 N/mm^2).
2. Dimensions:
- TMT steel has a larger diameter (10 mm) compared to
Stark steel (5.2 mm).
- Both types of steel have similar values for slab deflection
according to IS 456-2000 and BS 8110 Part 1 standards.
3. Reinforcement Spacing:
- TMT steel requires higher spacing for horizontal
reinforcement (140 x direction, 190 y direction) compared
to Stark steel (250 both x and y directions).
- TMT steel also requires larger edge strip reinforcement
(280 mm) compared to Stark steel (110 mm).
- Torsional reinforcement requirements are higher for TMT
steel (280 mm) than for Stark steel (259 mm).
4. Elongation: TMT steel has a higher elongation percentage
(8.310%) compared to Stark steel (5.37%), indicating better
ductility for TMT steel.
5. Weight: TMT steel is heavier, with a weight of 620 GM per
meter, while Stark steel is lighter, with a weight of 165 GM
per meter.
In summary, Stark steel is significantly stronger and has
higher yield stress compared to TMT steel. However, TMT
steel offers better ductility, which can be advantageous in
certain applications. The choice between these two types of
steel will depend on the specific requirements of the project
and the structural demands, considering factors such as
strength, ductility, and cost.
4. CONCLUSIONS
In conclusion, the design of reinforced concrete slabs
necessitates a meticulous balance among crucial elements
such as steel bar configurations, required steel
reinforcement area (Ast), spacing between bars, and overall
structural specifications. The interplay among these factors
is influenced by the strength of the steel bars and the
thickness of the slab. High-strength steel bars like the Stark
Steel HYSD bars, boasting enhanced strength at 1700 N,
allow for a larger Ast and reduced spacing due to their
capacity to efficiently handle higher loads, enabling a more
compact reinforcement layout. Conversely, lower-strength
steel bars like TMT bars with a strength of 550 N demand a
larger Ast to meet structural requirements, leading to
increased spacing to accommodate the additional steel
required for load-bearing capacity. This interaction is also
impacted by the thicknessof theconcreteslab,wherethicker
slabs with greater Ast typically result in smaller spacing,
while thinner slabs with lower Ast tend to have wider
spacing.
Stark Steel emerges as the optimal choice for large-scale,
substantial construction projects requiring extended spans
and heightened bearing capacities. Its exceptional load-
bearing capabilities distinguish it fromalternativeslikeTMT
bars, which, while suitable for heavy construction, exhibit
comparatively diminished strength. Looking ahead, the
construction landscape appears poised for a transformative
shift, with Stark Steel positioned to dominate based on its
proven load-bearing prowess. Rigorous testing further
solidifies our confidence in its transformative potential for
the construction sector.
REFERENCES
[1] The Bureau of Indian Standards in New Delhi is the
publisher of the crucial IS 456-2000, the Indian
Standard Code of Practice for Plain and Reinforced
Concrete.
[2] E.D. Reis, R.C. de Azevedo, A.L.Christoforo,F.S.J.Poggiali,
A.C.S. Bezerra(2023), “ Bondingofsteel barsinconcrete:
A systematic review of the literature”, Structures.
[3] R. Nicole, “Title of paper with only first word
capitalized,” J. Name Stand. Abbrev., in press.
[4] K. Elissa, “Title of paper if known,” unpublished.

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A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF RCC ELEMENT OF SLAB WITH STARK STEEL (HYSD STEEL) AND TMT STEEL

  • 1. International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET) e-ISSN: 2395-0056 Volume: 11 Issue: 01 | Jan 2024 www.irjet.net p-ISSN: 2395-0072 © 2024, IRJET | Impact Factor value: 8.226 | ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal | Page 737 A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF RCC ELEMENT OF SLAB WITH STARK STEEL (HYSD STEEL) AND TMT STEEL Vipul Jadhav1, A.B. Pujari2, S.K. Patil3, A.R. Undre4 1Student Department of Civil Engineering KJ College of Engineering & Management Research, Pune, India 234 Professor Department of Civil Engineering KJ College of Engineering & Management Research, Pune, India ---------------------------------------------------------------------***--------------------------------------------------------------------- Abstract - The manufacturing industry consistently seeks innovations in materials and techniques to enhance the strength, longevity, andcost-efficiencyofstructures. Thisstudy offers a thorough comparison of Stark Steel and Thermo- Mechanically Treated (TMT) Steel, two frequently employed reinforcement materials in construction, with a primaryfocus on their application in a two-way reinforced concrete slab design. The investigation commences with an examination of the characteristics of Stark Steel and TMT Steel, including their mechanical strength, ductility, corrosion resistance, and durability. Both materials undergo rigorous mechanical testing to establish their tensile and yield strengths, forming the basis for a direct strength evaluation. A two-way slab design is executed, adhering to design codes and standards, with the determination of trial depth, effective span, and load considerations. The performance assessment encompasses deflection analysis, stability against wind and seismic forces, and displacement criteria. Comparative insights are drawn between the deflection characteristics of the two designs, and their structural stability is evaluated. The project extends to a comprehensive cost-effectiveness analysis, accounting for initial material costs, long-term durability, maintenance expenses, and overall life cycle costs for both Stark Steel and TMT Steel. The findings yield valuable insights into the economic implications of material selection, offering recommendations based on the analysis toassistprofessionals in choosing the most suitable reinforcement material for specific construction scenarios. The ramifications of these findings for structural design, material selection, and construction practices are examined. This comprehensive analysis bridges the gap between theoretical knowledge and practical application, providing a nuanced understanding of the performance and suitabilityofStarkSteelandTMTSteelin contemporary construction. The outcomesofthisstudyinform decision-making processes, with the aim of promoting a more resilient, sustainable, and cost-effective built environment. Key Words: Construction durability; Cost-effectiveness; HYSD bar; Reinforcement materials; Structural design; Structural strength; Stark Steel; Stark Steel; Thermo- Mechanically Treated (TMT) Steel; Tensile strength; TMT; Yield strength. 1.INTRODUCTION This project involves a detailed examination of Stark Steel and Thermo-Mechanically Treated (TMT) Steel, two crucial materials in contemporary structural engineering. The central objective is to provideinsightsforinformeddecision- making in structural design through a thorough comparison of these materials. Stark Steel, known for its strength of 1700 N, is contrasted with the more common TMT Steel, which has a maximum strength of 550 N. The project aims to systematically assess the advantages, limitations, and applicability of these materials acrossvariousscenarios,offeringa comprehensive understanding of their practical implications. Significance is placed on different aspects, including design intricacies, strength evaluation, performance analysis, and cost considerations. The study explores the interplay between structural strength, durability, and economic feasibility, fostering an environment where theoretical insights and practical implications converge. Through precise calculations, simulations, and critical analysis, the project navigates the complexities of two-way slab design and reinforcement. Parameters such as deflection, stability against wind and seismic forces, and displacement criteria are compared to provide a holistic evaluation of Stark Steel and TMT Steel. This project goes beyond numerical analysis, delving into engineering judgment, code adherence, and contextual nuances influencing structural decisions.Thegainedinsights are intended to guide professionals in the construction industry, including engineers and architects, in making informed choiceswhenselectingreinforcementmaterialsfor diverse structural projects. The ultimate aim is to highlight the synergy between theoretical knowledge and practical application, fostering a nuanced understanding of how material choices impact the core structure of our built environment. Through this comprehensive effort, the project explores the intricacies that shape the landscapes we inhabit, providing a basis for improving the efficiency, safety, and sustainability of construction practices in the future.
  • 2. International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET) e-ISSN: 2395-0056 Volume: 11 Issue: 01 | Jan 2024 www.irjet.net p-ISSN: 2395-0072 © 2024, IRJET | Impact Factor value: 8.226 | ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal | Page 738 1.1 2. Methods of analysis 1. Analysis of Model Using Software ETABS is a cutting-edge software widely employed in civil engineering and architecture for structural analysis and design. It facilitates the creation of precise 3D models of buildings, allowing for in-depth modeling of complex structures with considerations for diverse load conditions, material properties, and design constraints. The software serves as a platform for simulating real-world structural behavior under various scenarios. Its use significantly streamlines the analysis process, enhances accuracy, and enables the exploration of multiple design alternatives, making it a valuable and efficient tool in contemporary structural engineering. ETABS is a cutting-edge software widely employed in civil engineering and architecture for structural analysis and design. It facilitates the creation of precise 3D models of buildings, allowing for in-depth modeling of complex structures with considerations for diverse load conditions, material properties, and design constraints. The software serves as a platform for simulating real-world structural behavior under various scenarios. Its use significantly streamlines the analysis process, enhances accuracy, and enables the exploration of multiple design alternatives, making it a valuable and efficient tool in contemporary structural engineering. 1.2 Manual Calculation Manual calculations, involving the application of basic engineering principles and mathematical equations, are a fundamental aspect of assessing the structural performance of systems. This hands-on approach to doing math by hand provides a tangible connectiontothetheoretical foundations of structural engineering. Beyond relying solely on digital tools, engineers perform manual calculations to verify and cross-check the resultsobtainedfromsoftwareanalysis.This meticulous process includes checking critical parameters such as stresses, deflections, and load distribution to ensure the accuracy and reliability of the digital analysis. 2. Objectives This project thoroughly examines Stark Steel and TMT Steel to understandtheirproperties,manufacturingprocesses,and performance in two-way slab design. It involves designing a two-way slab with both materials, adhering tostandardsand determining critical parameters. The study includes a detailed analysis of deflection characteristics and stability under various loads, comparing the performance of Stark Steel and TMT Steel. Mechanical testing is conducted to quantify the tensile strengthand yield strengthsof bothmaterials.Additionally,a comprehensive cost-efficiency evaluation considers initial material costs, long-term durability, maintenance expenses, and overall life cycle costs for Stark Steel and TMT Steel. The project concludes with practical recommendations for selecting the most suitable material forspecific construction projects, discussing implications for structural design and construction practices. 2. Methodology 2.1 Model brief for Multi-story (G+5) building: 2.2 Tensile and Share Test and Results for TMT and Stark steel No Parameters Value 1 No. of Stories Base+5 2 Base to plinth 0.6 m 3 Floor Rise Ground floor to 1st floor: 4 m, 1st to 5th floor: 3.2 m, 4 Internal Wall Interior & Exterior wall: 150 mm thick 5 Material Concrete: M30 & Reinforcement: Fe500 6 Frame Size Building size: 10.66m (34.97 ft.) * 13.40m (43.96ft). 7 Sizes of Columns(mm) 300 X 600 8 Sizes of Beams(mm) 230 X 450 9 Depth of Slab(mm) 150 10 Total height 20.60 m
  • 3. International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET) e-ISSN: 2395-0056 Volume: 11 Issue: 01 | Jan 2024 www.irjet.net p-ISSN: 2395-0072 © 2024, IRJET | Impact Factor value: 8.226 | ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal | Page 739 Material Diameter (mm) Yield stress (MPa) Modulus of Elasticity (GPa) Elongation (%) STARK Steel Rebar 5.2 1776 195 5.37  The average yield loadis37.7kN andcorresponding yield strength is 1776 MPa.  The average ultimate load is 40.8 kN and corresponding ultimate strength is 1921 MPa. The elastic modulus is 195 MPa.  The average strain at failure of 5.37%. Sr no Design Properties for rebar material Values in MPa Sr.no Design Properties for rebar material Values in MPa 1 Minimum yield strength, (Fy) 500 1 (Fy) 1700 2 Tensile strength requirement, (Fu) 545 2 (Fu) 1900 3 anticipated yield power, (Fye) 550 3 (Fye) 1776 4 Expected tensile strength, (Fue) 599.5 4 (Fue) 1921 Parameter STARK STEEL RODS Grade Fe - 1700 8.0 mm dia. Hot Rolled TMT Steel Grade Fe - 550 10.0 mm dia. Hot Rolled TMT Steel Grade Fe - 550 Diameter 5.2 mm 8.00 mm 10.00 mm area cross- sectional 21.2 sq. mm 50.24 sq. mm 78.5 sq.mm Surface Finish Three High Tensile Rods of 3mm thickness are twisted with each other like strands giving it ribs all around Having ribs all around Having ribs all around Condition Cold drawn, Hot rolled Hot rolled twisted and Stress relieved by heat treatment for improved Yield Strength and water quenched for improved Mechanical Strength and water quenched for improved Mechanical Strength Yield Strength (The load at which it will enter plastic deformation i.e. (irreversible deformation 1700 N/mm2 550 N/mm2 550 N/mm2 Steel Composition Low phosphorous & sulphur content S&P % max. 0.045 High phosphorous & sulphur content S&P % max. 0.105 High phosphorous & sulphur content S&P % max. 0.105 2.3 Manual calculation summary Model 1 Certainly, here's a summary of the results for both TMT steel and Stark steel designs: TMT Steel Design: 1. Shorter Span (Mx): - Required Steel Area (Ast): 102.76 mm² - Bar Diameter: 10 mm - Bar Spacing (S): 300 mm (or 3d) - Recommended: Provide 10 mm bars at 300 mm c/c distance. 2. Longer Span (My): - Required Steel Area (Ast): 29 mm² - Bar Diameter: 10 mm - Bar Spacing (S): 300 mm (or 3d) - Recommended: Provide 10 mm Ø at 300 mm c/c distance. Stark Steel Design: 1. Shorter Span (Mx): - Required Steel Area (Ast): 63.30 mm² - Bar Diameter: 5.2 mm - Bar Spacing (S): 300 mm (or 3d) - Recommended: Provide 5.2 mm bars at 300 mm c/c distance. 2. Longer Span (My): - Required Steel Area (Ast): 29 mm²
  • 4. International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET) e-ISSN: 2395-0056 Volume: 11 Issue: 01 | Jan 2024 www.irjet.net p-ISSN: 2395-0072 © 2024, IRJET | Impact Factor value: 8.226 | ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal | Page 740 - Bar Diameter: 5.2 mm - Bar Spacing (S): 300 mm (or 3d) - Recommended: Provide 5.2 mm bars at 300 mm c/c distance. Both designs use the same bar spacing of 300 mm for convenience. The specific diameters of bars have been determined based on the calculated steel areas, and the spacing conforms to the specified limit of 300 mm or 3 times the effective depth (3d), whichever is smaller. Please ensure that these results are reviewed by a structural engineer or a professional in the field for accuracy and compliance with relevant codes and standards before proceeding with any construction. Sure, I can help you compare the summary of the TMT steel reinforcement detailsand the Stark steelreinforcement details you've provided: 2.4 Manual calculation summary Model 2 TMT Steel: 1. Horizontal Reinforcement (Top and Bottom): - Bar Diameter: 8mm - Ast: 341.97 mm² - Spacing: 140mm c/c 2. Vertical Reinforcement (Mesh): - Bar Diameter: 8mm - Ast: 251.86 mm² - Spacing: 190mm c/c 3. Torsion Steel: - Bar Diameter: 8mm - Ast: 188.89 mm² - Spacing: 199.55mm c/c 4. Steel in Edge Strip - Bar Diameter: 8mm - Ast: 181.2 mm² - Spacing: 280mm c/c Stark Steel: 1. Torsion Steel: - Bar Diameter: 5.2 mm - Ast: 53.865 mm² - Spacing: 259.60 mm 2. Mesh Reinforcement: - Bar Diameter: 5.2 mm - Size of Mesh: 800 mm - Spacing: 250 mm in both X and Y directions 3. Edge Strip Reinforcement: - Bar Diameter: 5.2 mm - Steel in Edge Strip: 181.2 mm² (0.12% of gross area) - Spacing: 110 mm 3.0 Summary And Detailing 1. Bar Diameter: - TMT Steel: 8mm - Stark Steel: 5.2mm 2. Torsion Steel: - TMT Steel: Larger Ast and spacing compared to Stark Steel. - Stark Steel: Smaller Ast and spacing. 3. Mesh Reinforcement: - Both use the same bar diameter, but TMT Steel has larger Ast and spacing compared to Stark Steel. 4. Edge Strip Reinforcement: - Both use the same bar diameter, but TMT Steel has larger Ast and spacing compared to Stark Steel. In summary, the TMT steel reinforcement details generally have larger area of steel (Ast) and spacing (c/c) compared to the Stark steel reinforcement details.Thiscould indicate that the TMT steel is being used in higher load or more demanding structural applications, as larger Ast and spacing values are often used to provide higher strength and load-bearing capacity. 3.1 Results and parameters for comparison Steel TMT Stark Dia(mm) 10 mm 5.2mm Yield stress (N/mm^2) 500 1776 Shear strength (N/mm^2) 430.546 1736 Slab deflection IS 456- 2000 (mm) 3.384 3.969 BS 8110 Part 1(mm) 2.19 2.64 Elongation (%) 8.310 5.37 Spacing Horizontal Reinforcement (Top and Bottom): 140 (X direction) 190 (Y direction) 250 (Both X and Y direction) Edge Strip Reinforcement(mm) 280 110 Torsional 280 259 Weight (GM per meter) 620 165
  • 5. International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET) e-ISSN: 2395-0056 Volume: 11 Issue: 01 | Jan 2024 www.irjet.net p-ISSN: 2395-0072 © 2024, IRJET | Impact Factor value: 8.226 | ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal | Page 741 Parameters for compares ofrebarsofBuildingstructure in manual and test results. Based on the provided data, we can draw the following conclusions: 1. Material Properties: - TMT steel has a lower yield stress (500 N/mm^2) compared to Stark steel (1776 N/mm^2), indicating that Stark steel is significantly stronger in terms of resisting deformation under load. - TMT steel has a slightly lower shear strength (430.546 N/mm^2) compared to Stark steel (1736 N/mm^2). 2. Dimensions: - TMT steel has a larger diameter (10 mm) compared to Stark steel (5.2 mm). - Both types of steel have similar values for slab deflection according to IS 456-2000 and BS 8110 Part 1 standards. 3. Reinforcement Spacing: - TMT steel requires higher spacing for horizontal reinforcement (140 x direction, 190 y direction) compared to Stark steel (250 both x and y directions). - TMT steel also requires larger edge strip reinforcement (280 mm) compared to Stark steel (110 mm). - Torsional reinforcement requirements are higher for TMT steel (280 mm) than for Stark steel (259 mm). 4. Elongation: TMT steel has a higher elongation percentage (8.310%) compared to Stark steel (5.37%), indicating better ductility for TMT steel. 5. Weight: TMT steel is heavier, with a weight of 620 GM per meter, while Stark steel is lighter, with a weight of 165 GM per meter. In summary, Stark steel is significantly stronger and has higher yield stress compared to TMT steel. However, TMT steel offers better ductility, which can be advantageous in certain applications. The choice between these two types of steel will depend on the specific requirements of the project and the structural demands, considering factors such as strength, ductility, and cost. 4. CONCLUSIONS In conclusion, the design of reinforced concrete slabs necessitates a meticulous balance among crucial elements such as steel bar configurations, required steel reinforcement area (Ast), spacing between bars, and overall structural specifications. The interplay among these factors is influenced by the strength of the steel bars and the thickness of the slab. High-strength steel bars like the Stark Steel HYSD bars, boasting enhanced strength at 1700 N, allow for a larger Ast and reduced spacing due to their capacity to efficiently handle higher loads, enabling a more compact reinforcement layout. Conversely, lower-strength steel bars like TMT bars with a strength of 550 N demand a larger Ast to meet structural requirements, leading to increased spacing to accommodate the additional steel required for load-bearing capacity. This interaction is also impacted by the thicknessof theconcreteslab,wherethicker slabs with greater Ast typically result in smaller spacing, while thinner slabs with lower Ast tend to have wider spacing. Stark Steel emerges as the optimal choice for large-scale, substantial construction projects requiring extended spans and heightened bearing capacities. Its exceptional load- bearing capabilities distinguish it fromalternativeslikeTMT bars, which, while suitable for heavy construction, exhibit comparatively diminished strength. Looking ahead, the construction landscape appears poised for a transformative shift, with Stark Steel positioned to dominate based on its proven load-bearing prowess. Rigorous testing further solidifies our confidence in its transformative potential for the construction sector. REFERENCES [1] The Bureau of Indian Standards in New Delhi is the publisher of the crucial IS 456-2000, the Indian Standard Code of Practice for Plain and Reinforced Concrete. [2] E.D. Reis, R.C. de Azevedo, A.L.Christoforo,F.S.J.Poggiali, A.C.S. Bezerra(2023), “ Bondingofsteel barsinconcrete: A systematic review of the literature”, Structures. [3] R. Nicole, “Title of paper with only first word capitalized,” J. Name Stand. Abbrev., in press. [4] K. Elissa, “Title of paper if known,” unpublished.