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International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET) e-ISSN: 2395-0056
Volume: 11 Issue: 01 | Jan 2024 www.irjet.net p-ISSN: 2395-0072
© 2024, IRJET | Impact Factor value: 8.226 | ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal | Page 642
Review on studies and research on widening of existing concrete
bridges
Mitaali Jayant Gilbile1, Vivek Sangramsingh Ghatage2, Gaurav Sampat Patil3, Pradip Hindurao
Patil4, Shweta Shivaji Nikam5
1 Assistant Professor, Department of Civil Engineering, D. Y. Patil Technical Campus, Talsande, Kolhapur
2,3,4,5 UG Students, Department of Civil Engineering, D. Y. Patil Technical Campus, Talsande, Kolhapur
---------------------------------------------------------------------***---------------------------------------------------------------------
Abstract - An ever-increasing population and economic
growth of India escalating in traffic volume. For this increase
in volume of traffic, infrastructures such as roads and bridges
are becoming inadequate to fulfill the current traffic demand.
To solve this problem infrastructures are need to be upgrade.
Modernizing or upgrading infrastructure helps to mitigate
traffic problems, provide safety for the traffic stream. Many
existing bridges cannot meet their current traffic demand. To
cope up with traffic problem bridge widening becomes
necessary. Widening of existing bridges saves lot of time and
money instead of constructing a new bridge. This paper
summarizes studies and research carried out on widening of
existing concrete bridges in various countries.
Key Words: Traffic volume, Modernizing, Existing bridge,
Stitching
1.INTRODUCTION
Bridges are used to cross an obstaclelikea riverora
valley for the safe movement of vehicles or pedestrians over
it. Existing bridges are becoming inadequate to copeup with
current traffic demand. Engineers have two options for
bridge modernization either theycanconstructa new bridge
by demolishing old one or they can widen an existingbridge.
Due to many reasons such as time, money and traffic
disruption during construction it becomes more economical
to widen an existing bridge rather than constructing a new
bridge. Widening of an existing bridge can be easily done
when it is functionally obsolete. If it is structurally deficient
then it can be either retrofitted and then widened or it can
be required to demolish. Various techniques can be used for
widening an existing bridge. Some of the studies across the
globe are summarized below,
Yue Yang et al. (2015) presented a detailedstudyon
Bridge widening technique with a composite steel-concrete
girder. This technique of widening has been used in various
bridge widening projects in China and one of from those
projects was selected for the study. The selected bridge was
the Niuerhe Bridge located in Chongqing, China. The bridge
was an 11-span simply supported multi-girder (6) highway
bridge with 4 lanes made of prestressed concrete. The
widening is only done for one side of superstructure of the
bridge which consist of steel girders, concrete slab,
transverse diaphragms, and parapets. Composite steel-
concrete girder has high flexural strength and torsional
stiffness and it has low self-weight. This superstructure
widening solution provide a safeguard for bridge widening
work and traffic flow.
In this study they have developed methods for
estimating live load distribution factors of a widened bridge
with different types of girders. First, the field test was
conducted on widened bridge for the assessment of
deflections and longitudinal strains at mid-span of girders.
As per the design code of China the field test was conducted
with 5 different loading cases using 6 fully loaded three-axle
dump trucks. Then live distribution factors were calculated
from measured displacementsandlongitudinal strainsusing
various expressions. The distribution factors obtained from
the expressions were nearly equal for each girderwhereitis
larger for the composite girder and getting smaller towards
the last concrete girder. Proposed analytical methods which
are Rigid jointed method and Flexible jointed method were
used to determine live load distribution factors. Also, finite
element analysis using MSC Marc program was used to
validate results obtained from the proposed analytical
methods. After evaluating distributionfactorsobtainedfrom
field test and theoretical analysis, they were compared with
each other. From this study they have concluded that the
proposed analytical methods provide a better result for
determining load distribution factors. Also result from two
detailed finite element models gave accurately same result
as obtained from field test. It would be more effective in
decreasing the distributionfactorsforintermediategirdersif
bridge widened on both sides rather than that widened on a
single side. (1)
Mohammad M. Hamdan (2023) carried a detailed
study on widening of an existing bridge structureintheUAE.
They have given various challenges encountered and their
implemented solutions during the process of widening. The
widening of the bridge was executed by constructing a new
bridge beside the existing bridge and connected by stitching
with each other to form a new bridge. The existing and new
bridge were made from post-tensionedvoidedconcrete.The
main challenges they faced were replacing existing bridge
bearing, stitching work, adjusting levels in old and new
structures and matching expansion joint gaps. First, they
International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET) e-ISSN: 2395-0056
Volume: 11 Issue: 01 | Jan 2024 www.irjet.net p-ISSN: 2395-0072
© 2024, IRJET | Impact Factor value: 8.226 | ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal | Page 643
carried condition survey which involved the assessing the
condition of the existing bridge by visual inspection and
conducting various tests. The condition survey of the bridge
under consideration was found no severe defects.Theyhave
given solutions for each challenge faced during the
construction stage. (2)
Paul W. Corbett et al. (2014) provided constructible
solutions for widening of two existing bridges on state
highway 16, Auckland. Two existing motorway bridges
namely Whau River Bridge and Causeway Bridge were need
to widen in order to provide additional capacity for
vehicular, pedestrian and cyclic traffic. These two bridges
are a mix of structural forms. The original bridges were 3
lanes in both directions. They were need to upgrade to 4
lanes with cycleway having a minimum width of 3m.
For Whau River Bridge additional deck width on
both outer edges were provided to accommodate the fourth
traffic lane in each direction with widened
pedestrian/cycleway on one bridge only. The deck widened
using new 1.2m deep, precast, pretensioned concretesuper-
T beams and reinforced concrete deck slab which is casted
monolithically on reinforced concrete headstocks sitting on
top of new 1.5m dia. Permanently cased, bored, cast-in-situ
piles. Then new deck is connected to the existing structure’s
outer deck edge by way of reinforced concrete stitch pours.
Proposed widening works to the Causeway Bridge
comprise the construction of a new independent bridge
structure to carry one side traffic with 4-lane. Existing
bridges were decided to connect with each other to
accommodate the 5-lane traffic with widened pedestrianfor
other side traffic. The new bridge consists of 1.2m deep,
precast, pretensioned concrete super-T beams and
reinforced concrete deck slab, supported monolithically on
reinforced concrete headstocks and permanently cased,
bored, cast-in-situ piles of 1.2m dia. Piles. The gap between
two existing bridges were connected by stitching.
For constructability and safety in design
precast/prefabricated elements were used wherever
possible. Permanent tubular steel casing for piles were used
in order to provide permanent formwork solution for the
piers and to reduce in situ works. They also carried
assessments of existing structural elements for durability,
live load and seismic. Assessment of the bridges in their
proposed modified form showed the adequacy of structural
performance including under traffic loadingandearthquake
conditions. (3)
Mark Treacy et al. (2023) outlines the safety
measures and the challenges of strengthening and widening
a structurally deficient road bridge under live traffic. Also,
they have demonstrated the ultra-high-performance fiber-
reinforced cementitious composite(UHPFRC)strengthening
concept by means of a design example. The historic Port
Weir Bridge is located over the Nidau-Buren Canal in the
Canton of bern, Switzerland.Thebridgeservesmultipurpose
functions such as an important road bridge, a mechanized
weir, a lock for canal boats as well as a hydroelectric power
station. The road bridge comprises an orthogonal grillage of
monolithic T-beams with cantilevering slabs. At each axis,
the longitudinal T-beams are supported on reinforced
concrete cross frames and cross beams sitting atop
limestone clad concrete columns.
They did investigation work such as hammer
tapping tests to identify delaminated concrete surfaces,
potential measurements, concrete cover measurements,
opening ‘windows’ in asphalt, local removal of cover
concrete to inspect reinforcement, concrete cores for
chemical analysis and rebar samples for yield strengthtests.
Lab testing was done using sample concrete cores of 50mm
and 100mm diameter were taken fromnon-critical locations
for the determination of the compressive strength, density
and pull-out capacity. Also,thechloridecontent,carbonation
depth and potential field measurementsweredeterminedto
find out material properties. The structural conformity
factors at numerous locations were found out below the
minimum requirements of the code. It was clear that
renovation works would be required so for this as a
precaution immediate measures were taken. To allow
heavier traffic to use the bridge in the months beforeitcould
be fully renovated it was decided to do temporary
strengthening using temporary prop all beams using steel
supports. Due to the severe reinforcement corrosion in the
outer longitudinal T-beams on the footway side, it was
decided to replace these beams on the older part of the
bridge and use the opportunity to widen the roadway in line
with modern standards. As the existing T-beams could not
meet the full requirements of the load model, it was decided
to strengthen them using a thin layer of reinforced UHPFRC.
The use of UHPFRC as an efficient strengthening solution
was well proven with more than 300 applications were
carried out over the past 18 years in Switzerland. A modern
expansion joint system of high-performance polymer was
used at all movement joints. Replacement of all roller
bearings were done with modern spherical bearings. A new
176m long pedestrian footbridge was constructed with four
of the six support points located on the existing bridge piers
which met the client’s requirements of avoiding supports in
the canal and adequately responded to the conservation
requirements regarding materials and aesthetics. (4)
Lucio F. Torricelli et.al. described the most
representative interventions realized to widen the existing
bridges and viaducts belonging to the A1 Milan-Naples
highway, Italy. The aim was to enlarge the highway
carriageway by inserting the third traffic lane. Widening
criteria in correspondence of bridges and viaducts, the
widening intervention consisted of an enlargement of both
superstructure and bents in continuity with the existing
parts. Three bridges were selected for the study namely
Morignano viaduct, Foglia bridge and Pesaro Station
International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET) e-ISSN: 2395-0056
Volume: 11 Issue: 01 | Jan 2024 www.irjet.net p-ISSN: 2395-0072
© 2024, IRJET | Impact Factor value: 8.226 | ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal | Page 644
Underpass. The existing bridge deck was composed by a
grillage of prestressed concrete girders and widening
requires the use of additional beams. With reference to the
bents, the basic design criteria were to widen by providing
new columns characterized by almost the same ultimate
flexural resistance of the existing ones. In order to avoid
significant deficienciesofvariouscomponentsduetoseismic
action, a system of seismic restrainers has been provided.
With reference to the structural behavior under seismic
conditions, the three selected bridges had revealeddifferent
deficiencies which had required different retrofitting
strategies. In the first case, an inadequate level of
deformation ductility in plastic hinge regionsofthepiers had
needed the use of fiber reinforced polymer materials; in the
second case, the deficiency of the foundation in resisting
bending moment due to an over-dimensioning of the pier
cross-section has been solved by a rational weakeningofthe
pier base; in the last case, the unsuitability of the abutments
in contrasting seismic horizontal forces has been solved by
providing a system of passive anchors.
Widening of Morignano Viaduct consist of deck
made of steel-concrete composite structure formed bythree
new steel beams and a concrete slab linked to the existing
one. To support the new deck, all the bents have been
widened by constructing three new columns,identical tothe
existing ones, linked to those by means of the cap beam and
the plinth. In order to assure the continuity between new
and old parts, a system of doweled bars has been used. To
verify the seismic suitability of the widened bridge, a
pushover analysis has been carried out. To meet the seismic
suitability, existing bearings have been replaced by
elastomeric pads and new expansion joints have been
provided. To prevent deck jumping, longitudinal and
transversal seismic restrainers have been introduced by
means of reinforced concrete elements doweled to the
existing cap beams. The retrofitting solutionhasconsistedof
the enhancement of the ductility of the weak members by
FRP wrapping. The weak members were columns have
rectangular cross-section.In ordertoreduceanydetrimental
effect of the sharp corners of column on the tensile strength
of the FRP, the corners have been rounded and an elliptical-
shaped external cover surrounding the old rectangular
section has been realized by using cement grout. Finally, a
multilayer Carbon FRP jacket made by unidirectional fiber
epoxy-impregnated sheets has been around the elliptical-
shaped region. Widening of Foglia bridge is same as above
bridge. Nevertheless, during the construction phases, the
building firm has proposed to substitute the three steel
beams with the two V-shaped prestressed concrete girders.
In addition, the type of connection at the slab level has been
modified instead of cutting the existing slab, it has been
decided to hydro-demolish it preserving existing steel
reinforcement. The results of the structural seismic analysis
performed in the final widened configuration have
highlighted that existing pier elevations had been
overdesigned and the old foundation were not able to
sustain the resistant bending moment of the cross-sectionat
the wall base. The chosen retrofitting strategy has been
focused on strengthening the footing as well as reducing the
bending capacity of the pier wall. The reduction of the
bending capacity of the pier wall has been obtained by
means of a local weakening of the base cross section by
cutting circular openings with diameter of 1.20m. After the
intervention, the concrete cover has been completely
restored, and the effectiveness of the reinforcing bars in
correspondence of the circular openings has been restored
by closing all the provisional openings. For Pesaro station
underpass, a strengthening intervention has been needed to
assure an adequate safety level against horizontal seismic
forces. To this aim, a system of passive anchors has been
realized by using micropiles inclined of 15 degrees with
respect to the horizontal line and disposed at two different
levels. (5)
Kenneth W. Shushkewich (2003) introduced the
strutted box wideningmethod(SBWM).Thissystemallowsa
two-lane segmental bridge to be designed and constructed
so that it can be easily widened into three or fourlanebridge
at any time in the future. Two examples are demonstrated to
how the SBWM can be used to widen a variable-depthcastin
place segmental bridge and a constant depth precast
segmental bridge. Design and constructionconsiderationsof
the SBWM are addressed, and the advantages and
disadvantages of the SBWM are outlined. The author
believes that this method should be given serious
consideration by government agencies and design-build
consortia starting at the planning stage on any project.
Kenneth W. Shushkewich (2005) presented how a
two-lane prestressed concrete bridge can be designed and
constructed so that in future it can be widened easily into a
three or four lane bridge. The methods presented are the
strutted box widening method (SBWM) which applies to
concrete box girder bridges andthestruttedgirderwidening
method (SGWM) which applies to precast concrete girder
bridges. The first is a detailed example that demonstrates
how the SBWM can be applied to the span-by-span precast
segmental bridge. The second example shows how the
SGWM can be used to double the traffic capacity of an
existing bridge.
The SBWM is quite simple. Stage 1 includes two
lanes plus shoulders, Stage 2 includes three lanes plus
shoulders and Stage 3 includes four lanes plus shoulders.
During stage 2 construction, exterior compression structs
are installed and the deck slab is widened. Additional
transverse internal prestressed tendons are installed and
stressed. Widening from stage 2 to stage 3 construction is
similar. The deck slab is again extended and additional
transverse internal prestressing tendons and longitudinal
external prestressing tendonsareinstalledandstressed. The
SBWM offers a number of attractive advantages over a
conventional box girder scheme. Widening an AASHTO-PCI
International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET) e-ISSN: 2395-0056
Volume: 11 Issue: 01 | Jan 2024 www.irjet.net p-ISSN: 2395-0072
© 2024, IRJET | Impact Factor value: 8.226 | ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal | Page 645
precast girder bridge using the strutted girder widening
method (SGWM) is similar to widening a precast segmental
box widening method (SBWM). Exterior compression struts
are installed and an additional deck is formed and placed.
Both transverse internal prestressing tendons and
longitudinal external prestressing tendons are installed and
stressed. The major advantage of using the SGWM to widen
an existing bridge is that no additional substructure work
has to be done. A precast segmental extradosed bridgethatis
constructed and widened using the strutted box widening
method has been proposed by the author for the new Fraser
River Crossing in Vancouver, Canada. (7)
3. CONCLUSION
Widening of an existing bridge by constructing new piers
and deck beside existing bridge and connecting each other
deck by stitching would be more feasible, safer and
economical as compared to other methods. Because it
provides an opportunity to use remaining service life of an
existing bridge and after the end of service life of an existing
bridge it can be easily demolishedwithoutaffectingwidened
structure. Also, traffic disruption will not be occurred if this
method is used.
REFERENCES
[1] Yue Yang, Xiaoguang Zhang, Jiansheng Fan and Yu Bai,
“Bridge widening with composite seel-concretegirders:
application and analysis of live load distribution”,
Advances in Concrete Construction, Vol.3, No.4, 2015,
pp.295-316.
[2] Mohammad M. Hamdan, “Case study: Widening an
existing bridge structure challenges and solutions”,
International Research Journal of Engineering and
Technology, Vol.10 Issue:05, May 2023, pp.1724-1731.
[3] Paul W. Corbett, Timothy J. Watterson, “Widening of
existing bridges on state highway 16 in Auckland”, ICE
Publishing, Bridge Engineering Vol.169 Issue:BE3,
September 2016, pp.203-214.
[4] Mark Treacy, Frank Jokisch, Eugen Brühwiler,
“Modernising a monument: The challenges of
strengthening and widening a structurallydeficientroad
bridge under live traffic”, Ernst & Sohn A Wiley Brand,
2023, pp. 135-144.
[5] . Lucio Ferretti Torricelli, Andrea Indovino, Alessandra
Marchiondelli, “Modernisation and widening
interventions of bridge structures on the Adriatic
highway in Italy” 2012.
[6] Shushkewich K.W., “The Strutted Box widening method
for Prestressed concrete segmental bridges”, PCI
JOURNAL, November- December 2003, pp.64-81.
[7] Shushkewich K.W., “Design of Prestressed Concrete
Bridges to Accommodate Future Widening” PCI
JOURNAL, May-June 2005, pp.74-89.

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Review on studies and research on widening of existing concrete bridges

  • 1. International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET) e-ISSN: 2395-0056 Volume: 11 Issue: 01 | Jan 2024 www.irjet.net p-ISSN: 2395-0072 © 2024, IRJET | Impact Factor value: 8.226 | ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal | Page 642 Review on studies and research on widening of existing concrete bridges Mitaali Jayant Gilbile1, Vivek Sangramsingh Ghatage2, Gaurav Sampat Patil3, Pradip Hindurao Patil4, Shweta Shivaji Nikam5 1 Assistant Professor, Department of Civil Engineering, D. Y. Patil Technical Campus, Talsande, Kolhapur 2,3,4,5 UG Students, Department of Civil Engineering, D. Y. Patil Technical Campus, Talsande, Kolhapur ---------------------------------------------------------------------***--------------------------------------------------------------------- Abstract - An ever-increasing population and economic growth of India escalating in traffic volume. For this increase in volume of traffic, infrastructures such as roads and bridges are becoming inadequate to fulfill the current traffic demand. To solve this problem infrastructures are need to be upgrade. Modernizing or upgrading infrastructure helps to mitigate traffic problems, provide safety for the traffic stream. Many existing bridges cannot meet their current traffic demand. To cope up with traffic problem bridge widening becomes necessary. Widening of existing bridges saves lot of time and money instead of constructing a new bridge. This paper summarizes studies and research carried out on widening of existing concrete bridges in various countries. Key Words: Traffic volume, Modernizing, Existing bridge, Stitching 1.INTRODUCTION Bridges are used to cross an obstaclelikea riverora valley for the safe movement of vehicles or pedestrians over it. Existing bridges are becoming inadequate to copeup with current traffic demand. Engineers have two options for bridge modernization either theycanconstructa new bridge by demolishing old one or they can widen an existingbridge. Due to many reasons such as time, money and traffic disruption during construction it becomes more economical to widen an existing bridge rather than constructing a new bridge. Widening of an existing bridge can be easily done when it is functionally obsolete. If it is structurally deficient then it can be either retrofitted and then widened or it can be required to demolish. Various techniques can be used for widening an existing bridge. Some of the studies across the globe are summarized below, Yue Yang et al. (2015) presented a detailedstudyon Bridge widening technique with a composite steel-concrete girder. This technique of widening has been used in various bridge widening projects in China and one of from those projects was selected for the study. The selected bridge was the Niuerhe Bridge located in Chongqing, China. The bridge was an 11-span simply supported multi-girder (6) highway bridge with 4 lanes made of prestressed concrete. The widening is only done for one side of superstructure of the bridge which consist of steel girders, concrete slab, transverse diaphragms, and parapets. Composite steel- concrete girder has high flexural strength and torsional stiffness and it has low self-weight. This superstructure widening solution provide a safeguard for bridge widening work and traffic flow. In this study they have developed methods for estimating live load distribution factors of a widened bridge with different types of girders. First, the field test was conducted on widened bridge for the assessment of deflections and longitudinal strains at mid-span of girders. As per the design code of China the field test was conducted with 5 different loading cases using 6 fully loaded three-axle dump trucks. Then live distribution factors were calculated from measured displacementsandlongitudinal strainsusing various expressions. The distribution factors obtained from the expressions were nearly equal for each girderwhereitis larger for the composite girder and getting smaller towards the last concrete girder. Proposed analytical methods which are Rigid jointed method and Flexible jointed method were used to determine live load distribution factors. Also, finite element analysis using MSC Marc program was used to validate results obtained from the proposed analytical methods. After evaluating distributionfactorsobtainedfrom field test and theoretical analysis, they were compared with each other. From this study they have concluded that the proposed analytical methods provide a better result for determining load distribution factors. Also result from two detailed finite element models gave accurately same result as obtained from field test. It would be more effective in decreasing the distributionfactorsforintermediategirdersif bridge widened on both sides rather than that widened on a single side. (1) Mohammad M. Hamdan (2023) carried a detailed study on widening of an existing bridge structureintheUAE. They have given various challenges encountered and their implemented solutions during the process of widening. The widening of the bridge was executed by constructing a new bridge beside the existing bridge and connected by stitching with each other to form a new bridge. The existing and new bridge were made from post-tensionedvoidedconcrete.The main challenges they faced were replacing existing bridge bearing, stitching work, adjusting levels in old and new structures and matching expansion joint gaps. First, they
  • 2. International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET) e-ISSN: 2395-0056 Volume: 11 Issue: 01 | Jan 2024 www.irjet.net p-ISSN: 2395-0072 © 2024, IRJET | Impact Factor value: 8.226 | ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal | Page 643 carried condition survey which involved the assessing the condition of the existing bridge by visual inspection and conducting various tests. The condition survey of the bridge under consideration was found no severe defects.Theyhave given solutions for each challenge faced during the construction stage. (2) Paul W. Corbett et al. (2014) provided constructible solutions for widening of two existing bridges on state highway 16, Auckland. Two existing motorway bridges namely Whau River Bridge and Causeway Bridge were need to widen in order to provide additional capacity for vehicular, pedestrian and cyclic traffic. These two bridges are a mix of structural forms. The original bridges were 3 lanes in both directions. They were need to upgrade to 4 lanes with cycleway having a minimum width of 3m. For Whau River Bridge additional deck width on both outer edges were provided to accommodate the fourth traffic lane in each direction with widened pedestrian/cycleway on one bridge only. The deck widened using new 1.2m deep, precast, pretensioned concretesuper- T beams and reinforced concrete deck slab which is casted monolithically on reinforced concrete headstocks sitting on top of new 1.5m dia. Permanently cased, bored, cast-in-situ piles. Then new deck is connected to the existing structure’s outer deck edge by way of reinforced concrete stitch pours. Proposed widening works to the Causeway Bridge comprise the construction of a new independent bridge structure to carry one side traffic with 4-lane. Existing bridges were decided to connect with each other to accommodate the 5-lane traffic with widened pedestrianfor other side traffic. The new bridge consists of 1.2m deep, precast, pretensioned concrete super-T beams and reinforced concrete deck slab, supported monolithically on reinforced concrete headstocks and permanently cased, bored, cast-in-situ piles of 1.2m dia. Piles. The gap between two existing bridges were connected by stitching. For constructability and safety in design precast/prefabricated elements were used wherever possible. Permanent tubular steel casing for piles were used in order to provide permanent formwork solution for the piers and to reduce in situ works. They also carried assessments of existing structural elements for durability, live load and seismic. Assessment of the bridges in their proposed modified form showed the adequacy of structural performance including under traffic loadingandearthquake conditions. (3) Mark Treacy et al. (2023) outlines the safety measures and the challenges of strengthening and widening a structurally deficient road bridge under live traffic. Also, they have demonstrated the ultra-high-performance fiber- reinforced cementitious composite(UHPFRC)strengthening concept by means of a design example. The historic Port Weir Bridge is located over the Nidau-Buren Canal in the Canton of bern, Switzerland.Thebridgeservesmultipurpose functions such as an important road bridge, a mechanized weir, a lock for canal boats as well as a hydroelectric power station. The road bridge comprises an orthogonal grillage of monolithic T-beams with cantilevering slabs. At each axis, the longitudinal T-beams are supported on reinforced concrete cross frames and cross beams sitting atop limestone clad concrete columns. They did investigation work such as hammer tapping tests to identify delaminated concrete surfaces, potential measurements, concrete cover measurements, opening ‘windows’ in asphalt, local removal of cover concrete to inspect reinforcement, concrete cores for chemical analysis and rebar samples for yield strengthtests. Lab testing was done using sample concrete cores of 50mm and 100mm diameter were taken fromnon-critical locations for the determination of the compressive strength, density and pull-out capacity. Also,thechloridecontent,carbonation depth and potential field measurementsweredeterminedto find out material properties. The structural conformity factors at numerous locations were found out below the minimum requirements of the code. It was clear that renovation works would be required so for this as a precaution immediate measures were taken. To allow heavier traffic to use the bridge in the months beforeitcould be fully renovated it was decided to do temporary strengthening using temporary prop all beams using steel supports. Due to the severe reinforcement corrosion in the outer longitudinal T-beams on the footway side, it was decided to replace these beams on the older part of the bridge and use the opportunity to widen the roadway in line with modern standards. As the existing T-beams could not meet the full requirements of the load model, it was decided to strengthen them using a thin layer of reinforced UHPFRC. The use of UHPFRC as an efficient strengthening solution was well proven with more than 300 applications were carried out over the past 18 years in Switzerland. A modern expansion joint system of high-performance polymer was used at all movement joints. Replacement of all roller bearings were done with modern spherical bearings. A new 176m long pedestrian footbridge was constructed with four of the six support points located on the existing bridge piers which met the client’s requirements of avoiding supports in the canal and adequately responded to the conservation requirements regarding materials and aesthetics. (4) Lucio F. Torricelli et.al. described the most representative interventions realized to widen the existing bridges and viaducts belonging to the A1 Milan-Naples highway, Italy. The aim was to enlarge the highway carriageway by inserting the third traffic lane. Widening criteria in correspondence of bridges and viaducts, the widening intervention consisted of an enlargement of both superstructure and bents in continuity with the existing parts. Three bridges were selected for the study namely Morignano viaduct, Foglia bridge and Pesaro Station
  • 3. International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET) e-ISSN: 2395-0056 Volume: 11 Issue: 01 | Jan 2024 www.irjet.net p-ISSN: 2395-0072 © 2024, IRJET | Impact Factor value: 8.226 | ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal | Page 644 Underpass. The existing bridge deck was composed by a grillage of prestressed concrete girders and widening requires the use of additional beams. With reference to the bents, the basic design criteria were to widen by providing new columns characterized by almost the same ultimate flexural resistance of the existing ones. In order to avoid significant deficienciesofvariouscomponentsduetoseismic action, a system of seismic restrainers has been provided. With reference to the structural behavior under seismic conditions, the three selected bridges had revealeddifferent deficiencies which had required different retrofitting strategies. In the first case, an inadequate level of deformation ductility in plastic hinge regionsofthepiers had needed the use of fiber reinforced polymer materials; in the second case, the deficiency of the foundation in resisting bending moment due to an over-dimensioning of the pier cross-section has been solved by a rational weakeningofthe pier base; in the last case, the unsuitability of the abutments in contrasting seismic horizontal forces has been solved by providing a system of passive anchors. Widening of Morignano Viaduct consist of deck made of steel-concrete composite structure formed bythree new steel beams and a concrete slab linked to the existing one. To support the new deck, all the bents have been widened by constructing three new columns,identical tothe existing ones, linked to those by means of the cap beam and the plinth. In order to assure the continuity between new and old parts, a system of doweled bars has been used. To verify the seismic suitability of the widened bridge, a pushover analysis has been carried out. To meet the seismic suitability, existing bearings have been replaced by elastomeric pads and new expansion joints have been provided. To prevent deck jumping, longitudinal and transversal seismic restrainers have been introduced by means of reinforced concrete elements doweled to the existing cap beams. The retrofitting solutionhasconsistedof the enhancement of the ductility of the weak members by FRP wrapping. The weak members were columns have rectangular cross-section.In ordertoreduceanydetrimental effect of the sharp corners of column on the tensile strength of the FRP, the corners have been rounded and an elliptical- shaped external cover surrounding the old rectangular section has been realized by using cement grout. Finally, a multilayer Carbon FRP jacket made by unidirectional fiber epoxy-impregnated sheets has been around the elliptical- shaped region. Widening of Foglia bridge is same as above bridge. Nevertheless, during the construction phases, the building firm has proposed to substitute the three steel beams with the two V-shaped prestressed concrete girders. In addition, the type of connection at the slab level has been modified instead of cutting the existing slab, it has been decided to hydro-demolish it preserving existing steel reinforcement. The results of the structural seismic analysis performed in the final widened configuration have highlighted that existing pier elevations had been overdesigned and the old foundation were not able to sustain the resistant bending moment of the cross-sectionat the wall base. The chosen retrofitting strategy has been focused on strengthening the footing as well as reducing the bending capacity of the pier wall. The reduction of the bending capacity of the pier wall has been obtained by means of a local weakening of the base cross section by cutting circular openings with diameter of 1.20m. After the intervention, the concrete cover has been completely restored, and the effectiveness of the reinforcing bars in correspondence of the circular openings has been restored by closing all the provisional openings. For Pesaro station underpass, a strengthening intervention has been needed to assure an adequate safety level against horizontal seismic forces. To this aim, a system of passive anchors has been realized by using micropiles inclined of 15 degrees with respect to the horizontal line and disposed at two different levels. (5) Kenneth W. Shushkewich (2003) introduced the strutted box wideningmethod(SBWM).Thissystemallowsa two-lane segmental bridge to be designed and constructed so that it can be easily widened into three or fourlanebridge at any time in the future. Two examples are demonstrated to how the SBWM can be used to widen a variable-depthcastin place segmental bridge and a constant depth precast segmental bridge. Design and constructionconsiderationsof the SBWM are addressed, and the advantages and disadvantages of the SBWM are outlined. The author believes that this method should be given serious consideration by government agencies and design-build consortia starting at the planning stage on any project. Kenneth W. Shushkewich (2005) presented how a two-lane prestressed concrete bridge can be designed and constructed so that in future it can be widened easily into a three or four lane bridge. The methods presented are the strutted box widening method (SBWM) which applies to concrete box girder bridges andthestruttedgirderwidening method (SGWM) which applies to precast concrete girder bridges. The first is a detailed example that demonstrates how the SBWM can be applied to the span-by-span precast segmental bridge. The second example shows how the SGWM can be used to double the traffic capacity of an existing bridge. The SBWM is quite simple. Stage 1 includes two lanes plus shoulders, Stage 2 includes three lanes plus shoulders and Stage 3 includes four lanes plus shoulders. During stage 2 construction, exterior compression structs are installed and the deck slab is widened. Additional transverse internal prestressed tendons are installed and stressed. Widening from stage 2 to stage 3 construction is similar. The deck slab is again extended and additional transverse internal prestressing tendons and longitudinal external prestressing tendonsareinstalledandstressed. The SBWM offers a number of attractive advantages over a conventional box girder scheme. Widening an AASHTO-PCI
  • 4. International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET) e-ISSN: 2395-0056 Volume: 11 Issue: 01 | Jan 2024 www.irjet.net p-ISSN: 2395-0072 © 2024, IRJET | Impact Factor value: 8.226 | ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal | Page 645 precast girder bridge using the strutted girder widening method (SGWM) is similar to widening a precast segmental box widening method (SBWM). Exterior compression struts are installed and an additional deck is formed and placed. Both transverse internal prestressing tendons and longitudinal external prestressing tendons are installed and stressed. The major advantage of using the SGWM to widen an existing bridge is that no additional substructure work has to be done. A precast segmental extradosed bridgethatis constructed and widened using the strutted box widening method has been proposed by the author for the new Fraser River Crossing in Vancouver, Canada. (7) 3. CONCLUSION Widening of an existing bridge by constructing new piers and deck beside existing bridge and connecting each other deck by stitching would be more feasible, safer and economical as compared to other methods. Because it provides an opportunity to use remaining service life of an existing bridge and after the end of service life of an existing bridge it can be easily demolishedwithoutaffectingwidened structure. Also, traffic disruption will not be occurred if this method is used. REFERENCES [1] Yue Yang, Xiaoguang Zhang, Jiansheng Fan and Yu Bai, “Bridge widening with composite seel-concretegirders: application and analysis of live load distribution”, Advances in Concrete Construction, Vol.3, No.4, 2015, pp.295-316. [2] Mohammad M. Hamdan, “Case study: Widening an existing bridge structure challenges and solutions”, International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology, Vol.10 Issue:05, May 2023, pp.1724-1731. [3] Paul W. Corbett, Timothy J. Watterson, “Widening of existing bridges on state highway 16 in Auckland”, ICE Publishing, Bridge Engineering Vol.169 Issue:BE3, September 2016, pp.203-214. [4] Mark Treacy, Frank Jokisch, Eugen Brühwiler, “Modernising a monument: The challenges of strengthening and widening a structurallydeficientroad bridge under live traffic”, Ernst & Sohn A Wiley Brand, 2023, pp. 135-144. [5] . Lucio Ferretti Torricelli, Andrea Indovino, Alessandra Marchiondelli, “Modernisation and widening interventions of bridge structures on the Adriatic highway in Italy” 2012. [6] Shushkewich K.W., “The Strutted Box widening method for Prestressed concrete segmental bridges”, PCI JOURNAL, November- December 2003, pp.64-81. [7] Shushkewich K.W., “Design of Prestressed Concrete Bridges to Accommodate Future Widening” PCI JOURNAL, May-June 2005, pp.74-89.