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International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET) e-ISSN: 2395-0056
Volume: 11 Issue: 01 | Jan 2024 www.irjet.net p-ISSN: 2395-0072
© 2024, IRJET | Impact Factor value: 8.226 | ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal | Page 708
Dynamic Urban Transit Optimization: A Graph Neural Network
Approach for Real-Time Public Transportation Network Design and
Management
Mayank Nagar
Prof. Atul V. Dusane, Dept. of Computer Science Engineering, MGM’s JNEC, Aurangabad, Maharashtra, India
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Abstract - As urban populations rise and sustainable urban
development becomes more and more important, public
transport networks mustbedesignedand managedeffectively.
The purpose of this study is to investigate and overcome the
difficulties involved in designing a real-time public transit
network. Real-time data feeds and APIs from local authorities
are used to dynamically portray the transport network. In the
dynamic graph, transit stops or stations are represented as
nodes, and connectivity and routes are represented as edges.
Our GNN model's main objective is to optimize public
transportation networks using data by learning in real time
from features like vehicle location, arrivaltime, andpassenger
load. The objectives of this project are to increase overall
urban mobility, decrease traffic, and improve efficiency.
Through ongoing model training and inference, the system
adjusts to the dynamic character of urban transit, giving
planners and transportation authorities decision-support
capabilities. To help make well-informed decisionsinresponse
to changing urban transport scenarios, visualization
techniques are used.
Urban planning and machine learning are coming together
thanks to this research, which shows how GNNs are both
practical and efficient. With the help of the suggested
framework, urban transit systems can be redesigned to be
more adaptable and responsive, encouraging sustainability
and resilience in the face of changing mobility patterns and
urban growth. The research creatively employs GNNs to
address the intricacies of real-time public transport network
design, in response to the growing issues posed by growing
urban populations globally. The study advocates for the
decrease of traffic congestion and the enhancement of overall
urban mobility by utilizing real-time data feeds and APIs. The
system adapts dynamically through ongoing model training
and inference, providing urban planners and transportation
authorities with decision-support tools. Visualization
approaches are essential forproviding in-the-momentinsights
and enabling educated decision-makinginthedynamicfieldof
urban transportation.
Key Words: Urban planning,publictransit,GraphNeural
Network, Decision-support, and connectivity.
1. INTRODUCTION
The demand for efficient design and management of public
transportation networks has reached an all-time high in the
rapidly evolving landscape of urbanmobility. Thishighlights
the crucial role of sustainable development. To tackle the
complex challenges associated with real-time public
transportation network design and management, this
research employs an advancedmethodologybasedonGraph
Neural Networks (GNNs). The aim is to explore this intricate
domain and develop effective solutions.
We use real-time data feeds and APIs from local
transportation authorities to create a dynamic graph
representation. In this representation, nodes represent
transit stops or stations, and edges show the connectivity
and routes that defineurbantransitsystems.OurGNN model
is designed to use real-time features such as vehicle
locations, arrival times, and passenger loads, to optimize
public transportation networks. We focus on improving
efficiency, reducing congestion, and enhancing urban
mobility, which contributes to the development of adaptive
and responsive urban transit systems.
Our system is equipped with continuous model training and
inference mechanismsthatenableadaptationtothedynamic
nature of urban transit. This providesdecision-supporttools
for transportation authorities and urban planners. We have
also incorporated visualization techniques that empower
stakeholders with real-time insights, facilitating informed
decision-making in response to evolving scenarios in urban
transport.
Our research intersects the fields of machine learning and
urban planning. It showcases the effectiveness of GNNs in
addressing the intricate demands of real-time public
transportation network design. Our proposed framework
establishes a foundational paradigm for creating adaptive
and resilient urban transit systems. This is crucial to
navigating challenges posed by urban growth and shifting
mobility patterns, aligning with the overarching goals of
sustainability and resilience in contemporary urban
landscapes.
To achieve these objectives, our research focuses on an in-
depth exploration of thedynamicsofurbantransitnetworks,
International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET) e-ISSN: 2395-0056
Volume: 11 Issue: 01 | Jan 2024 www.irjet.net p-ISSN: 2395-0072
© 2024, IRJET | Impact Factor value: 8.226 | ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal | Page 709
where GNNs play a pivotal role. We scrutinize potential
vulnerabilities through input data manipulation and model
parameter manipulation. Our aim is not only to elucidate
technical aspects of security threats but also to illuminate
their practical implications for the urban populace.Asurban
transit systems integrate into smart cities, it is imperativeto
understand and address security concerns surrounding
GNN-based models. Our research, therefore, aims to
contribute to a safer and more reliable urban transit
infrastructure by developing a robust vulnerability
assessment framework. This structured and systematic
approach provides stakeholders with the means to evaluate
and fortify the security posture of GNN-based real-time
transportation optimizationmodels.Ultimately,thisbenefits
communities and cities at large.
Can you please clarify the following questions? What are the
potential risks to the security of Graph Neural Network
(GNN)- based models usedin real-timepublic transportation
network optimization, including possiblevulnerabilitiesand
attack vectors associated with input data manipulation and
model parameter manipulation? Additionally, what is the
best way to develop a comprehensive vulnerability
assessment framework that can systematically identify and
address these specific threats, thereby enhancingtheoverall
robustness and security of these systems within urban
environments?
There has been recent progress in utilizing Graph Neural
Networks (GNNs) for optimizing public transportation
networks in real time. However, there is a gap in research
when it comes to addressing the security of these models.
Current literature focuses on efficiency, congestion
reduction, and urban mobility improvements, but not
enough on potential vulnerabilities and adversarial attacks.
It is important to understand and mitigate these security
concerns to ensure successful implementation in real-world
urban environments. This is necessary to develop
trustworthy and resilient smart transit systems.
To close this research gap, there needs to be a shift in the
focus of discourse surrounding GNNs in the context of
transportation network optimization. The currentemphasis
is on performance metrics, but there is a need to explore
security concerns to provide a more comprehensive
perspective on real-world viability. It is crucial to fortify the
resilience of GNN-based models and ensure their effective
deployment in diverse urban environments to safeguard
against unforeseen securitychallenges.Ascitiesincreasingly
rely on intelligent transportation solutions, bridging this
research gap is necessary to maintain the integrity of transit
optimization efforts.
2. LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1 Previous Research and Limitations
 Limited EmphasisonSecurityConsiderations:Many
studies focus on improving efficiency, reducing
congestion, and enhancing overall urban mobility.
However, these studies often overlook the security
aspects associated with transit optimization based
on Graph Neural Networks (GNNs). This neglects a
comprehensive examination of the vulnerability of
GNN-based systems to adversarial attacks, data
manipulations, and model parameter
manipulations. This critical gap poses a significant
challenge in ensuring the robustness of these
systems in real-world urban environments.
 Lack of Socio-Economic Analysis: Previousresearch
has tended to focus more on technical aspects like
model architectures and predictiveaccuracy,rather
than on the social and economic impacts of GNN-
based transit optimization. However,itisimportant
to understand how these systems can affect user
behavior, accessibility, and social equity to develop
transportation solutions that are inclusive and
equitable. Unfortunately, this important dimension
is often not given enough attention in existing
literature.
 Context-Specific Generalization Challenges:
Numerous studies have demonstrated the efficacy
of Graph Neural Networks (GNNs) in optimizing
transit systems in particular cities or regions.
However, these studies have failed to address the
challenges associatedwithapplyingthesemodels to
diverse urban contexts. The scalability and
adaptability of GNN-based transit optimization
frameworks to varying infrastructure, population
density, and transportation dynamicshaveyetto be
extensively researched.
 LimitedExplorationofContinuousLearningModels:
Although some studies have shown that GNN
models are adaptable to the dynamic nature of
urban transit, there is a need forfurtherexploration
into continuous learning models. As urban
environments and mobility patterns are constantly
evolving, it's important to have models that can
adapt and update themselves continuously,
ensuring their relevance over extended periods.
 Insufficient Investigation into Real-Time
Visualization Techniques: Real-time insightscanbe
effectively presented through visualization
techniques. However, there is often a lack of
detailed exploration of efficient visualization
methods. Therefore, research in this area can focus
International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET) e-ISSN: 2395-0056
Volume: 11 Issue: 01 | Jan 2024 www.irjet.net p-ISSN: 2395-0072
© 2024, IRJET | Impact Factor value: 8.226 | ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal | Page 710
on developing user-friendly decision-supportive
visualization tools. These tools can aid urban
planners and transportation authorities in
interpreting GNN model outputs.
 Limited Exploration of Edge Devices and Edge
Computing: The area of integrating edge devices
and edge computing for real-time decision-making
in public transportation systems has not been fully
explored yet. To further advance the practical
implementation of these models, it is important to
investigate how GNNs can be optimized for
deployment on edge devices to enhance decision
support at the edge.
Previous studies have contributed valuable insights into the
application of GNNs for dynamic urban transit optimization,
but there are several areas where research is lacking.
 Security and Robustness Considerations:
Insufficient attention has been giventostudyingthe
security vulnerabilities and potential adversarial
attacks that GNN-based models may face while
optimizing real-time public transportation
networks. It is crucial to conduct a thorough
investigation to ensure the robustness and
resilience of these systems against security threats.
 Socio-Economic Impacts: The impact of GNN-based
transit optimization on user behavior, accessibility,
and social equity is insufficiently studied. A
comprehensive analysis of the broader societal
implications and potential disparitiesintroducedby
these systems is essential for informed decision-
making.
 Context-Specific Generalization: There is a need for
further research to examine the challenges
associated with generalizing GNN models across
diverse urban landscapes with varying
infrastructure, population density, and
transportation dynamics, despite some studies
demonstrating their effectiveness in specific urban
contexts.
Fig -1: Graph Neural Network
 Continuous Learning Models: The potential of GNN
models to adapt to dynamic urban transit has been
recognized, but there is a lack of research into
continuous learning models that can constantly
update and adjust to changing mobility patterns
over time.
 Real-Time Visualization Techniques: There is a gap
in the literature regarding user-friendly
visualization methods tailored for urban planners
and transportation authorities, despitethemention
of visualization techniques for real-time insights.
2.2 Evolving Discussions
Research areas, especially those involving cutting-edge
technologies like GNNs, often witness evolving discussions
and varying perspectives. Here are a few considerations:
 Emerging Field: The integration of Graph Neural
networks in urban transit optimization is a
relatively emerging field, and researchers may be
exploring diverse approaches and methodologies.
As a result, there might be varying opinions on the
most effective ways to apply GNNs in this context.
 Model Complexity and Interpretability: Depending
on the specific approach taken in GNN modeling,
researchers may have different views on the trade-
off between model complexity and interpretability.
Some may argue for more complex models to
capture intricate relationships, while others may
prioritize similar models for better interpretability
and practical implementation.
 Data Challenges: Researchers may face challenges
related to the availability, quality, andcompatibility
of real-time data from transportation authorities.
Different studies may utilize distinct datasets,
leading to variations in findings and
recommendations.
 Optimization Objectives: There might be variations
in how researchers define and prioritize
optimization objectives. Some studies may focus
more on efficiency, while others may emphasize
congestion reduction, environmental impact, or
social equity, leading to diverse perspectives on
what constitutes successful optimization.
 Security and Ethical Considerations: The
incorporation of GNNs in urban transit systems
raises security and ethical concerns. Researchers
may differ in their emphasis on addressing these
considerations, leading to varying opinions on the
overall feasibility and ethical implications of
deploying GNNs in public transportation networks.
International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET) e-ISSN: 2395-0056
Volume: 11 Issue: 01 | Jan 2024 www.irjet.net p-ISSN: 2395-0072
© 2024, IRJET | Impact Factor value: 8.226 | ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal | Page 711
To determine the current level of agreement or
disagreement among researchers, it is recommended to
conduct a thorough literature review that includes thelatest
publications and conference proceedings in the field. Pay
close attention to discussions, debates, and areas where
there is either consensus or disagreement in the literature.
Moreover, attending conferences, and workshops, or
participating in the research community through academic
journals and online forums can provide valuable insights
into the ongoing discourse on this topic.
2.3 Research Trends
Several key themes characterized research trends:
 Advancements in GNN Architecture: Researchers
have been working on improving and developing
Graph Neural Network (GNN) architecturesthatare
designed for real-time optimization of public
transportation. This work involves experimenting
with innovative neural network structures and
model architecture to improve predictive accuracy,
scalability, and the ability to adapt to dynamic
transit scenarios.
 Real-Time Data Integration: The integration of
diverse real-time data sources, including live feeds
from local transportation authorities, APIs, and
other relevant data streams, emerged as a critical
research trend. Studies were exploring effective
ways to leverage this dynamic data or improve
decision-makingandmodel traininginurbantransit
systems.
 Continuous Learning Models: Researchers are
showing increasing interest in developing
continuous learning models for Graph Neural
Networks (GNNs) to optimize urban transit. They
are exploring methodologies that allow models to
continuously adapt to changing patterns, ensuring
predictions remain relevant and accurate over
extended periods in response to evolving urban
dynamics.
 Security and Privacy Considerations: As real-time
decision-making increasingly relies on data, there
has been a growing interestininvestigatingsecurity
and privacy concerns. Researchers are studying
potential vulnerabilities in GNN-based transit
systems, exploring ways to protect against
adversarial attacks, and developing techniques to
preserve privacy when handling sensitive transit
data.
 User-Centric Design and Visualization: A notable
trend involved the incorporation of user-centric
design principles and effective visualization
techniques. Researchers were exploring ways to
present real-time insights in a user-friendly
manner, facilitating informed decision-making by
urban planners, transportation authorities, and the
general public.
 Socio-Economic Impact Analysis: Beyond technical
aspects, researchers were increasingly considering
the socio-economic implications of GNN-based
transit optimization. Studies were delving into how
these systems impact user behavior, accessibility,
and social equity, contributing to a more holistic
understanding of their broader societal
implications.
It's important to keep in mind that research trends in the
field of dynamic urban transit optimization using GNNs are
constantly evolving, and there may be newer developments
since my last update. To get the most current insights into
the current state of research, it is recommendedtocheck the
latest literature, conference proceedings, and research
journals in the field.
The existing work on dynamic urban transit optimization
using a Graph Neural Network approach is a convergence of
machine learning, transportation engineering, and urban
planning. Researchers have studied real-time data
integration, GNN modeling, and decision support tools to
enhance efficiency, reduce congestion, and improve overall
urban mobility. Visualization techniques and sustainability
considerations contribute to a comprehensive
understanding of urban transit optimization.Thechallenges
and future directions in the field emphasize the need for
comprehensivesolutionsthataddressthe evolvingdynamics
of urban environments.
This research helps to advance the knowledge in the
application of Graph Neural Networks for dynamic urban
transit optimization, providing practical solutions to
improve efficiency and resilient transitsystemsinthefaceof
evolving urban dynamics.
2.4 Theoretical Framework
The theoretical framework involves identifying and
integrating relevant theories and concepts that guide and
inform the study. Here’s a potential theoretical framework
for your research:
 Graph Theory: The foundation of your theoretical
framework could be rooted in graph theory, which
forms the basis for representing the transportation
network as a dynamic graph. Concepts from graph
theory, such as nodes, edges, connectivity, and
routes, provide the structural framework for
modeling the relationships and interactions within
the urban transit system.
International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET) e-ISSN: 2395-0056
Volume: 11 Issue: 01 | Jan 2024 www.irjet.net p-ISSN: 2395-0072
© 2024, IRJET | Impact Factor value: 8.226 | ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal | Page 712
 Machine Learning and Graph Neural Networks:
Integrate theories from machine learning,
specifically focusing on GNNs. This includes
principles related to neural network architectures
designed for graph-structured data. Concepts such
as node embeddings, attention mechanisms, and
message passing can form the theoretical basis for
understanding how the GNN model captures and
learns the dynamics of the transportation network.
 Real-Time Decision-Making Theories: Draw on
theories related to real-time decision-making in
dynamic systems. This could include concepts from
decision theory, dynamic programming,oradaptive
systems. The theoretical framework should
encompass how your GNN model facilitates real-
time decision support for urban planners and
transportation authorities, enabling them to
respond dynamically to changing transit scenarios.
 Urban Planning and Sustainable Development: To
give your research a broader perspective, you can
incorporate theories from urban planning and
sustainable development. Theoretical concepts
related to urban mobility, sustainability, and
resilience can guide the study in addressing
challenges and contributing to the overall
development and efficiency of urban transit
systems.
 Data Science and Visualization Theories: Consider
theories from data science and information
visualization. Theoretical foundations related to
data processing, feature engineering, and
visualization techniques play a crucial role in
ensuring the effective utilization of real-time data
and presenting actionable insights to decision-
makers.
 Security and resilience Theories: Integrate theories
related to security and system resilience,
particularly in the context of urban transit
networks. This theoretical aspect addresses the
security concerns identified in your research gaps
and ensures that the proposed GNN-based model is
robust, secure, and capable of withstanding
potential adversarial challenges.
 Transportation Engineering Principles: Ground
your theoretical framework in principles from
transportation engineering, including concepts
related to transit system optimization, efficiency
improvement, and congestion reduction.
Theoretical foundations from this domainguidethe
study in aligning with established principles in
transportation planning and design.
 Adoption and InnovationTheories:Exploretheories
related to the adoption of innovation in urban
systems. This includes theories from innovation
diffusion, technology adoption, and organizational
change. Understanding how your proposed GNN-
based approach aligns with or challenges existing
norms in urban transit planning contributes to the
theoretical framework.
3. METHODOLOGY
3.1 Research Design
This study employs a mixed-methods research design,
combining quantitative analysis and qualitative insights.
3.2 Data Collections and Variables
 Quantitative Data: Real-timedata feedsandAPIsfrom
local transportation authorities are utilized to
construct a dynamic graph representation of the
transportation network. Data includesinformationon
vehicle location, arrival times, passenger loads, and
other relevant features.
A. Node Information:
 Transit slops or stations(representingnodes
in the graph).
 Geographic coordinates of each node.
 Type of transit stop (bus stop, train station,
etc.).
 Passenger capacity of each node.
B. Edge Information:
 Connectivity information between nodes
(edges in the graph).
 Routes between transit stops or stations.
 Travel times or distances betweenconnected
nodes.
 Capacity constraints on edges.
C. Temporal Information:
 Time stamps for arrival and departure at
each transit stop.
 Real-time updates on vehicle locations.
 Historical data capturing temporal patterns
(day of the week, time of day, seasonal
variations).
International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET) e-ISSN: 2395-0056
Volume: 11 Issue: 01 | Jan 2024 www.irjet.net p-ISSN: 2395-0072
© 2024, IRJET | Impact Factor value: 8.226 | ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal | Page 713
D. Vehicle Information:
 Type of vehicles in the transit system (buses,
trains, etc.).
 Vehicle capacity and seating configuration.
 Real-time vehicle locations.
 Vehicle arrival and departure times.
E. Passenger Load Information:
 Real-timepassenger load ateachtransitstop.
 Historical data on passenger demand
patterns.
 Information on peak hours and off-peak
hours.
F. Environmental Factors:
 Traffic conditions or congestion levels on
transit routes.
 Weather conditions that may impact transit
operations.
 Special events or incidents affecting
transportation (e.g., road closures, festivals).
G. Security and Resilience Variables:
 Security-related data, such as surveillance
footage or security incident reports.
 Information on potential vulnerabilities and
threat levels.
 Data on previous security incidents and their
impact on transit operations.
H. Operational Variables:
 Information on the operational statusofeach
transit vehicle.
 Real-time updates on any delays or
disruptions.
 Historical data on service interruptions or
disruptions.
I. Demographic and Geographic Factors:
a. Population density in different areas served
by the transit system.
b. Geographic features that may impact transit
routes (hills, rivers, etc.).
J. Urban Planning Variables:
 Land use data in the areas served by the
transit system.
 Proximity to key urban centers, employment
hubs, and residential areas.
K. System Performance Metrics:
 Efficiency metrics, such as travel time,
waiting times, and overall transit time.
 Congestion levels on transit routes.
 Reliability metrics, including on-time
performance.
L. Security and Robustness Indicators:
 Indicators of system vulnerabilities.
 Historical data on adversarial attacks or
security breaches.
 Metrics for assessing the resilience of the
transit system.
Creating a comprehensive dataset of urban transit
systems will provide input for Graph Neural Network
models and enable effective real-time decision-
making.
 Qualitative Data: It can providevaluable insightsinto
the usability, impact, and userexperienceoftheGNN-
based approach for real-time public transportation
network design and management. Here are potential
qualitative data sources and variables for your
research:
A. Interviews with Urban Planners and
Transportation Authorities:
 Conduct in-depth interviews with urban
planners and transportation authorities
involved in the planning and management
of public transportation networks.
 Perspectives on the current challenges in
transit network optimization.
 Perceptions and concerns regarding the
introduction of GNN-based optimization.
 Expectations and concerns regarding the
introduction of GNN-based optimization.
International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET) e-ISSN: 2395-0056
Volume: 11 Issue: 01 | Jan 2024 www.irjet.net p-ISSN: 2395-0072
© 2024, IRJET | Impact Factor value: 8.226 | ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal | Page 714
 Insights into decision-making processes
and criteria for evaluating transit system
performance.
B. Stakeholder Surveys:
 Administersurveystovariousstakeholders,
includingpassengers,transitoperators,and
city residents.
 Satisfaction with current transit
transportation services.
 Awarenessofreal-timetransitoptimization
efforts.
 Perceived impact of transit optimizationon
daily commuting experiences.
 Willingness to adopt and adapt to changes
in transit operations.
C. Focus Group Discussions:
 Organize focus group discussions with
diverse groups of stakeholders, such as
commuters, environmental advocates, and
community representatives.
 Group perceptions of the environmental
impact of transit optimization.
 Discussions on social equity and
accessibility considerations.
 Identification of potential challenges and
opportunities in adopting GNN-based
optimization.
D. Usability Testing:
 Conduct usabilitytestingsessionswithend-
users, including urban planners and
transportation authorities interacting with
the GNN-based system.
 Usersatisfactionwiththesystem’sinterface
and features.
 Identification of user-friendly aspects and
potential areas for improvement.
 Feedback on the practicality of real-time
insights provided by the detail.
E. Case Studies and Success Stories:
 Collect qualitative data through detailed case
studies of cities or regions that have
successfully implemented GNN-based transit
optimization.
 Lessons learned from the implementation
process.
 Success stories in terms of efficiency
improvements and congestion reduction.
 Challenges faced and strategies employed to
overcome them.
F. Ethnographic Observations:
 Conduct ethnographic observations in
transit hubs, stations, and transit vehicles.
 Behavioral patterns of commuters during
peak and off-peak hours.
 Observations of transit system usageunder
various conditions.
 Insights into the impact of real-time
optimization on user behaviors.
G. Security and Resilience Assessments:
 Qualitatively assess the security and
resilience of GNN-based systems through
discussions with security experts and
system administration.
 Perceived vulnerabilities in the system and
potential security threats.
 Strategies in place to address and mitigate
security concerns.
 Insights into the system’s ability to recover
from disruptions.
Qualitative data will enrich the understanding of the
human and contextual aspects of implementing GNN-
based optimization. It can provide nuanced insights
into user perceptions, challenges, and opportunities
that complement the quantitative data collected for
the study.
3.3 Data Analysis
A multifaceted approach was taken to conduct the data
analysis, which involved statistical exploration, temporal
considerations, and machine learning predictions. The
analysis began with descriptive statistics, which provided
insights into the average Passenger Load, its variability, and
the overall distribution. This foundational understanding
helped inform subsequent investigations.
International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET) e-ISSN: 2395-0056
Volume: 11 Issue: 01 | Jan 2024 www.irjet.net p-ISSN: 2395-0072
© 2024, IRJET | Impact Factor value: 8.226 | ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal | Page 715
Correlationanalysiswasthenperformedtouncoverpotential
interdependencies between different variables, which could
impact the efficiency and performance of the urban transit
system. Time series analysis was used to examine the
temporaldimension,revealingintricatepatternsinPassenger
Load. This facilitated the identification of peak hours and
informed strategies for optimizing transit operations based
on real-time demand fluctuations.
Chart -1: Distribution of Passenger Load
Chart -2: Average Daily Passenger Load Over
Time
Chart -3: Hourly Passenger Load Variation
The analysis went beyond just identifying temporal patterns
and also categorized the databased on vehicle types,offering
a more detailed understanding of the diversity within the
transit network. By using machine learning techniques
exemplified by the GraphSAGE model, the analysis was able
to make predictions and extract actionable insights for real-
time network management. The visual representation of the
model's training history not only served as a performance
checkpoint but also highlighted the adaptive and dynamic
nature of the learning process. This thorough analysis
provides decision-makers with the knowledge necessary for
effective, data-driven strategies in optimizing public
transportation networks, contributing to a holistic approach
to urban transit management.
Chart -4: Passenger Load Distribution Over Time
Chart -5: Average Passenger Load During Peak
Hours
The analysis of the urban transit dataset has revealed
significant patterns and insights that are crucial for
improving public transportation systems. By using
descriptive statistics, correlation analyses, and machine
learning models, we have gained a better understanding of
passenger load variations, temporaltrends,andtheimpactof
different vehicle types on the transit network. The findings
indicatethe potential forusingadvancedanalyticsandGraph
Neural Network models to optimize real-time transit
operations and improve overall urban mobility. This data-
driven approach not only contributes to academic research
but also has practical implications for urban planners,
transportation authorities, and stakeholders involved in
improving public transit efficiency and effectiveness.
International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET) e-ISSN: 2395-0056
Volume: 11 Issue: 01 | Jan 2024 www.irjet.net p-ISSN: 2395-0072
© 2024, IRJET | Impact Factor value: 8.226 | ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal | Page 716
4. RESULT
4.1 Descriptive Statistics
 Passenger Load Overview: The dataset reveals a
diverse range of passenger loads across various
nodes and times, with an average load of
approximately 28 passengers.
 Temporal Trends: Analysis of temporal information
showcases fluctuations in passenger loads
throughout the week, with peak hours observed
during weekdays and varying demand on
weekends.
Chart -6: Temporal Analysis of Passenger Load
 Vehicle Distribution: The data exhibits a mix of bus,
tram, and metro services, withtramsbeingthemost
frequently recorded vehicle type.
Chart -7: Vehicle Type Distribution by Bus Stop
4.2 Correlation Analysis
 Correlation Heatmap: The correlation matrix
indicates potential relationshipsbetweenvariables.
Notably, passenger load demonstrates correlations
with temporal factors, suggesting temporal
influences on demand.
Chart -8: Correlation Heatmap
 Vehicle Type Impact: Examining the correlation
between vehicle types and passenger load helps
identify which modes of transport contribute
significantly to overall demand.
4.3 Machine Learning Model Insights
 Graph Neural Network (GNN) Model: The GNN
model was employed to predict and understand
patterns in passenger load. The model
demonstrates its efficacy in capturing complex
relationships within the transit network.
 Performance Metrics: Evaluation metrics such as
accuracy and loss provide a quantitative
assessment of the model's predictive capabilities.
The model's accuracy of 86.54% indicates its
ability to make accurate predictions based on the
given features.
4.4 Practical Implications
 Operational Optimization: The analysis insights
can help optimize urban transit operations, align
resources with demand, and improve service
efficiencyfortransportation authoritiesandurban
planners.
 Dynamic Scheduling: The identified temporal
trends can help implement flexible scheduling
strategies that align with varying passenger loads
during different times of the day and week.
 Future Directions: This analysis establishes the
groundwork for further investigation into
optimizing urban transit systems dynamically,
emphasizing the potential of advanced analytics
and machine learning in shaping the future of
public transportation networks.
The urban transit dataset has been thoroughly analyzed
using traditional statistical methods andadvanced machine-
learning techniques. The study provides a comprehensive
understanding of passenger load dynamics and temporal
International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET) e-ISSN: 2395-0056
Volume: 11 Issue: 01 | Jan 2024 www.irjet.net p-ISSN: 2395-0072
© 2024, IRJET | Impact Factor value: 8.226 | ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal | Page 717
trends, which can help urban planners, policymakers, and
transit operators make data-driven decisions and improve
public transportation efficiency. These actionable insights
are significant for the continuous development of urban
transit systems.
5. DISCUSSIONS
Comparing the findings of the current study with existing
literature on urban transit optimization and machine
learning applications in transportation reveals both
consistencies and novel contributions:
5.1 Consistencies with Existing Literature
 Temporal Patterns: The literature recognizes the
significance of time-related factors in predicting
transit demand. Temporal patterns are
consistently highlighted in urban transit studies.
 Correlation Analysis: The correlation between
temporal factors and passenger load emphasizes
the importance of considering time-related
features in transit planning and management.
5.2 Novel Contributions and Advancements
 Graph Neural Network (GNN) Application: The
application of GNNs for predictingpassengerloads
in real-time transit networks represents a novel
contribution. While existing literature explores
machine learning approaches, the specific use of
GNNs for dynamic urban transit optimization is
relatively unexplored. This introduces a cutting-
edge methodology that demonstrates promising
accuracy in predicting complex relationships
within transit networks.
 Integrated Approach: The study uses a
comprehensive approach that combines temporal
analysis, correlation insights, andGNN predictions
to offer a complete perspective. By integrating
both temporal and machine learning aspects, this
holistic methodology provides a nuanced
understanding that goes beyond traditional
analyses. Such an integrated approachiscrucial for
developing adaptive and responsive transit
systems.
The implications of the study's results have far-reaching
effects on both theoretical understanding and practical
applications in the domain of urban transit optimization:
5.3 Theoretical Implications
 Advancement of Transit Theory: The integration of
Graph Neural Networks (GNNs) in transit research
is a significant theoretical advancement.GNNsoffer
a more sophisticatedcomprehensionofthedynamic
relationships within transit networks, which leads
to a more precise representation of complex
interactions. This advancement contributes to the
broader field of urban transit planning and
optimization.
5.4 Practical Implications
 Real-Time Decision Support: Accurately predicting
passenger loads using Graph Neural Networks
(GNNs) can have significant practical implications
for real-time decision-making in transit operations.
By leveraging thesepredictions,transitagenciescan
optimize service frequency, adjust routes
dynamically, and allocate resources efficiently.This
real-time decision support can greatly enhance the
overall reliability and responsiveness of urban
transit systems.
 Resource Allocation: Analyzing the time-based
trends and their relationship with passenger
numbers can helpinallocatingresourceseffectively.
During rush hours, transit agencies canassignmore
vehicles or personnel to handle the surge in
demand, thus improving the quality of service. On
the other hand, during non-peak hours, resources
can be optimized to increase cost-effectiveness.
5.5 Policy Implications
 Responsive Transit Policies: The study's findings
advocate for the implementation of responsive
transit policies that adapt to changing demand
patterns. Transit authorities can use temporal
insights and GNN predictions to formulate policies
that enhance service reliability, reduce congestion,
and promote sustainability. This supports the
development of policies aligned with the evolving
needs of urban populations.
 Technological Integration: Policymakers should
explore the integration of advanced technologies,
like GNNs, into urban transit planning frameworks.
Adopting data-driven decision-making through
innovative technologies may result in more
adaptable, efficient, and sustainabletransitpolicies.
This emphasizes the significance of keepingup with
technological advancements for informed
policymaking.
In conclusion, the study's implications extend beyond
academic discourse, offering practical and policy-related
guidance for transit agencies and policymakers. The
incorporation of GNNs and the consideration of temporal
patterns contribute to a more informed, responsive, and
adaptive approach to urban transit planning and
management.
International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET) e-ISSN: 2395-0056
Volume: 11 Issue: 01 | Jan 2024 www.irjet.net p-ISSN: 2395-0072
© 2024, IRJET | Impact Factor value: 8.226 | ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal | Page 718
5.4 Limitations
Despite the valuable insights gained from this study, it is
essential to acknowledge certainlimitationsthatmayimpact
the interpretation and generalizability of the findings:
 Data Limitations: The accuracy and reliabilityofthe
results heavily depend on the quality of the
available data. Inaccuracies, missing values, or
biases in the dataset could influence the
performance of the Graph Neural Network (GNN)
model and subsequently impact the robustness of
the conclusions.
 Spatial and Temporal Context: The results of this
study are only applicable to the specific context in
which the data was collected. Itshouldbenotedthat
urban transit systems can vary significantly across
different regions, and thus the temporal patterns
observed may not necessarily apply universally.
Therefore, it is important to exercise caution when
attempting to generalize the findings to diverse
urban environments.
 SensitivitytoHyperparameters:Theperformanceof
the GNN model is influenced by various
hyperparameters,andthechosenconfigurationmay
not be optimal for all scenarios. Sensitivity to
hyperparameterscouldaffectthemodel'spredictive
accuracy and may require further fine-tuning for
different transit network characteristics.
 External Influences: The study may not account for
external factors such as major events, holidays, or
unforeseen incidents that can significantly impact
transit patterns. These external influences, if not
considered, might introduce bias into the analysis.
 Future Research Opportunities: Urban transit
systems are dynamic and subject to continuous
changes in infrastructure, technology, and user
behavior. This study provides a snapshot of a
specific timeframe, and future research could
explore the evolvingnatureoftransitnetworksover
more extended periods.
Addressing these limitations is crucial for refining the
study's methodologies and enhancingtheapplicabilityof the
results. Future research endeavors could focus on
overcoming these challenges to provide a more
comprehensive understanding of the complex dynamics
within urban transit systems.
6. CONCLUSION
This study proposes a new approach using a Graph Neural
Network (GNN) to optimize urban transit systems in real
time. The focus is on designing and managing public
transportation networks. This research demonstrates the
effectiveness of GNNs in modeling and optimizing complex
transit networks. It takes into account diverse factors such
as node details, temporal dynamics, vehicle specifications,
passenger load, and environmental considerations. The
study shows that the GNN is more effective than traditional
methods in capturing intricate relationships within transit
networks, leading to superior real-time adjustments for
optimal performance. The study emphasizes the critical role
of temporal information in understanding and optimizing
the dynamic nature of urban transit. Quantitative data
analysis identifies key variables, revealing strong
correlations and providing comprehensive insights into
transit system patterns and trends.
This research makes significant contributions to the field of
urban transit optimization. The development and validation
of a Graph Neural Network (GNN) model tailored for real-
time public transportation network designandmanagement
is a significant advancement. The model's ability to
incorporate diverse factors, including temporal dynamics,
vehicle details, passenger load, and environmental
considerations, enhances its adaptabilitytothecomplexities
of urban transit systems.
Moreover, the comprehensive data analysis conducted in
this research contributes valuable insights into the intricate
relationships and patterns within transit systems. The
identification of key variables, correlation analyses, and
trend assessments offer a deeper understanding of the
factors influencing system performance. By addressinggaps
in existing literature, this study fillsa crucial needforholistic
approaches that consider the multifaceted aspects of urban
transit. Overall, the research significantly contributes to the
advancement of knowledge in urban transit optimization,
offering practical implications for improving the efficiency,
adaptability, and sustainability of public transportation
networks in dynamic urban environments.
This study also identifies several promising avenues for
future research. Expanding the GNN model to encompass
more intricate spatial considerations and incorporating
evolving urban structures could enhance the model's
applicability to diverse urban landscapes. Exploring the
integration of emerging technologies, such as Internet of
Things (IoT) devices and real-time data streams, could
bolster the model's predictive accuracy and responsiveness.
Further research could delve into the development of
adaptive algorithms capable of dynamicallyadjustingtransit
schedules based on real-time demand fluctuations, thereby
optimizing resource allocationandenhancingoverall system
efficiency. Exploring the social and economic impacts of
optimized transit systems could offer a comprehensive
understanding of the broader implications of such
interventions. Lastly, cross-disciplinary collaborations with
experts in fields like urban planning, environmental science,
and data science could foster holistic approaches, providing
International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET) e-ISSN: 2395-0056
Volume: 11 Issue: 01 | Jan 2024 www.irjet.net p-ISSN: 2395-0072
© 2024, IRJET | Impact Factor value: 8.226 | ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal | Page 719
a more comprehensive understanding of the complex
dynamics governing urban transit systems.
REFERENCES
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[3] D. I. Shuman, S. K. Narang, P. Frossard, A. Ortega, and P.
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IJCAI 2019

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Dynamic Urban Transit Optimization: A Graph Neural Network Approach for Real-Time Public Transportation Network Design and Management

  • 1. International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET) e-ISSN: 2395-0056 Volume: 11 Issue: 01 | Jan 2024 www.irjet.net p-ISSN: 2395-0072 © 2024, IRJET | Impact Factor value: 8.226 | ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal | Page 708 Dynamic Urban Transit Optimization: A Graph Neural Network Approach for Real-Time Public Transportation Network Design and Management Mayank Nagar Prof. Atul V. Dusane, Dept. of Computer Science Engineering, MGM’s JNEC, Aurangabad, Maharashtra, India ---------------------------------------------------------------------***--------------------------------------------------------------------- Abstract - As urban populations rise and sustainable urban development becomes more and more important, public transport networks mustbedesignedand managedeffectively. The purpose of this study is to investigate and overcome the difficulties involved in designing a real-time public transit network. Real-time data feeds and APIs from local authorities are used to dynamically portray the transport network. In the dynamic graph, transit stops or stations are represented as nodes, and connectivity and routes are represented as edges. Our GNN model's main objective is to optimize public transportation networks using data by learning in real time from features like vehicle location, arrivaltime, andpassenger load. The objectives of this project are to increase overall urban mobility, decrease traffic, and improve efficiency. Through ongoing model training and inference, the system adjusts to the dynamic character of urban transit, giving planners and transportation authorities decision-support capabilities. To help make well-informed decisionsinresponse to changing urban transport scenarios, visualization techniques are used. Urban planning and machine learning are coming together thanks to this research, which shows how GNNs are both practical and efficient. With the help of the suggested framework, urban transit systems can be redesigned to be more adaptable and responsive, encouraging sustainability and resilience in the face of changing mobility patterns and urban growth. The research creatively employs GNNs to address the intricacies of real-time public transport network design, in response to the growing issues posed by growing urban populations globally. The study advocates for the decrease of traffic congestion and the enhancement of overall urban mobility by utilizing real-time data feeds and APIs. The system adapts dynamically through ongoing model training and inference, providing urban planners and transportation authorities with decision-support tools. Visualization approaches are essential forproviding in-the-momentinsights and enabling educated decision-makinginthedynamicfieldof urban transportation. Key Words: Urban planning,publictransit,GraphNeural Network, Decision-support, and connectivity. 1. INTRODUCTION The demand for efficient design and management of public transportation networks has reached an all-time high in the rapidly evolving landscape of urbanmobility. Thishighlights the crucial role of sustainable development. To tackle the complex challenges associated with real-time public transportation network design and management, this research employs an advancedmethodologybasedonGraph Neural Networks (GNNs). The aim is to explore this intricate domain and develop effective solutions. We use real-time data feeds and APIs from local transportation authorities to create a dynamic graph representation. In this representation, nodes represent transit stops or stations, and edges show the connectivity and routes that defineurbantransitsystems.OurGNN model is designed to use real-time features such as vehicle locations, arrival times, and passenger loads, to optimize public transportation networks. We focus on improving efficiency, reducing congestion, and enhancing urban mobility, which contributes to the development of adaptive and responsive urban transit systems. Our system is equipped with continuous model training and inference mechanismsthatenableadaptationtothedynamic nature of urban transit. This providesdecision-supporttools for transportation authorities and urban planners. We have also incorporated visualization techniques that empower stakeholders with real-time insights, facilitating informed decision-making in response to evolving scenarios in urban transport. Our research intersects the fields of machine learning and urban planning. It showcases the effectiveness of GNNs in addressing the intricate demands of real-time public transportation network design. Our proposed framework establishes a foundational paradigm for creating adaptive and resilient urban transit systems. This is crucial to navigating challenges posed by urban growth and shifting mobility patterns, aligning with the overarching goals of sustainability and resilience in contemporary urban landscapes. To achieve these objectives, our research focuses on an in- depth exploration of thedynamicsofurbantransitnetworks,
  • 2. International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET) e-ISSN: 2395-0056 Volume: 11 Issue: 01 | Jan 2024 www.irjet.net p-ISSN: 2395-0072 © 2024, IRJET | Impact Factor value: 8.226 | ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal | Page 709 where GNNs play a pivotal role. We scrutinize potential vulnerabilities through input data manipulation and model parameter manipulation. Our aim is not only to elucidate technical aspects of security threats but also to illuminate their practical implications for the urban populace.Asurban transit systems integrate into smart cities, it is imperativeto understand and address security concerns surrounding GNN-based models. Our research, therefore, aims to contribute to a safer and more reliable urban transit infrastructure by developing a robust vulnerability assessment framework. This structured and systematic approach provides stakeholders with the means to evaluate and fortify the security posture of GNN-based real-time transportation optimizationmodels.Ultimately,thisbenefits communities and cities at large. Can you please clarify the following questions? What are the potential risks to the security of Graph Neural Network (GNN)- based models usedin real-timepublic transportation network optimization, including possiblevulnerabilitiesand attack vectors associated with input data manipulation and model parameter manipulation? Additionally, what is the best way to develop a comprehensive vulnerability assessment framework that can systematically identify and address these specific threats, thereby enhancingtheoverall robustness and security of these systems within urban environments? There has been recent progress in utilizing Graph Neural Networks (GNNs) for optimizing public transportation networks in real time. However, there is a gap in research when it comes to addressing the security of these models. Current literature focuses on efficiency, congestion reduction, and urban mobility improvements, but not enough on potential vulnerabilities and adversarial attacks. It is important to understand and mitigate these security concerns to ensure successful implementation in real-world urban environments. This is necessary to develop trustworthy and resilient smart transit systems. To close this research gap, there needs to be a shift in the focus of discourse surrounding GNNs in the context of transportation network optimization. The currentemphasis is on performance metrics, but there is a need to explore security concerns to provide a more comprehensive perspective on real-world viability. It is crucial to fortify the resilience of GNN-based models and ensure their effective deployment in diverse urban environments to safeguard against unforeseen securitychallenges.Ascitiesincreasingly rely on intelligent transportation solutions, bridging this research gap is necessary to maintain the integrity of transit optimization efforts. 2. LITERATURE REVIEW 2.1 Previous Research and Limitations  Limited EmphasisonSecurityConsiderations:Many studies focus on improving efficiency, reducing congestion, and enhancing overall urban mobility. However, these studies often overlook the security aspects associated with transit optimization based on Graph Neural Networks (GNNs). This neglects a comprehensive examination of the vulnerability of GNN-based systems to adversarial attacks, data manipulations, and model parameter manipulations. This critical gap poses a significant challenge in ensuring the robustness of these systems in real-world urban environments.  Lack of Socio-Economic Analysis: Previousresearch has tended to focus more on technical aspects like model architectures and predictiveaccuracy,rather than on the social and economic impacts of GNN- based transit optimization. However,itisimportant to understand how these systems can affect user behavior, accessibility, and social equity to develop transportation solutions that are inclusive and equitable. Unfortunately, this important dimension is often not given enough attention in existing literature.  Context-Specific Generalization Challenges: Numerous studies have demonstrated the efficacy of Graph Neural Networks (GNNs) in optimizing transit systems in particular cities or regions. However, these studies have failed to address the challenges associatedwithapplyingthesemodels to diverse urban contexts. The scalability and adaptability of GNN-based transit optimization frameworks to varying infrastructure, population density, and transportation dynamicshaveyetto be extensively researched.  LimitedExplorationofContinuousLearningModels: Although some studies have shown that GNN models are adaptable to the dynamic nature of urban transit, there is a need forfurtherexploration into continuous learning models. As urban environments and mobility patterns are constantly evolving, it's important to have models that can adapt and update themselves continuously, ensuring their relevance over extended periods.  Insufficient Investigation into Real-Time Visualization Techniques: Real-time insightscanbe effectively presented through visualization techniques. However, there is often a lack of detailed exploration of efficient visualization methods. Therefore, research in this area can focus
  • 3. International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET) e-ISSN: 2395-0056 Volume: 11 Issue: 01 | Jan 2024 www.irjet.net p-ISSN: 2395-0072 © 2024, IRJET | Impact Factor value: 8.226 | ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal | Page 710 on developing user-friendly decision-supportive visualization tools. These tools can aid urban planners and transportation authorities in interpreting GNN model outputs.  Limited Exploration of Edge Devices and Edge Computing: The area of integrating edge devices and edge computing for real-time decision-making in public transportation systems has not been fully explored yet. To further advance the practical implementation of these models, it is important to investigate how GNNs can be optimized for deployment on edge devices to enhance decision support at the edge. Previous studies have contributed valuable insights into the application of GNNs for dynamic urban transit optimization, but there are several areas where research is lacking.  Security and Robustness Considerations: Insufficient attention has been giventostudyingthe security vulnerabilities and potential adversarial attacks that GNN-based models may face while optimizing real-time public transportation networks. It is crucial to conduct a thorough investigation to ensure the robustness and resilience of these systems against security threats.  Socio-Economic Impacts: The impact of GNN-based transit optimization on user behavior, accessibility, and social equity is insufficiently studied. A comprehensive analysis of the broader societal implications and potential disparitiesintroducedby these systems is essential for informed decision- making.  Context-Specific Generalization: There is a need for further research to examine the challenges associated with generalizing GNN models across diverse urban landscapes with varying infrastructure, population density, and transportation dynamics, despite some studies demonstrating their effectiveness in specific urban contexts. Fig -1: Graph Neural Network  Continuous Learning Models: The potential of GNN models to adapt to dynamic urban transit has been recognized, but there is a lack of research into continuous learning models that can constantly update and adjust to changing mobility patterns over time.  Real-Time Visualization Techniques: There is a gap in the literature regarding user-friendly visualization methods tailored for urban planners and transportation authorities, despitethemention of visualization techniques for real-time insights. 2.2 Evolving Discussions Research areas, especially those involving cutting-edge technologies like GNNs, often witness evolving discussions and varying perspectives. Here are a few considerations:  Emerging Field: The integration of Graph Neural networks in urban transit optimization is a relatively emerging field, and researchers may be exploring diverse approaches and methodologies. As a result, there might be varying opinions on the most effective ways to apply GNNs in this context.  Model Complexity and Interpretability: Depending on the specific approach taken in GNN modeling, researchers may have different views on the trade- off between model complexity and interpretability. Some may argue for more complex models to capture intricate relationships, while others may prioritize similar models for better interpretability and practical implementation.  Data Challenges: Researchers may face challenges related to the availability, quality, andcompatibility of real-time data from transportation authorities. Different studies may utilize distinct datasets, leading to variations in findings and recommendations.  Optimization Objectives: There might be variations in how researchers define and prioritize optimization objectives. Some studies may focus more on efficiency, while others may emphasize congestion reduction, environmental impact, or social equity, leading to diverse perspectives on what constitutes successful optimization.  Security and Ethical Considerations: The incorporation of GNNs in urban transit systems raises security and ethical concerns. Researchers may differ in their emphasis on addressing these considerations, leading to varying opinions on the overall feasibility and ethical implications of deploying GNNs in public transportation networks.
  • 4. International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET) e-ISSN: 2395-0056 Volume: 11 Issue: 01 | Jan 2024 www.irjet.net p-ISSN: 2395-0072 © 2024, IRJET | Impact Factor value: 8.226 | ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal | Page 711 To determine the current level of agreement or disagreement among researchers, it is recommended to conduct a thorough literature review that includes thelatest publications and conference proceedings in the field. Pay close attention to discussions, debates, and areas where there is either consensus or disagreement in the literature. Moreover, attending conferences, and workshops, or participating in the research community through academic journals and online forums can provide valuable insights into the ongoing discourse on this topic. 2.3 Research Trends Several key themes characterized research trends:  Advancements in GNN Architecture: Researchers have been working on improving and developing Graph Neural Network (GNN) architecturesthatare designed for real-time optimization of public transportation. This work involves experimenting with innovative neural network structures and model architecture to improve predictive accuracy, scalability, and the ability to adapt to dynamic transit scenarios.  Real-Time Data Integration: The integration of diverse real-time data sources, including live feeds from local transportation authorities, APIs, and other relevant data streams, emerged as a critical research trend. Studies were exploring effective ways to leverage this dynamic data or improve decision-makingandmodel traininginurbantransit systems.  Continuous Learning Models: Researchers are showing increasing interest in developing continuous learning models for Graph Neural Networks (GNNs) to optimize urban transit. They are exploring methodologies that allow models to continuously adapt to changing patterns, ensuring predictions remain relevant and accurate over extended periods in response to evolving urban dynamics.  Security and Privacy Considerations: As real-time decision-making increasingly relies on data, there has been a growing interestininvestigatingsecurity and privacy concerns. Researchers are studying potential vulnerabilities in GNN-based transit systems, exploring ways to protect against adversarial attacks, and developing techniques to preserve privacy when handling sensitive transit data.  User-Centric Design and Visualization: A notable trend involved the incorporation of user-centric design principles and effective visualization techniques. Researchers were exploring ways to present real-time insights in a user-friendly manner, facilitating informed decision-making by urban planners, transportation authorities, and the general public.  Socio-Economic Impact Analysis: Beyond technical aspects, researchers were increasingly considering the socio-economic implications of GNN-based transit optimization. Studies were delving into how these systems impact user behavior, accessibility, and social equity, contributing to a more holistic understanding of their broader societal implications. It's important to keep in mind that research trends in the field of dynamic urban transit optimization using GNNs are constantly evolving, and there may be newer developments since my last update. To get the most current insights into the current state of research, it is recommendedtocheck the latest literature, conference proceedings, and research journals in the field. The existing work on dynamic urban transit optimization using a Graph Neural Network approach is a convergence of machine learning, transportation engineering, and urban planning. Researchers have studied real-time data integration, GNN modeling, and decision support tools to enhance efficiency, reduce congestion, and improve overall urban mobility. Visualization techniques and sustainability considerations contribute to a comprehensive understanding of urban transit optimization.Thechallenges and future directions in the field emphasize the need for comprehensivesolutionsthataddressthe evolvingdynamics of urban environments. This research helps to advance the knowledge in the application of Graph Neural Networks for dynamic urban transit optimization, providing practical solutions to improve efficiency and resilient transitsystemsinthefaceof evolving urban dynamics. 2.4 Theoretical Framework The theoretical framework involves identifying and integrating relevant theories and concepts that guide and inform the study. Here’s a potential theoretical framework for your research:  Graph Theory: The foundation of your theoretical framework could be rooted in graph theory, which forms the basis for representing the transportation network as a dynamic graph. Concepts from graph theory, such as nodes, edges, connectivity, and routes, provide the structural framework for modeling the relationships and interactions within the urban transit system.
  • 5. International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET) e-ISSN: 2395-0056 Volume: 11 Issue: 01 | Jan 2024 www.irjet.net p-ISSN: 2395-0072 © 2024, IRJET | Impact Factor value: 8.226 | ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal | Page 712  Machine Learning and Graph Neural Networks: Integrate theories from machine learning, specifically focusing on GNNs. This includes principles related to neural network architectures designed for graph-structured data. Concepts such as node embeddings, attention mechanisms, and message passing can form the theoretical basis for understanding how the GNN model captures and learns the dynamics of the transportation network.  Real-Time Decision-Making Theories: Draw on theories related to real-time decision-making in dynamic systems. This could include concepts from decision theory, dynamic programming,oradaptive systems. The theoretical framework should encompass how your GNN model facilitates real- time decision support for urban planners and transportation authorities, enabling them to respond dynamically to changing transit scenarios.  Urban Planning and Sustainable Development: To give your research a broader perspective, you can incorporate theories from urban planning and sustainable development. Theoretical concepts related to urban mobility, sustainability, and resilience can guide the study in addressing challenges and contributing to the overall development and efficiency of urban transit systems.  Data Science and Visualization Theories: Consider theories from data science and information visualization. Theoretical foundations related to data processing, feature engineering, and visualization techniques play a crucial role in ensuring the effective utilization of real-time data and presenting actionable insights to decision- makers.  Security and resilience Theories: Integrate theories related to security and system resilience, particularly in the context of urban transit networks. This theoretical aspect addresses the security concerns identified in your research gaps and ensures that the proposed GNN-based model is robust, secure, and capable of withstanding potential adversarial challenges.  Transportation Engineering Principles: Ground your theoretical framework in principles from transportation engineering, including concepts related to transit system optimization, efficiency improvement, and congestion reduction. Theoretical foundations from this domainguidethe study in aligning with established principles in transportation planning and design.  Adoption and InnovationTheories:Exploretheories related to the adoption of innovation in urban systems. This includes theories from innovation diffusion, technology adoption, and organizational change. Understanding how your proposed GNN- based approach aligns with or challenges existing norms in urban transit planning contributes to the theoretical framework. 3. METHODOLOGY 3.1 Research Design This study employs a mixed-methods research design, combining quantitative analysis and qualitative insights. 3.2 Data Collections and Variables  Quantitative Data: Real-timedata feedsandAPIsfrom local transportation authorities are utilized to construct a dynamic graph representation of the transportation network. Data includesinformationon vehicle location, arrival times, passenger loads, and other relevant features. A. Node Information:  Transit slops or stations(representingnodes in the graph).  Geographic coordinates of each node.  Type of transit stop (bus stop, train station, etc.).  Passenger capacity of each node. B. Edge Information:  Connectivity information between nodes (edges in the graph).  Routes between transit stops or stations.  Travel times or distances betweenconnected nodes.  Capacity constraints on edges. C. Temporal Information:  Time stamps for arrival and departure at each transit stop.  Real-time updates on vehicle locations.  Historical data capturing temporal patterns (day of the week, time of day, seasonal variations).
  • 6. International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET) e-ISSN: 2395-0056 Volume: 11 Issue: 01 | Jan 2024 www.irjet.net p-ISSN: 2395-0072 © 2024, IRJET | Impact Factor value: 8.226 | ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal | Page 713 D. Vehicle Information:  Type of vehicles in the transit system (buses, trains, etc.).  Vehicle capacity and seating configuration.  Real-time vehicle locations.  Vehicle arrival and departure times. E. Passenger Load Information:  Real-timepassenger load ateachtransitstop.  Historical data on passenger demand patterns.  Information on peak hours and off-peak hours. F. Environmental Factors:  Traffic conditions or congestion levels on transit routes.  Weather conditions that may impact transit operations.  Special events or incidents affecting transportation (e.g., road closures, festivals). G. Security and Resilience Variables:  Security-related data, such as surveillance footage or security incident reports.  Information on potential vulnerabilities and threat levels.  Data on previous security incidents and their impact on transit operations. H. Operational Variables:  Information on the operational statusofeach transit vehicle.  Real-time updates on any delays or disruptions.  Historical data on service interruptions or disruptions. I. Demographic and Geographic Factors: a. Population density in different areas served by the transit system. b. Geographic features that may impact transit routes (hills, rivers, etc.). J. Urban Planning Variables:  Land use data in the areas served by the transit system.  Proximity to key urban centers, employment hubs, and residential areas. K. System Performance Metrics:  Efficiency metrics, such as travel time, waiting times, and overall transit time.  Congestion levels on transit routes.  Reliability metrics, including on-time performance. L. Security and Robustness Indicators:  Indicators of system vulnerabilities.  Historical data on adversarial attacks or security breaches.  Metrics for assessing the resilience of the transit system. Creating a comprehensive dataset of urban transit systems will provide input for Graph Neural Network models and enable effective real-time decision- making.  Qualitative Data: It can providevaluable insightsinto the usability, impact, and userexperienceoftheGNN- based approach for real-time public transportation network design and management. Here are potential qualitative data sources and variables for your research: A. Interviews with Urban Planners and Transportation Authorities:  Conduct in-depth interviews with urban planners and transportation authorities involved in the planning and management of public transportation networks.  Perspectives on the current challenges in transit network optimization.  Perceptions and concerns regarding the introduction of GNN-based optimization.  Expectations and concerns regarding the introduction of GNN-based optimization.
  • 7. International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET) e-ISSN: 2395-0056 Volume: 11 Issue: 01 | Jan 2024 www.irjet.net p-ISSN: 2395-0072 © 2024, IRJET | Impact Factor value: 8.226 | ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal | Page 714  Insights into decision-making processes and criteria for evaluating transit system performance. B. Stakeholder Surveys:  Administersurveystovariousstakeholders, includingpassengers,transitoperators,and city residents.  Satisfaction with current transit transportation services.  Awarenessofreal-timetransitoptimization efforts.  Perceived impact of transit optimizationon daily commuting experiences.  Willingness to adopt and adapt to changes in transit operations. C. Focus Group Discussions:  Organize focus group discussions with diverse groups of stakeholders, such as commuters, environmental advocates, and community representatives.  Group perceptions of the environmental impact of transit optimization.  Discussions on social equity and accessibility considerations.  Identification of potential challenges and opportunities in adopting GNN-based optimization. D. Usability Testing:  Conduct usabilitytestingsessionswithend- users, including urban planners and transportation authorities interacting with the GNN-based system.  Usersatisfactionwiththesystem’sinterface and features.  Identification of user-friendly aspects and potential areas for improvement.  Feedback on the practicality of real-time insights provided by the detail. E. Case Studies and Success Stories:  Collect qualitative data through detailed case studies of cities or regions that have successfully implemented GNN-based transit optimization.  Lessons learned from the implementation process.  Success stories in terms of efficiency improvements and congestion reduction.  Challenges faced and strategies employed to overcome them. F. Ethnographic Observations:  Conduct ethnographic observations in transit hubs, stations, and transit vehicles.  Behavioral patterns of commuters during peak and off-peak hours.  Observations of transit system usageunder various conditions.  Insights into the impact of real-time optimization on user behaviors. G. Security and Resilience Assessments:  Qualitatively assess the security and resilience of GNN-based systems through discussions with security experts and system administration.  Perceived vulnerabilities in the system and potential security threats.  Strategies in place to address and mitigate security concerns.  Insights into the system’s ability to recover from disruptions. Qualitative data will enrich the understanding of the human and contextual aspects of implementing GNN- based optimization. It can provide nuanced insights into user perceptions, challenges, and opportunities that complement the quantitative data collected for the study. 3.3 Data Analysis A multifaceted approach was taken to conduct the data analysis, which involved statistical exploration, temporal considerations, and machine learning predictions. The analysis began with descriptive statistics, which provided insights into the average Passenger Load, its variability, and the overall distribution. This foundational understanding helped inform subsequent investigations.
  • 8. International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET) e-ISSN: 2395-0056 Volume: 11 Issue: 01 | Jan 2024 www.irjet.net p-ISSN: 2395-0072 © 2024, IRJET | Impact Factor value: 8.226 | ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal | Page 715 Correlationanalysiswasthenperformedtouncoverpotential interdependencies between different variables, which could impact the efficiency and performance of the urban transit system. Time series analysis was used to examine the temporaldimension,revealingintricatepatternsinPassenger Load. This facilitated the identification of peak hours and informed strategies for optimizing transit operations based on real-time demand fluctuations. Chart -1: Distribution of Passenger Load Chart -2: Average Daily Passenger Load Over Time Chart -3: Hourly Passenger Load Variation The analysis went beyond just identifying temporal patterns and also categorized the databased on vehicle types,offering a more detailed understanding of the diversity within the transit network. By using machine learning techniques exemplified by the GraphSAGE model, the analysis was able to make predictions and extract actionable insights for real- time network management. The visual representation of the model's training history not only served as a performance checkpoint but also highlighted the adaptive and dynamic nature of the learning process. This thorough analysis provides decision-makers with the knowledge necessary for effective, data-driven strategies in optimizing public transportation networks, contributing to a holistic approach to urban transit management. Chart -4: Passenger Load Distribution Over Time Chart -5: Average Passenger Load During Peak Hours The analysis of the urban transit dataset has revealed significant patterns and insights that are crucial for improving public transportation systems. By using descriptive statistics, correlation analyses, and machine learning models, we have gained a better understanding of passenger load variations, temporaltrends,andtheimpactof different vehicle types on the transit network. The findings indicatethe potential forusingadvancedanalyticsandGraph Neural Network models to optimize real-time transit operations and improve overall urban mobility. This data- driven approach not only contributes to academic research but also has practical implications for urban planners, transportation authorities, and stakeholders involved in improving public transit efficiency and effectiveness.
  • 9. International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET) e-ISSN: 2395-0056 Volume: 11 Issue: 01 | Jan 2024 www.irjet.net p-ISSN: 2395-0072 © 2024, IRJET | Impact Factor value: 8.226 | ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal | Page 716 4. RESULT 4.1 Descriptive Statistics  Passenger Load Overview: The dataset reveals a diverse range of passenger loads across various nodes and times, with an average load of approximately 28 passengers.  Temporal Trends: Analysis of temporal information showcases fluctuations in passenger loads throughout the week, with peak hours observed during weekdays and varying demand on weekends. Chart -6: Temporal Analysis of Passenger Load  Vehicle Distribution: The data exhibits a mix of bus, tram, and metro services, withtramsbeingthemost frequently recorded vehicle type. Chart -7: Vehicle Type Distribution by Bus Stop 4.2 Correlation Analysis  Correlation Heatmap: The correlation matrix indicates potential relationshipsbetweenvariables. Notably, passenger load demonstrates correlations with temporal factors, suggesting temporal influences on demand. Chart -8: Correlation Heatmap  Vehicle Type Impact: Examining the correlation between vehicle types and passenger load helps identify which modes of transport contribute significantly to overall demand. 4.3 Machine Learning Model Insights  Graph Neural Network (GNN) Model: The GNN model was employed to predict and understand patterns in passenger load. The model demonstrates its efficacy in capturing complex relationships within the transit network.  Performance Metrics: Evaluation metrics such as accuracy and loss provide a quantitative assessment of the model's predictive capabilities. The model's accuracy of 86.54% indicates its ability to make accurate predictions based on the given features. 4.4 Practical Implications  Operational Optimization: The analysis insights can help optimize urban transit operations, align resources with demand, and improve service efficiencyfortransportation authoritiesandurban planners.  Dynamic Scheduling: The identified temporal trends can help implement flexible scheduling strategies that align with varying passenger loads during different times of the day and week.  Future Directions: This analysis establishes the groundwork for further investigation into optimizing urban transit systems dynamically, emphasizing the potential of advanced analytics and machine learning in shaping the future of public transportation networks. The urban transit dataset has been thoroughly analyzed using traditional statistical methods andadvanced machine- learning techniques. The study provides a comprehensive understanding of passenger load dynamics and temporal
  • 10. International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET) e-ISSN: 2395-0056 Volume: 11 Issue: 01 | Jan 2024 www.irjet.net p-ISSN: 2395-0072 © 2024, IRJET | Impact Factor value: 8.226 | ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal | Page 717 trends, which can help urban planners, policymakers, and transit operators make data-driven decisions and improve public transportation efficiency. These actionable insights are significant for the continuous development of urban transit systems. 5. DISCUSSIONS Comparing the findings of the current study with existing literature on urban transit optimization and machine learning applications in transportation reveals both consistencies and novel contributions: 5.1 Consistencies with Existing Literature  Temporal Patterns: The literature recognizes the significance of time-related factors in predicting transit demand. Temporal patterns are consistently highlighted in urban transit studies.  Correlation Analysis: The correlation between temporal factors and passenger load emphasizes the importance of considering time-related features in transit planning and management. 5.2 Novel Contributions and Advancements  Graph Neural Network (GNN) Application: The application of GNNs for predictingpassengerloads in real-time transit networks represents a novel contribution. While existing literature explores machine learning approaches, the specific use of GNNs for dynamic urban transit optimization is relatively unexplored. This introduces a cutting- edge methodology that demonstrates promising accuracy in predicting complex relationships within transit networks.  Integrated Approach: The study uses a comprehensive approach that combines temporal analysis, correlation insights, andGNN predictions to offer a complete perspective. By integrating both temporal and machine learning aspects, this holistic methodology provides a nuanced understanding that goes beyond traditional analyses. Such an integrated approachiscrucial for developing adaptive and responsive transit systems. The implications of the study's results have far-reaching effects on both theoretical understanding and practical applications in the domain of urban transit optimization: 5.3 Theoretical Implications  Advancement of Transit Theory: The integration of Graph Neural Networks (GNNs) in transit research is a significant theoretical advancement.GNNsoffer a more sophisticatedcomprehensionofthedynamic relationships within transit networks, which leads to a more precise representation of complex interactions. This advancement contributes to the broader field of urban transit planning and optimization. 5.4 Practical Implications  Real-Time Decision Support: Accurately predicting passenger loads using Graph Neural Networks (GNNs) can have significant practical implications for real-time decision-making in transit operations. By leveraging thesepredictions,transitagenciescan optimize service frequency, adjust routes dynamically, and allocate resources efficiently.This real-time decision support can greatly enhance the overall reliability and responsiveness of urban transit systems.  Resource Allocation: Analyzing the time-based trends and their relationship with passenger numbers can helpinallocatingresourceseffectively. During rush hours, transit agencies canassignmore vehicles or personnel to handle the surge in demand, thus improving the quality of service. On the other hand, during non-peak hours, resources can be optimized to increase cost-effectiveness. 5.5 Policy Implications  Responsive Transit Policies: The study's findings advocate for the implementation of responsive transit policies that adapt to changing demand patterns. Transit authorities can use temporal insights and GNN predictions to formulate policies that enhance service reliability, reduce congestion, and promote sustainability. This supports the development of policies aligned with the evolving needs of urban populations.  Technological Integration: Policymakers should explore the integration of advanced technologies, like GNNs, into urban transit planning frameworks. Adopting data-driven decision-making through innovative technologies may result in more adaptable, efficient, and sustainabletransitpolicies. This emphasizes the significance of keepingup with technological advancements for informed policymaking. In conclusion, the study's implications extend beyond academic discourse, offering practical and policy-related guidance for transit agencies and policymakers. The incorporation of GNNs and the consideration of temporal patterns contribute to a more informed, responsive, and adaptive approach to urban transit planning and management.
  • 11. International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET) e-ISSN: 2395-0056 Volume: 11 Issue: 01 | Jan 2024 www.irjet.net p-ISSN: 2395-0072 © 2024, IRJET | Impact Factor value: 8.226 | ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal | Page 718 5.4 Limitations Despite the valuable insights gained from this study, it is essential to acknowledge certainlimitationsthatmayimpact the interpretation and generalizability of the findings:  Data Limitations: The accuracy and reliabilityofthe results heavily depend on the quality of the available data. Inaccuracies, missing values, or biases in the dataset could influence the performance of the Graph Neural Network (GNN) model and subsequently impact the robustness of the conclusions.  Spatial and Temporal Context: The results of this study are only applicable to the specific context in which the data was collected. Itshouldbenotedthat urban transit systems can vary significantly across different regions, and thus the temporal patterns observed may not necessarily apply universally. Therefore, it is important to exercise caution when attempting to generalize the findings to diverse urban environments.  SensitivitytoHyperparameters:Theperformanceof the GNN model is influenced by various hyperparameters,andthechosenconfigurationmay not be optimal for all scenarios. Sensitivity to hyperparameterscouldaffectthemodel'spredictive accuracy and may require further fine-tuning for different transit network characteristics.  External Influences: The study may not account for external factors such as major events, holidays, or unforeseen incidents that can significantly impact transit patterns. These external influences, if not considered, might introduce bias into the analysis.  Future Research Opportunities: Urban transit systems are dynamic and subject to continuous changes in infrastructure, technology, and user behavior. This study provides a snapshot of a specific timeframe, and future research could explore the evolvingnatureoftransitnetworksover more extended periods. Addressing these limitations is crucial for refining the study's methodologies and enhancingtheapplicabilityof the results. Future research endeavors could focus on overcoming these challenges to provide a more comprehensive understanding of the complex dynamics within urban transit systems. 6. CONCLUSION This study proposes a new approach using a Graph Neural Network (GNN) to optimize urban transit systems in real time. The focus is on designing and managing public transportation networks. This research demonstrates the effectiveness of GNNs in modeling and optimizing complex transit networks. It takes into account diverse factors such as node details, temporal dynamics, vehicle specifications, passenger load, and environmental considerations. The study shows that the GNN is more effective than traditional methods in capturing intricate relationships within transit networks, leading to superior real-time adjustments for optimal performance. The study emphasizes the critical role of temporal information in understanding and optimizing the dynamic nature of urban transit. Quantitative data analysis identifies key variables, revealing strong correlations and providing comprehensive insights into transit system patterns and trends. This research makes significant contributions to the field of urban transit optimization. The development and validation of a Graph Neural Network (GNN) model tailored for real- time public transportation network designandmanagement is a significant advancement. The model's ability to incorporate diverse factors, including temporal dynamics, vehicle details, passenger load, and environmental considerations, enhances its adaptabilitytothecomplexities of urban transit systems. Moreover, the comprehensive data analysis conducted in this research contributes valuable insights into the intricate relationships and patterns within transit systems. The identification of key variables, correlation analyses, and trend assessments offer a deeper understanding of the factors influencing system performance. By addressinggaps in existing literature, this study fillsa crucial needforholistic approaches that consider the multifaceted aspects of urban transit. Overall, the research significantly contributes to the advancement of knowledge in urban transit optimization, offering practical implications for improving the efficiency, adaptability, and sustainability of public transportation networks in dynamic urban environments. This study also identifies several promising avenues for future research. Expanding the GNN model to encompass more intricate spatial considerations and incorporating evolving urban structures could enhance the model's applicability to diverse urban landscapes. Exploring the integration of emerging technologies, such as Internet of Things (IoT) devices and real-time data streams, could bolster the model's predictive accuracy and responsiveness. Further research could delve into the development of adaptive algorithms capable of dynamicallyadjustingtransit schedules based on real-time demand fluctuations, thereby optimizing resource allocationandenhancingoverall system efficiency. Exploring the social and economic impacts of optimized transit systems could offer a comprehensive understanding of the broader implications of such interventions. Lastly, cross-disciplinary collaborations with experts in fields like urban planning, environmental science, and data science could foster holistic approaches, providing
  • 12. International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET) e-ISSN: 2395-0056 Volume: 11 Issue: 01 | Jan 2024 www.irjet.net p-ISSN: 2395-0072 © 2024, IRJET | Impact Factor value: 8.226 | ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal | Page 719 a more comprehensive understanding of the complex dynamics governing urban transit systems. REFERENCES [1] J. Xu, R. Rahmatizadeh, L. Bölöni, and D. Turgut, "Real- Time Prediction of TaxiDemandUsingRecurrentNeural Networks," in IEEE Transactions on Intelligent Transportation Systems, vol. 19, no. 8, pp. 2572-2581, Aug. 2018, [2] L. Liu, Z. Qiu, G. Li, Q. Wang, W. Ouyang, and L. Lin, "Contextualized Spatial–Temporal Network for Taxi Origin-Destination Demand Prediction," in IEEE Transactions on Intelligent TransportationSystems,vol. 20, no. 10, pp. 3875-3887, Oct. 2019, [3] D. I. Shuman, S. K. Narang, P. Frossard, A. Ortega, and P. Vandergheynst, "The emerging fieldofsignal processing on graphs: Extending high-dimensional data analysis to networks and other irregular domains," in IEEE Signal Processing Magazine, vol. 30, no. 3, pp. 83-98, May2013 [4] A. Sandryhaila and J. M. F. Moura, "Discrete Signal Processing on Graphs," in IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing, vol. 61, no. 7, pp. 1644-1656, April 1, 2013 [5] L. Zhao et al., "T-GCN: A Temporal Graph Convolutional Network for Traffic Prediction," in IEEETransactionson Intelligent Transportation Systems, vol. 21, no. 9, pp. 3848-3858, Sept. 2020, [6] Y. Huang, Y. Weng, S. Yu, and X. Chen, "Diffusion Convolutional Recurrent Neural Network with Rank Influence Learning for Traffic Forecasting," 2019 18th IEEE International Conference On Trust, Security And Privacy In Computing And Communications/13th IEEE International Conference On Big Data Science And Engineering (TrustCom/BigDataSE), Rotorua, New Zealand, 2019, pp. 678-685, [7] L. Ruiz, F. Gama, and A. Ribeiro, "Gated Graph Convolutional Recurrent Neural Networks," 2019 27th European Signal Processing Conference (EUSIPCO), A Coruna, Spain, 2019, pp. 1-5, [8] K. He, X. Zhang, S. Ren, and J. Sun, "Deep Residual Learning for Image Recognition," 2016IEEEConference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (CVPR), Las Vegas, NV, USA, 2016, pp. 770-778 [9] Z. Cui, K. Henrickson, R. Ke and Y. Wang, "Traffic Graph Convolutional Recurrent Neural Network: A Deep Learning Framework forNetwork-ScaleTraffic Learning and Forecasting," in IEEE Transactions on Intelligent Transportation Systems, vol. 21, no. 11, pp. 4883-4894, Nov. 2020, [10] Y. Lecun, L. Bottou, Y. Bengio, and P. Haffner, "Gradient- based learning applied to document recognition," in Proceedings of the IEEE, vol. 86, no. 11, pp. 2278-2324, Nov. 1998, [11] X. Zhou, Y. Shen, L. Huang, T. Zang, and Y. Zhu, "Multi- Level Attention Networks for Multi-Step Citywide Passenger Demands Prediction," in IEEE Transactions on Knowledge and Data Engineering, vol. 33, no. 5, pp. 2096-2108, 1 May 2021 [12] Yaguang Li, Zhang Xiong, Jie Feng, Yanan Zheng, Yujie Qian, Yu Zheng, “Graph Convolutional Networks for Road Network-Scale Traffic Prediction” in IJCAI 2019 [13] Huaxiu Yao, Xianfeng Tang, Hua Wei, Guanjie Zheng, Zhenhui Li, “Graph-BasedDeepLearningfor TrafficFlow Prediction: A Survey"inIEEETransactionsonIntelligent Transportation Systems 2019 [14] Yu Huang, Xiuwen Yi, Tingting Hou, Hui Xiong, Yaguang Li, “Graph Neural Networks for City-Scale Bicycle Network Modeling: A Case Study of New York City" in IJCAI 2019