SlideShare a Scribd company logo
1 of 6
Download to read offline
International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET) e-ISSN: 2395-0056
Volume: 11 Issue: 01 | Jan 2024 www.irjet.net p-ISSN: 2395-0072
© 2024, IRJET | Impact Factor value: 8.226 | ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal | Page 605
Cost Optimization of Construction Using Plastic Waste as a Sustainable
Construction Material
Mr. Nihalahmad R. Faras1, Mr. Ranjeet S. patil2, Mr Yash A. pawar3, Mr.A.S. Ingale4
1Under Graduate student, Department of Civil Engineering, Padmabhooshan Vasantraodada Patil Institute of
Technology Budhgaon, Sangli, Maharashtra, India
2,3Under Graduate student, Department of Civil Engineering, Rajarambapu Institute of Technology, Sangli,
Maharashtra, India.
4 Associate Professor, Department of Civil Engineering, Padmabhooshan Vasantraodada Patil Institute of
Technology Budhgaon, Sangli, Maharashtra, India.
---------------------------------------------------------------------***---------------------------------------------------------------------
Abstract - This research paper explores the innovative
integration of plastic waste into construction materials to
achieve cost optimization and sustainability in the
construction industry. With the escalating environmental
concerns associated with plastic waste, there is a pressing
need to explore alternative applications that contribute to
both waste reduction and construction cost efficiency. This
study focuses on utilizing plasticwastetomanufacturepavers,
and bricks, and partially replacing conventionalconcrete with
plastic-based alternatives. The investigation involves the
development and characterization of plastic-waste-infused
construction materials, evaluating their mechanical
properties, durability, and environmental impact. Pavers and
bricks made from recycled plastic demonstrate comparable
strength and durability to traditional counterparts while
offering a cost-effective and environmentallyfriendlysolution.
Furthermore, the research explores the feasibility of
incorporating plastic waste as a partial replacement for
concrete in construction projects. Thisdual-purposeapproach
not only addresses the environmental challenges posed by
plastic waste but also significantly reduces constructioncosts.
The paper also presents a comprehensive cost analysis,
comparing the expenses associated with traditional
construction materials to those incorporating plastic waste.
The findings indicate substantial cost savings without
compromising structural integrity or construction quality.
Additionally, the environmental benefits, such as reduced
plastic pollution and lower carbon footprint, contributetothe
overall sustainability of construction practices. In conclusion,
this research advocates for the adoption of plastic waste as a
viable and cost-effective construction material, promoting
sustainable building practices that align with contemporary
environmental goals while optimizing construction expenses.
The outcomes of this study offer valuable insights for industry
professionals, policymakers, and researchers seeking
innovative solutions for cost-effective and environmentally
conscious construction practices.
Key Words: Sustainability, Cost-effective.
1.INTRODUCTION
In the face of escalating environmental concerns and the
urgent need for sustainable practices in the construction
industry, the project titled "Cost Optimization of
Construction Using Plastic Waste as a Sustainable
Construction Material" emerges as a beacon of innovation
and responsibility. Thisgroundbreakinginitiativefocuses on
harnessing the untapped potential of plastic waste to create
eco-friendly alternatives for traditional construction
materials, such as pavers, bricks, and concrete. The
construction industry, known for its resource-intensive
nature, is at a pivotal juncture where the adoption of
sustainable practices is not just a choice but a necessity. The
detrimental impact of plastic waste on the environment has
long been a global challenge, prompting the exploration of
inventive solutions. This project sets out to address two
critical issues simultaneously - the environmental hazard
posed by plastic waste and the soaring costs associatedwith
conventional construction materials. The core objective of
this sustainable approach is to optimize construction costs
by reimagining the role of plastic waste in the construction
process. By transforming discarded plastic into durable and
versatile building materials, we aim to create a circular
economy model that mitigates environmental harm while
providing cost-effective alternatives for construction
projects.
The project will delve into the innovative use of plastic
waste in manufacturing pavers, bricks, and exploring ways
to partially replace concrete. This multifacetedapproachnot
only tackles the reduction of plastic waste but also targets
the high costs traditionally associated with construction
materials. The incorporation of plastic waste into
construction materials has the potential to revolutionize the
industry, fostering a paradigm shift towards more
responsible and sustainable practices. As we embark onthis
journey, the project seeks to contribute to a more
sustainable and economically viable future for the
construction sector. Through rigorous research, testing,and
collaboration, we aspire to unveil a blueprint that not only
optimizes construction costs but also sets a precedent for
International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET) e-ISSN: 2395-0056
Volume: 11 Issue: 01 | Jan 2024 www.irjet.net p-ISSN: 2395-0072
© 2024, IRJET | Impact Factor value: 8.226 | ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal | Page 606
environmentally conscious building practices.Thefollowing
chapters will delve into the methodologies, findings, and
implications of this groundbreaking project, aiming to
inspire a wider adoption of sustainable construction
practices across the industry.
1.1 Types of Plastic
1) Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET or PETE)
2) High-Density Polyethylene (HOPE)
3) Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC or Vinyl)
4) Low-Density Polyethylene (LOPE)
5) Polypropylene (PP)
6) Polystyrene (PS or Styrofoam)
7) Other
These types of plastics, can be used in the casting of
construction material.
1.2 ABOUT POLYPROPYLENE (PP)
Ensinger produces standard stock shapes for machining
PPE material, chemically identified as Polyphenylene Ether.
Sheets and rods of PPE are extruded for manufacturing
purposes. The inherent composition of PPE polymer results
in remarkably low moisture absorption, leading to effective
electrical insulation across diverse humidity and
temperature ranges. Moreover, PPE material demonstrates
minimal susceptibility to chemical attack from water,
various salt solutions, acids, and bases.
PPE Plastics offer:
a) Good electrical insulating properties
b) Long-term dimensional stability
c) Superior impact strength
d) Lightweight
e) Thermoformable capability
f) Good hydrolytic stability
2. LITERATURE REVIEW
1) Prof. Siddesh Pail & Sridhar Sawant, Assistant
Professor @ NICMAR Goa, India (et al. 2017) [1].
Studied that, one of the main technical problems is to
master the cracking of green concrete. The cracking is
mainlygenerated byrestrainedshrinkage.Itappearswhen
the tensile stress developed by shrinkage is greater than
the tensile strength of concrete. To reduce the
phenomenon of shrinkage and the induced cracking,
satisfactory results are obtained by adding fibres. The
fibres used in this study are polypropylene
2) Ankur C. Bhogayata (et al. 2017) [2].
Carried out experimental investigation on workability and
toughness properties of concrete, strengthened with plastic
waste resulting by abandoned food bundle articles.
Evaluating slump, compressive and splittingtensilestrength
and flexure strength as sasses the feasibility of metalized
plastic waste fibre's as reinforcing constituent for concrete.
Films of metalized plasticwastewereshreddedintofive mm,
ten mm and twenty mm long fibre's and blended in concrete
from zero percent to two percent by volume of blend.
3) F.S. Khalid (et al. 2018) [3].
Performed a study on the fibre content that increases the
tensile strength of the concrete matrix. A large quantity of
threads results in a significant volume of threads crossing a
fractured section, triggering the mechanisms for failure
resistance. Circular threads, primarily intended to trigger
fibre output instead of threads pullback, are improved than
irregular polyethylene terephthalate and waste wire fibres.
The failure mode of the strengthened concrete beam
specimensprovedthehypothesisthatstrengthenedconcrete
beams should break down due to tensile reinforcement
delivery and not due to a rapid deadly failure of
compression. The experiments showed that the addition of
Recycled Polyethylene Terephthalate -5 or Recycled
Polyethylene Terephthalate -10 fibres to the strengthened
concrete beams did not decrease the deviation of the
strengthened concrete beam control specimens.
4) Alexander Kumi-Larbi Jnr (et al. 2018) [4].
Performed a study on Low-density polyethylene water
bags that were melted and mixed with sand to form LDPE-
bonded sand blocks. Low-density polyethylenebondedsand
is a strong, hard material with compressive strengths of up
to 27 MPa when manufactured under best circumstances.
There was increase in density and compressive strength as
the grain size of the sand decreases. 75 percent by weight of
sand is added to accomplish the best compressive strength.
The compressive strength of optimal low- density
polyethylene bondedsandiscomparabletoconcreteC20/25
and greater than typical Portland cement concrete. It fails in
shear, but sand samples bonded with LDPE retain
minimum30 percent of the load after failure.
5) Asif Abdul Razak Momin (et al. 2022) [5].
Had done experiments with plastic tiles resultsfor50%
of waste plastic by weight of sand is found to have
transverse resistance nearertonormalcementtileandthe
other properties like water absorption, resistance to
impact and abrasion resistance were on higher side.
Hence50% of wasteplasticcontentcanbeconsidered asan
ideal for preparation of floor tile using waste plastic as
binding agent instead of cement. Overall, the results
International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET) e-ISSN: 2395-0056
Volume: 11 Issue: 01 | Jan 2024 www.irjet.net p-ISSN: 2395-0072
© 2024, IRJET | Impact Factor value: 8.226 | ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal | Page 607
obtained for waste plastic have shown better results as
compared to normal cement tile.
3. OBJECTIVES
i. The initiative aims toestablishenvironment-friendly
plastic waste disposal solutions.
ii. To reduce the cost of construction.
iii. It mitigates the negative impact of construction
industry on environment.
iv. To achieve the sustainability in construction
4. METHODOLOGY
1) Collection, Segregation and shredding of Plastic
waste. After collection of plastic waste from Waste
collection management, non-biodegradable part is
removed, segregated andshreddedintosmall pieces.
2) Air drying the segregated plastic waste by spreading
over open area.
3) The proposed work is to Cast blocks using two types
of materials.
 Concrete block by using Granular/
Shredded plastic as admixture.
 Block of different types of plastic waste.
4.1 Concrete block by using granular/ shredded
plastic as admixture.
1. The Standard size of concrete blocks are 150 mm in
length, 150 mm in width and 150 mm in depth.
2. The moulds is coated with oil for easy demoulding,
before placing the mixture. The mould is casted by using MS
sheet, base plate with nut and bolt connections for easy
demoulding.
3. The air-dried plastic waste is shredded into small
pieces and then it will be powdered or crushed into small
granular material.
4. This granular plastic material is added into the
concrete of M20 grade.
5. The granular plastic material isaddedinproportion
to 1%, 3%, 5%, 6.11%, and 7% of total volume of block.
6. Once the homogeneous mixture of waste
plastic with concrete is formed then it is fed into the mould.
Then moulds are placed on vibrating machine for
compaction and voids are removed.
7. The mould is then allowed for its setting time of
concrete, then demoulding is done.
8. After demoulding that block is kept in water for 28
days, for gaining its strength.
9. The Concrete block are casted by using granular
plastic as admixture.
4.2 Block of different types of plastic waste.
1. The methodology adopted for producing plastic
blocks using waste plastic material.
2. The selected wasteplasticfromdifferentelementsis
weighed, crushed to smaller pieces and then melted in a
container at its melting point (150- l 70°C) by arrangement
for melting the waste plastic using Furnace.
3. The waste plastic is melted in the container. During
heating the mixture is stirred continuously, so that
homogeneous mix is obtained.
4. Care shall be taken so that the mixturedoesn'tcatch
fire.
10. Once the homogeneous mixture of waste plastic in
melted form obtained, then mixture is fed into a mould of
size 150 mm in length, 150 mm in width and 75 mm in
depth.
5. The moulds was coated with oil for easy
demoulding, before placing the mixture. The moulds are
prepared by MS base plate with nut and bolt connectionsfor
easy demoulding.
6. The Placing of mixture in moulds will be done with
care.
7. Once themouldcompletelyprepared,themouldwill
be cooled either by air cooling or by placing it in water. After
the mould cooled, the block is removed from the mould.
5. PROPOSED WORK
5.1 PRIMARY WORK -
Standard Concrete Block of M20 grade Casted -
 M20 - 1 : 1.5 : 3
 1 part of Cement
 1.5 part of Fine Aggregate
 3 part of Coarse Aggregate
 Water cement ratio is 0.45
Standard Block:
M20 = 1: 1.5: 3
= 1+ 1.5 + 3 = 5.5
Material required for 1 block of standard size = 11000gm
Approx.
1. Cement = 2000gm
2. Fine aggregate = 2 x 1.5 = 3000gm
3. Coarse aggregate= 2 x 3 = 6000gm
2000gm Cement+ 3000gm Fine Aggregate+ 6000gm Coarse
Aggregate = ll000gm
 After final setting the Concrete block is kept in water
for 28 days for curing and achieving its strength.
International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET) e-ISSN: 2395-0056
Volume: 11 Issue: 01 | Jan 2024 www.irjet.net p-ISSN: 2395-0072
© 2024, IRJET | Impact Factor value: 8.226 | ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal | Page 608
5.2 SECONDARY WORK -
Casting of concrete block by using Shredded or Granular
plastic as Admixture.
 The plastic is shredded in small size and weighted.
D After shredding the plastic waste is passed from 16mm,
12.5mm, 8mm IS sieve respectively.
D The appropriate size plastic waste is takenformixingwith
concrete.
5.2.1 BLOCK 1 - Replacing 1% of concrete with
plastic waste.
The 1% of total volume of Concrete block is Replaced by the
shredded plastic, while casting the standard size concrete
block.
1. Cement = 2000gm
2. Fine Aggregate = 2970gm
3. Coarse Aggregate= 5940gm
TOTAL = 2000gm + 2970gm + 5940gm = 109 lOgm
1 l000gm- 10910gm = 90gm
So, 90gm concrete is replaced by 90gm plastic.
4. 0gm cement replaced by plastic
5. 30gm F.A is replaced by plastic
6. 60gm C.A is replaced by plastic
7. Water cement ratio= 0.45 or 0.5
8. So, the mix plastic proportion is -
Cement : Fine aggregate : Coarse aggregate : Plastic waste
1 1.485 2.97 0.045
5.2.1 BLOCK 2 - Replacing 3% of concrete with
plastic waste.
The 3% of total volume of Concrete block is Replaced by the
shredded plastic, while casting the standard size concrete
block.
1. Cement = 2000gm
2. Fine Aggregate = 2910gm
3. Coarse Aggregate= 5820gm
TOTAL= 2000gm + 2910gm + 5820gm = 10730gm
l lO00gm - 10730gm = 270gm
So, 270gm concrete is replaced by 270gm plastic.
4. 0gm cement replaced by plastic
5. 90gm F.A is replaced by plastic
6. 180gm C.A is replaced by plastic
7. Water cement ratio = 0.45 or 0.5
8. So, the mix plastic proportion is -
Cement : Fine aggregate : Coarse aggregate : Plastic waste
1 1.455 2.91 0.135
5.2.1 BLOCK 3 - Replacing 5% of concrete
with plastic waste.
The 5% of total volume of Concrete block is Replaced by the
shredded plastic, while casting the standard size concrete
block.
1. Cement = 2000gm
2. Fine Aggregate = 2850gm
3. Coarse Aggregate= 5700gm
TOTAL = 2000gm + 2850gm + 5700gm = 10550gm
l lO00gm - 10550gm = 450gm
So, 450gm concrete is replaced by 450gm plastic.
4. 0gm cement replaced by plastic
5. 150gm F.A is replaced by plastic
6. 300gm C.A is replaced by plastic
7. Water cement ratio= 0.45 or 0.5
8. So, the mix plastic proportion is -
Cement : Fine aggregate : Coarse aggregate : Plastic waste
1 1.425 2.85 0.225
5.2.1 BLOCK 4 - Replacing 6.11% of concrete
with plastic waste.
The 6.11% of total volume of Concrete block is Replaced by
the shredded plastic, while casting the standard size
concrete block.
1. Cement = 1900gm
2. Fine Aggregate = 2850gm
3. Coarse Aggregate= 5700gm
TOTAL = 1900gm + 2850gm + 5700gm = 10450gm
l lO00gm - 10450gm = 550gm
So, 550gm concrete is replaced by 550gm plastic.
4. 100gm cement replaced by plastic
5. 150gm F.A is replaced by plastic
6. 300gm C.A is replaced by plastic
7. Water cement ratio= 0.45 or 0.5
8. So, the mix plastic proportion is -
Cement : Fine aggregate : Coarse aggregate : Plastic waste
1 1.5 3 0.289
5.2.1 BLOCK 5 - Replacing 7% of concrete with
plastic waste.
The 7% of total volume of Concrete block is Replaced by the
shredded plastic, while casting the standard size concrete
block.
1. Cement = 2000gm
2. Fine Aggregate = 2790gm
3. Coarse Aggregate= 5580gm
TOTAL = 2000gm + 2790gm + 5580gm = 10370gm
l lO00gm - 10370gm = 630gm
So, 630gm concrete is replaced by 630gm plastic.
4. 0gm cement replaced by plastic
5. 210gm F.A is replaced by plastic
International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET) e-ISSN: 2395-0056
Volume: 11 Issue: 01 | Jan 2024 www.irjet.net p-ISSN: 2395-0072
© 2024, IRJET | Impact Factor value: 8.226 | ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal | Page 609
6. 420gm C.A is replaced by plastic
7. Water cement ratio= 0.45 or 0.5
8. So, the mix plastic proportion is -
Cement : Fine aggregate : Coarse aggregate : Plastic waste
1 1.395 2.79 0.315
Table No. 1: Mix Plastic Proportion
Fig. 1 - Casted concrete blocks
Fig. 2 - Curing of casted blocks in water tank
6. COST ANALYSIS
 PAVING BLOCK:
6.1 POLYPROPYLENE PAVING BLOCK
Material for manufacturing polypropylene block -
Raw material (Polypropylene) - 12 Rs. /Kg
Lums producing cost - 6 Rs. /Kg
For manufacturing 1 block, we require ½ kg material Cost
of½ kg - 6 Rs.
Lums producing cost for half kg - 3 Rs.
Therefore, Total Cost of 1 PolypropylenePaving block – 9Rs.
(NOTE: This cost will reduced, when mass production of
blocks is carried out)
6.2 CONCRETE PAVING BLOCK
Concrete paving block rate - 4000 Rs/brass
There are different shapes of concrete paving blocks, so
approximately 160 pieces in 1 brass.
The cost of 1 concrete paving block - 25 Rs.
So, As compared to Concert Paving block the Polypropylene
Paving block has the less cost and hence the Construction
cost can be optimized by using this pavers
 CONCRETE:
Depending upon the replacement of Plastic waste
the cost of concrete may varies but it can definitely
conclude that due to partially replacement of
concrete with plastic one can save the cost just by
using the plastic in concrete which will definitely
optimize the construction cost.
7. RESULTS
Table No. 2: Compresive strengths of each concrete blocks
& quantity of plastic used in each block
International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET) e-ISSN: 2395-0056
Volume: 11 Issue: 01 | Jan 2024 www.irjet.net p-ISSN: 2395-0072
© 2024, IRJET | Impact Factor value: 8.226 | ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal | Page 610
Fig. 3 - Polypropylene Paving Blocks
8. CONCLUSION
 The compressive strength of standard concrete
block is 36.61 N/mm2 and the block with 5% of
plastic waste is 34.87 N/mm2 that is nearly equal.
So, there is no harm to use that much amount of
plastic waste in concrete.
 Total Cost of 1 Polypropylene Paving block – 9 Rs,
So The polypropylene paving blocks are more cost
effective than normal concrete paving blocks.
 Using Plastic Waste for manufacturing of
construction materials, helps to minimise the
quantity of plastic from the environment
REFERENCES
[1] “The study of plastic waste” Prof. Siddesh Pail & Sridhar
Sawant, Assistant Professor @ NICMAR Goa, India (etal.
2017).
[2] “Exprimential Investigation on plastic blocks”Ankur C.
Bhogayata (et al. 2017).
[3] “A study on Fiber concrete by using plastic waste” F.S.
Khalid (et al. 2018).
[4] “A study on Low-density polyethylene waterbags waste
blocks” Alexander Kumi-Larbi Jnr (et al. 2018).
[5] “Experiments with plastic tiles” Asif Abdul Razak
Momin (et al. 2022)
BIOGRAPHIES
Mr. Nihalahmad Riyaj Faras.
Undergraduate student,
Department of Civil Engineering,
Padmabhooshan Vasantraodada
Patil Institute of Technology
Budhgaon, Sangli, Maharashtra,
India.
Mr. Ranjeet S. Patil. Undergraduate
student, Department of Civil
Engineering, Rajarambapu
Institute of Technology, Sangli,
Maharashtra, India.
Mr. Yash A. Pawar. Undergraduate
student, Department of Civil
Engineering, Rajarambapu
Institute of Technology, Sangli,
Maharashtra, India.
Mr. A S. Ingale is Associate
Professor at Department of Civil
Engineering, Padmabhooshan
Vasantraodada Patil Institute of
Technology Budhgaon, Sangli,
Maharashtra, India. He had
completed his M.E in Construction
Management.

More Related Content

Similar to Cost Optimization of Construction Using Plastic Waste as a Sustainable Construction Material

IRJET- Effect of Partial Replacement of Fine Aggregate by Waste Glass Powder ...
IRJET- Effect of Partial Replacement of Fine Aggregate by Waste Glass Powder ...IRJET- Effect of Partial Replacement of Fine Aggregate by Waste Glass Powder ...
IRJET- Effect of Partial Replacement of Fine Aggregate by Waste Glass Powder ...IRJET Journal
 
CASTING AND EVALUATING THE INTERLOCKING BRICKS USING ORGANIC WASTE MATERIAL.
CASTING AND EVALUATING THE INTERLOCKING BRICKS USING ORGANIC WASTE MATERIAL.CASTING AND EVALUATING THE INTERLOCKING BRICKS USING ORGANIC WASTE MATERIAL.
CASTING AND EVALUATING THE INTERLOCKING BRICKS USING ORGANIC WASTE MATERIAL.IRJET Journal
 
UTILIZATION OF EGG SHELL POWDER AND PLASTIC WASTES IN THE PRODUCTION OF CONCR...
UTILIZATION OF EGG SHELL POWDER AND PLASTIC WASTES IN THE PRODUCTION OF CONCR...UTILIZATION OF EGG SHELL POWDER AND PLASTIC WASTES IN THE PRODUCTION OF CONCR...
UTILIZATION OF EGG SHELL POWDER AND PLASTIC WASTES IN THE PRODUCTION OF CONCR...IRJET Journal
 
IRJET- Recycling Plastic Bottle Structure
IRJET-  	  Recycling Plastic Bottle StructureIRJET-  	  Recycling Plastic Bottle Structure
IRJET- Recycling Plastic Bottle StructureIRJET Journal
 
IRJET- Manufacturing of Pavement Block by using Waste Plastic and Sea Sand
IRJET- Manufacturing of Pavement Block by using Waste Plastic and Sea SandIRJET- Manufacturing of Pavement Block by using Waste Plastic and Sea Sand
IRJET- Manufacturing of Pavement Block by using Waste Plastic and Sea SandIRJET Journal
 
IRJET - Utilisation of Waste Plastic in Concrete Paver Block as a Partial Rep...
IRJET - Utilisation of Waste Plastic in Concrete Paver Block as a Partial Rep...IRJET - Utilisation of Waste Plastic in Concrete Paver Block as a Partial Rep...
IRJET - Utilisation of Waste Plastic in Concrete Paver Block as a Partial Rep...IRJET Journal
 
Study of concrete by total replacement of coarse aggregate with recycled plas...
Study of concrete by total replacement of coarse aggregate with recycled plas...Study of concrete by total replacement of coarse aggregate with recycled plas...
Study of concrete by total replacement of coarse aggregate with recycled plas...IRJET Journal
 
Enrichment of the Strength Characteristics of Fibre Reinforced Concrete by us...
Enrichment of the Strength Characteristics of Fibre Reinforced Concrete by us...Enrichment of the Strength Characteristics of Fibre Reinforced Concrete by us...
Enrichment of the Strength Characteristics of Fibre Reinforced Concrete by us...IRJET Journal
 
Experimental Investigation on Utilization of E-Waste in Concrete- Taguchi’s A...
Experimental Investigation on Utilization of E-Waste in Concrete- Taguchi’s A...Experimental Investigation on Utilization of E-Waste in Concrete- Taguchi’s A...
Experimental Investigation on Utilization of E-Waste in Concrete- Taguchi’s A...IRJET Journal
 
An Trial Investigation on Fibre Reinforced Concrete Using Throw Away Polymer ...
An Trial Investigation on Fibre Reinforced Concrete Using Throw Away Polymer ...An Trial Investigation on Fibre Reinforced Concrete Using Throw Away Polymer ...
An Trial Investigation on Fibre Reinforced Concrete Using Throw Away Polymer ...ijtsrd
 
Experimental Study on Fiber Reinforced Concrete with Recycled Aggregate Repla...
Experimental Study on Fiber Reinforced Concrete with Recycled Aggregate Repla...Experimental Study on Fiber Reinforced Concrete with Recycled Aggregate Repla...
Experimental Study on Fiber Reinforced Concrete with Recycled Aggregate Repla...IRJET Journal
 
IRJET - A Review on Green Blocks and Strips using Plastic Mud
IRJET -  	  A Review on Green Blocks and Strips using Plastic MudIRJET -  	  A Review on Green Blocks and Strips using Plastic Mud
IRJET - A Review on Green Blocks and Strips using Plastic MudIRJET Journal
 
Design and Development of Paver Block making Machine
Design and Development of Paver Block making MachineDesign and Development of Paver Block making Machine
Design and Development of Paver Block making MachineIRJET Journal
 
COMPARATIVE STUDY OF SUSTAINABLE MATERIALS FOR REPLACEMENT OF STEEL REINFORCE...
COMPARATIVE STUDY OF SUSTAINABLE MATERIALS FOR REPLACEMENT OF STEEL REINFORCE...COMPARATIVE STUDY OF SUSTAINABLE MATERIALS FOR REPLACEMENT OF STEEL REINFORCE...
COMPARATIVE STUDY OF SUSTAINABLE MATERIALS FOR REPLACEMENT OF STEEL REINFORCE...IRJET Journal
 
IRJET- Study of E-Waste Concrete
IRJET-  	  Study of E-Waste ConcreteIRJET-  	  Study of E-Waste Concrete
IRJET- Study of E-Waste ConcreteIRJET Journal
 
IRJET- Experimental Study on the Behaviour of Flexible Pavement with Poly...
IRJET-  	  Experimental Study on the Behaviour of Flexible Pavement with Poly...IRJET-  	  Experimental Study on the Behaviour of Flexible Pavement with Poly...
IRJET- Experimental Study on the Behaviour of Flexible Pavement with Poly...IRJET Journal
 
IRJET- A Review Paper on Stabilization of Soil using Plastic Waste as an ...
IRJET-  	  A Review Paper on Stabilization of Soil using Plastic Waste as an ...IRJET-  	  A Review Paper on Stabilization of Soil using Plastic Waste as an ...
IRJET- A Review Paper on Stabilization of Soil using Plastic Waste as an ...IRJET Journal
 
Analysis of Plastic Brick Wall as Load Bearing Construction and Framed Struct...
Analysis of Plastic Brick Wall as Load Bearing Construction and Framed Struct...Analysis of Plastic Brick Wall as Load Bearing Construction and Framed Struct...
Analysis of Plastic Brick Wall as Load Bearing Construction and Framed Struct...IRJET Journal
 
A Trial Investigation on Reinforced Concrete using Waste Fibre
A Trial Investigation on Reinforced Concrete using Waste FibreA Trial Investigation on Reinforced Concrete using Waste Fibre
A Trial Investigation on Reinforced Concrete using Waste Fibreijtsrd
 
IRJET- A Review on Paper Crete: A Sustainable Building Material
IRJET- A Review on Paper Crete: A Sustainable Building MaterialIRJET- A Review on Paper Crete: A Sustainable Building Material
IRJET- A Review on Paper Crete: A Sustainable Building MaterialIRJET Journal
 

Similar to Cost Optimization of Construction Using Plastic Waste as a Sustainable Construction Material (20)

IRJET- Effect of Partial Replacement of Fine Aggregate by Waste Glass Powder ...
IRJET- Effect of Partial Replacement of Fine Aggregate by Waste Glass Powder ...IRJET- Effect of Partial Replacement of Fine Aggregate by Waste Glass Powder ...
IRJET- Effect of Partial Replacement of Fine Aggregate by Waste Glass Powder ...
 
CASTING AND EVALUATING THE INTERLOCKING BRICKS USING ORGANIC WASTE MATERIAL.
CASTING AND EVALUATING THE INTERLOCKING BRICKS USING ORGANIC WASTE MATERIAL.CASTING AND EVALUATING THE INTERLOCKING BRICKS USING ORGANIC WASTE MATERIAL.
CASTING AND EVALUATING THE INTERLOCKING BRICKS USING ORGANIC WASTE MATERIAL.
 
UTILIZATION OF EGG SHELL POWDER AND PLASTIC WASTES IN THE PRODUCTION OF CONCR...
UTILIZATION OF EGG SHELL POWDER AND PLASTIC WASTES IN THE PRODUCTION OF CONCR...UTILIZATION OF EGG SHELL POWDER AND PLASTIC WASTES IN THE PRODUCTION OF CONCR...
UTILIZATION OF EGG SHELL POWDER AND PLASTIC WASTES IN THE PRODUCTION OF CONCR...
 
IRJET- Recycling Plastic Bottle Structure
IRJET-  	  Recycling Plastic Bottle StructureIRJET-  	  Recycling Plastic Bottle Structure
IRJET- Recycling Plastic Bottle Structure
 
IRJET- Manufacturing of Pavement Block by using Waste Plastic and Sea Sand
IRJET- Manufacturing of Pavement Block by using Waste Plastic and Sea SandIRJET- Manufacturing of Pavement Block by using Waste Plastic and Sea Sand
IRJET- Manufacturing of Pavement Block by using Waste Plastic and Sea Sand
 
IRJET - Utilisation of Waste Plastic in Concrete Paver Block as a Partial Rep...
IRJET - Utilisation of Waste Plastic in Concrete Paver Block as a Partial Rep...IRJET - Utilisation of Waste Plastic in Concrete Paver Block as a Partial Rep...
IRJET - Utilisation of Waste Plastic in Concrete Paver Block as a Partial Rep...
 
Study of concrete by total replacement of coarse aggregate with recycled plas...
Study of concrete by total replacement of coarse aggregate with recycled plas...Study of concrete by total replacement of coarse aggregate with recycled plas...
Study of concrete by total replacement of coarse aggregate with recycled plas...
 
Enrichment of the Strength Characteristics of Fibre Reinforced Concrete by us...
Enrichment of the Strength Characteristics of Fibre Reinforced Concrete by us...Enrichment of the Strength Characteristics of Fibre Reinforced Concrete by us...
Enrichment of the Strength Characteristics of Fibre Reinforced Concrete by us...
 
Experimental Investigation on Utilization of E-Waste in Concrete- Taguchi’s A...
Experimental Investigation on Utilization of E-Waste in Concrete- Taguchi’s A...Experimental Investigation on Utilization of E-Waste in Concrete- Taguchi’s A...
Experimental Investigation on Utilization of E-Waste in Concrete- Taguchi’s A...
 
An Trial Investigation on Fibre Reinforced Concrete Using Throw Away Polymer ...
An Trial Investigation on Fibre Reinforced Concrete Using Throw Away Polymer ...An Trial Investigation on Fibre Reinforced Concrete Using Throw Away Polymer ...
An Trial Investigation on Fibre Reinforced Concrete Using Throw Away Polymer ...
 
Experimental Study on Fiber Reinforced Concrete with Recycled Aggregate Repla...
Experimental Study on Fiber Reinforced Concrete with Recycled Aggregate Repla...Experimental Study on Fiber Reinforced Concrete with Recycled Aggregate Repla...
Experimental Study on Fiber Reinforced Concrete with Recycled Aggregate Repla...
 
IRJET - A Review on Green Blocks and Strips using Plastic Mud
IRJET -  	  A Review on Green Blocks and Strips using Plastic MudIRJET -  	  A Review on Green Blocks and Strips using Plastic Mud
IRJET - A Review on Green Blocks and Strips using Plastic Mud
 
Design and Development of Paver Block making Machine
Design and Development of Paver Block making MachineDesign and Development of Paver Block making Machine
Design and Development of Paver Block making Machine
 
COMPARATIVE STUDY OF SUSTAINABLE MATERIALS FOR REPLACEMENT OF STEEL REINFORCE...
COMPARATIVE STUDY OF SUSTAINABLE MATERIALS FOR REPLACEMENT OF STEEL REINFORCE...COMPARATIVE STUDY OF SUSTAINABLE MATERIALS FOR REPLACEMENT OF STEEL REINFORCE...
COMPARATIVE STUDY OF SUSTAINABLE MATERIALS FOR REPLACEMENT OF STEEL REINFORCE...
 
IRJET- Study of E-Waste Concrete
IRJET-  	  Study of E-Waste ConcreteIRJET-  	  Study of E-Waste Concrete
IRJET- Study of E-Waste Concrete
 
IRJET- Experimental Study on the Behaviour of Flexible Pavement with Poly...
IRJET-  	  Experimental Study on the Behaviour of Flexible Pavement with Poly...IRJET-  	  Experimental Study on the Behaviour of Flexible Pavement with Poly...
IRJET- Experimental Study on the Behaviour of Flexible Pavement with Poly...
 
IRJET- A Review Paper on Stabilization of Soil using Plastic Waste as an ...
IRJET-  	  A Review Paper on Stabilization of Soil using Plastic Waste as an ...IRJET-  	  A Review Paper on Stabilization of Soil using Plastic Waste as an ...
IRJET- A Review Paper on Stabilization of Soil using Plastic Waste as an ...
 
Analysis of Plastic Brick Wall as Load Bearing Construction and Framed Struct...
Analysis of Plastic Brick Wall as Load Bearing Construction and Framed Struct...Analysis of Plastic Brick Wall as Load Bearing Construction and Framed Struct...
Analysis of Plastic Brick Wall as Load Bearing Construction and Framed Struct...
 
A Trial Investigation on Reinforced Concrete using Waste Fibre
A Trial Investigation on Reinforced Concrete using Waste FibreA Trial Investigation on Reinforced Concrete using Waste Fibre
A Trial Investigation on Reinforced Concrete using Waste Fibre
 
IRJET- A Review on Paper Crete: A Sustainable Building Material
IRJET- A Review on Paper Crete: A Sustainable Building MaterialIRJET- A Review on Paper Crete: A Sustainable Building Material
IRJET- A Review on Paper Crete: A Sustainable Building Material
 

More from IRJET Journal

TUNNELING IN HIMALAYAS WITH NATM METHOD: A SPECIAL REFERENCES TO SUNGAL TUNNE...
TUNNELING IN HIMALAYAS WITH NATM METHOD: A SPECIAL REFERENCES TO SUNGAL TUNNE...TUNNELING IN HIMALAYAS WITH NATM METHOD: A SPECIAL REFERENCES TO SUNGAL TUNNE...
TUNNELING IN HIMALAYAS WITH NATM METHOD: A SPECIAL REFERENCES TO SUNGAL TUNNE...IRJET Journal
 
STUDY THE EFFECT OF RESPONSE REDUCTION FACTOR ON RC FRAMED STRUCTURE
STUDY THE EFFECT OF RESPONSE REDUCTION FACTOR ON RC FRAMED STRUCTURESTUDY THE EFFECT OF RESPONSE REDUCTION FACTOR ON RC FRAMED STRUCTURE
STUDY THE EFFECT OF RESPONSE REDUCTION FACTOR ON RC FRAMED STRUCTUREIRJET Journal
 
A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF RCC ELEMENT OF SLAB WITH STARK STEEL (HYSD STEEL) A...
A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF RCC ELEMENT OF SLAB WITH STARK STEEL (HYSD STEEL) A...A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF RCC ELEMENT OF SLAB WITH STARK STEEL (HYSD STEEL) A...
A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF RCC ELEMENT OF SLAB WITH STARK STEEL (HYSD STEEL) A...IRJET Journal
 
Effect of Camber and Angles of Attack on Airfoil Characteristics
Effect of Camber and Angles of Attack on Airfoil CharacteristicsEffect of Camber and Angles of Attack on Airfoil Characteristics
Effect of Camber and Angles of Attack on Airfoil CharacteristicsIRJET Journal
 
A Review on the Progress and Challenges of Aluminum-Based Metal Matrix Compos...
A Review on the Progress and Challenges of Aluminum-Based Metal Matrix Compos...A Review on the Progress and Challenges of Aluminum-Based Metal Matrix Compos...
A Review on the Progress and Challenges of Aluminum-Based Metal Matrix Compos...IRJET Journal
 
Dynamic Urban Transit Optimization: A Graph Neural Network Approach for Real-...
Dynamic Urban Transit Optimization: A Graph Neural Network Approach for Real-...Dynamic Urban Transit Optimization: A Graph Neural Network Approach for Real-...
Dynamic Urban Transit Optimization: A Graph Neural Network Approach for Real-...IRJET Journal
 
Structural Analysis and Design of Multi-Storey Symmetric and Asymmetric Shape...
Structural Analysis and Design of Multi-Storey Symmetric and Asymmetric Shape...Structural Analysis and Design of Multi-Storey Symmetric and Asymmetric Shape...
Structural Analysis and Design of Multi-Storey Symmetric and Asymmetric Shape...IRJET Journal
 
A Review of “Seismic Response of RC Structures Having Plan and Vertical Irreg...
A Review of “Seismic Response of RC Structures Having Plan and Vertical Irreg...A Review of “Seismic Response of RC Structures Having Plan and Vertical Irreg...
A Review of “Seismic Response of RC Structures Having Plan and Vertical Irreg...IRJET Journal
 
A REVIEW ON MACHINE LEARNING IN ADAS
A REVIEW ON MACHINE LEARNING IN ADASA REVIEW ON MACHINE LEARNING IN ADAS
A REVIEW ON MACHINE LEARNING IN ADASIRJET Journal
 
Long Term Trend Analysis of Precipitation and Temperature for Asosa district,...
Long Term Trend Analysis of Precipitation and Temperature for Asosa district,...Long Term Trend Analysis of Precipitation and Temperature for Asosa district,...
Long Term Trend Analysis of Precipitation and Temperature for Asosa district,...IRJET Journal
 
P.E.B. Framed Structure Design and Analysis Using STAAD Pro
P.E.B. Framed Structure Design and Analysis Using STAAD ProP.E.B. Framed Structure Design and Analysis Using STAAD Pro
P.E.B. Framed Structure Design and Analysis Using STAAD ProIRJET Journal
 
A Review on Innovative Fiber Integration for Enhanced Reinforcement of Concre...
A Review on Innovative Fiber Integration for Enhanced Reinforcement of Concre...A Review on Innovative Fiber Integration for Enhanced Reinforcement of Concre...
A Review on Innovative Fiber Integration for Enhanced Reinforcement of Concre...IRJET Journal
 
Survey Paper on Cloud-Based Secured Healthcare System
Survey Paper on Cloud-Based Secured Healthcare SystemSurvey Paper on Cloud-Based Secured Healthcare System
Survey Paper on Cloud-Based Secured Healthcare SystemIRJET Journal
 
Review on studies and research on widening of existing concrete bridges
Review on studies and research on widening of existing concrete bridgesReview on studies and research on widening of existing concrete bridges
Review on studies and research on widening of existing concrete bridgesIRJET Journal
 
React based fullstack edtech web application
React based fullstack edtech web applicationReact based fullstack edtech web application
React based fullstack edtech web applicationIRJET Journal
 
A Comprehensive Review of Integrating IoT and Blockchain Technologies in the ...
A Comprehensive Review of Integrating IoT and Blockchain Technologies in the ...A Comprehensive Review of Integrating IoT and Blockchain Technologies in the ...
A Comprehensive Review of Integrating IoT and Blockchain Technologies in the ...IRJET Journal
 
A REVIEW ON THE PERFORMANCE OF COCONUT FIBRE REINFORCED CONCRETE.
A REVIEW ON THE PERFORMANCE OF COCONUT FIBRE REINFORCED CONCRETE.A REVIEW ON THE PERFORMANCE OF COCONUT FIBRE REINFORCED CONCRETE.
A REVIEW ON THE PERFORMANCE OF COCONUT FIBRE REINFORCED CONCRETE.IRJET Journal
 
Optimizing Business Management Process Workflows: The Dynamic Influence of Mi...
Optimizing Business Management Process Workflows: The Dynamic Influence of Mi...Optimizing Business Management Process Workflows: The Dynamic Influence of Mi...
Optimizing Business Management Process Workflows: The Dynamic Influence of Mi...IRJET Journal
 
Multistoried and Multi Bay Steel Building Frame by using Seismic Design
Multistoried and Multi Bay Steel Building Frame by using Seismic DesignMultistoried and Multi Bay Steel Building Frame by using Seismic Design
Multistoried and Multi Bay Steel Building Frame by using Seismic DesignIRJET Journal
 
Solving Linear Differential Equations with Constant Coefficients
Solving Linear Differential Equations with Constant CoefficientsSolving Linear Differential Equations with Constant Coefficients
Solving Linear Differential Equations with Constant CoefficientsIRJET Journal
 

More from IRJET Journal (20)

TUNNELING IN HIMALAYAS WITH NATM METHOD: A SPECIAL REFERENCES TO SUNGAL TUNNE...
TUNNELING IN HIMALAYAS WITH NATM METHOD: A SPECIAL REFERENCES TO SUNGAL TUNNE...TUNNELING IN HIMALAYAS WITH NATM METHOD: A SPECIAL REFERENCES TO SUNGAL TUNNE...
TUNNELING IN HIMALAYAS WITH NATM METHOD: A SPECIAL REFERENCES TO SUNGAL TUNNE...
 
STUDY THE EFFECT OF RESPONSE REDUCTION FACTOR ON RC FRAMED STRUCTURE
STUDY THE EFFECT OF RESPONSE REDUCTION FACTOR ON RC FRAMED STRUCTURESTUDY THE EFFECT OF RESPONSE REDUCTION FACTOR ON RC FRAMED STRUCTURE
STUDY THE EFFECT OF RESPONSE REDUCTION FACTOR ON RC FRAMED STRUCTURE
 
A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF RCC ELEMENT OF SLAB WITH STARK STEEL (HYSD STEEL) A...
A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF RCC ELEMENT OF SLAB WITH STARK STEEL (HYSD STEEL) A...A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF RCC ELEMENT OF SLAB WITH STARK STEEL (HYSD STEEL) A...
A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF RCC ELEMENT OF SLAB WITH STARK STEEL (HYSD STEEL) A...
 
Effect of Camber and Angles of Attack on Airfoil Characteristics
Effect of Camber and Angles of Attack on Airfoil CharacteristicsEffect of Camber and Angles of Attack on Airfoil Characteristics
Effect of Camber and Angles of Attack on Airfoil Characteristics
 
A Review on the Progress and Challenges of Aluminum-Based Metal Matrix Compos...
A Review on the Progress and Challenges of Aluminum-Based Metal Matrix Compos...A Review on the Progress and Challenges of Aluminum-Based Metal Matrix Compos...
A Review on the Progress and Challenges of Aluminum-Based Metal Matrix Compos...
 
Dynamic Urban Transit Optimization: A Graph Neural Network Approach for Real-...
Dynamic Urban Transit Optimization: A Graph Neural Network Approach for Real-...Dynamic Urban Transit Optimization: A Graph Neural Network Approach for Real-...
Dynamic Urban Transit Optimization: A Graph Neural Network Approach for Real-...
 
Structural Analysis and Design of Multi-Storey Symmetric and Asymmetric Shape...
Structural Analysis and Design of Multi-Storey Symmetric and Asymmetric Shape...Structural Analysis and Design of Multi-Storey Symmetric and Asymmetric Shape...
Structural Analysis and Design of Multi-Storey Symmetric and Asymmetric Shape...
 
A Review of “Seismic Response of RC Structures Having Plan and Vertical Irreg...
A Review of “Seismic Response of RC Structures Having Plan and Vertical Irreg...A Review of “Seismic Response of RC Structures Having Plan and Vertical Irreg...
A Review of “Seismic Response of RC Structures Having Plan and Vertical Irreg...
 
A REVIEW ON MACHINE LEARNING IN ADAS
A REVIEW ON MACHINE LEARNING IN ADASA REVIEW ON MACHINE LEARNING IN ADAS
A REVIEW ON MACHINE LEARNING IN ADAS
 
Long Term Trend Analysis of Precipitation and Temperature for Asosa district,...
Long Term Trend Analysis of Precipitation and Temperature for Asosa district,...Long Term Trend Analysis of Precipitation and Temperature for Asosa district,...
Long Term Trend Analysis of Precipitation and Temperature for Asosa district,...
 
P.E.B. Framed Structure Design and Analysis Using STAAD Pro
P.E.B. Framed Structure Design and Analysis Using STAAD ProP.E.B. Framed Structure Design and Analysis Using STAAD Pro
P.E.B. Framed Structure Design and Analysis Using STAAD Pro
 
A Review on Innovative Fiber Integration for Enhanced Reinforcement of Concre...
A Review on Innovative Fiber Integration for Enhanced Reinforcement of Concre...A Review on Innovative Fiber Integration for Enhanced Reinforcement of Concre...
A Review on Innovative Fiber Integration for Enhanced Reinforcement of Concre...
 
Survey Paper on Cloud-Based Secured Healthcare System
Survey Paper on Cloud-Based Secured Healthcare SystemSurvey Paper on Cloud-Based Secured Healthcare System
Survey Paper on Cloud-Based Secured Healthcare System
 
Review on studies and research on widening of existing concrete bridges
Review on studies and research on widening of existing concrete bridgesReview on studies and research on widening of existing concrete bridges
Review on studies and research on widening of existing concrete bridges
 
React based fullstack edtech web application
React based fullstack edtech web applicationReact based fullstack edtech web application
React based fullstack edtech web application
 
A Comprehensive Review of Integrating IoT and Blockchain Technologies in the ...
A Comprehensive Review of Integrating IoT and Blockchain Technologies in the ...A Comprehensive Review of Integrating IoT and Blockchain Technologies in the ...
A Comprehensive Review of Integrating IoT and Blockchain Technologies in the ...
 
A REVIEW ON THE PERFORMANCE OF COCONUT FIBRE REINFORCED CONCRETE.
A REVIEW ON THE PERFORMANCE OF COCONUT FIBRE REINFORCED CONCRETE.A REVIEW ON THE PERFORMANCE OF COCONUT FIBRE REINFORCED CONCRETE.
A REVIEW ON THE PERFORMANCE OF COCONUT FIBRE REINFORCED CONCRETE.
 
Optimizing Business Management Process Workflows: The Dynamic Influence of Mi...
Optimizing Business Management Process Workflows: The Dynamic Influence of Mi...Optimizing Business Management Process Workflows: The Dynamic Influence of Mi...
Optimizing Business Management Process Workflows: The Dynamic Influence of Mi...
 
Multistoried and Multi Bay Steel Building Frame by using Seismic Design
Multistoried and Multi Bay Steel Building Frame by using Seismic DesignMultistoried and Multi Bay Steel Building Frame by using Seismic Design
Multistoried and Multi Bay Steel Building Frame by using Seismic Design
 
Solving Linear Differential Equations with Constant Coefficients
Solving Linear Differential Equations with Constant CoefficientsSolving Linear Differential Equations with Constant Coefficients
Solving Linear Differential Equations with Constant Coefficients
 

Recently uploaded

Katarzyna Lipka-Sidor - BIM School Course
Katarzyna Lipka-Sidor - BIM School CourseKatarzyna Lipka-Sidor - BIM School Course
Katarzyna Lipka-Sidor - BIM School Coursebim.edu.pl
 
priority interrupt computer organization
priority interrupt computer organizationpriority interrupt computer organization
priority interrupt computer organizationchnrketan
 
Secure Key Crypto - Tech Paper JET Tech Labs
Secure Key Crypto - Tech Paper JET Tech LabsSecure Key Crypto - Tech Paper JET Tech Labs
Secure Key Crypto - Tech Paper JET Tech Labsamber724300
 
Javier_Fernandez_CARS_workshop_presentation.pptx
Javier_Fernandez_CARS_workshop_presentation.pptxJavier_Fernandez_CARS_workshop_presentation.pptx
Javier_Fernandez_CARS_workshop_presentation.pptxJavier Fernández Muñoz
 
Uk-NO1 Black Magic Specialist In Lahore Black magic In Pakistan Kala Ilam Exp...
Uk-NO1 Black Magic Specialist In Lahore Black magic In Pakistan Kala Ilam Exp...Uk-NO1 Black Magic Specialist In Lahore Black magic In Pakistan Kala Ilam Exp...
Uk-NO1 Black Magic Specialist In Lahore Black magic In Pakistan Kala Ilam Exp...Amil baba
 
Analysis and Evaluation of Dal Lake Biomass for Conversion to Fuel/Green fert...
Analysis and Evaluation of Dal Lake Biomass for Conversion to Fuel/Green fert...Analysis and Evaluation of Dal Lake Biomass for Conversion to Fuel/Green fert...
Analysis and Evaluation of Dal Lake Biomass for Conversion to Fuel/Green fert...arifengg7
 
Curve setting (Basic Mine Surveying)_MI10412MI.pptx
Curve setting (Basic Mine Surveying)_MI10412MI.pptxCurve setting (Basic Mine Surveying)_MI10412MI.pptx
Curve setting (Basic Mine Surveying)_MI10412MI.pptxRomil Mishra
 
multiple access in wireless communication
multiple access in wireless communicationmultiple access in wireless communication
multiple access in wireless communicationpanditadesh123
 
Triangulation survey (Basic Mine Surveying)_MI10412MI.pptx
Triangulation survey (Basic Mine Surveying)_MI10412MI.pptxTriangulation survey (Basic Mine Surveying)_MI10412MI.pptx
Triangulation survey (Basic Mine Surveying)_MI10412MI.pptxRomil Mishra
 
A brief look at visionOS - How to develop app on Apple's Vision Pro
A brief look at visionOS - How to develop app on Apple's Vision ProA brief look at visionOS - How to develop app on Apple's Vision Pro
A brief look at visionOS - How to develop app on Apple's Vision ProRay Yuan Liu
 
KCD Costa Rica 2024 - Nephio para parvulitos
KCD Costa Rica 2024 - Nephio para parvulitosKCD Costa Rica 2024 - Nephio para parvulitos
KCD Costa Rica 2024 - Nephio para parvulitosVictor Morales
 
Immutable Image-Based Operating Systems - EW2024.pdf
Immutable Image-Based Operating Systems - EW2024.pdfImmutable Image-Based Operating Systems - EW2024.pdf
Immutable Image-Based Operating Systems - EW2024.pdfDrew Moseley
 
2022 AWS DNA Hackathon 장애 대응 솔루션 jarvis.
2022 AWS DNA Hackathon 장애 대응 솔루션 jarvis.2022 AWS DNA Hackathon 장애 대응 솔루션 jarvis.
2022 AWS DNA Hackathon 장애 대응 솔루션 jarvis.elesangwon
 
ADM100 Running Book for sap basis domain study
ADM100 Running Book for sap basis domain studyADM100 Running Book for sap basis domain study
ADM100 Running Book for sap basis domain studydhruvamdhruvil123
 
The Satellite applications in telecommunication
The Satellite applications in telecommunicationThe Satellite applications in telecommunication
The Satellite applications in telecommunicationnovrain7111
 
Theory of Machine Notes / Lecture Material .pdf
Theory of Machine Notes / Lecture Material .pdfTheory of Machine Notes / Lecture Material .pdf
Theory of Machine Notes / Lecture Material .pdfShreyas Pandit
 
CS 3251 Programming in c all unit notes pdf
CS 3251 Programming in c all unit notes pdfCS 3251 Programming in c all unit notes pdf
CS 3251 Programming in c all unit notes pdfBalamuruganV28
 
Gravity concentration_MI20612MI_________
Gravity concentration_MI20612MI_________Gravity concentration_MI20612MI_________
Gravity concentration_MI20612MI_________Romil Mishra
 

Recently uploaded (20)

Katarzyna Lipka-Sidor - BIM School Course
Katarzyna Lipka-Sidor - BIM School CourseKatarzyna Lipka-Sidor - BIM School Course
Katarzyna Lipka-Sidor - BIM School Course
 
priority interrupt computer organization
priority interrupt computer organizationpriority interrupt computer organization
priority interrupt computer organization
 
Secure Key Crypto - Tech Paper JET Tech Labs
Secure Key Crypto - Tech Paper JET Tech LabsSecure Key Crypto - Tech Paper JET Tech Labs
Secure Key Crypto - Tech Paper JET Tech Labs
 
Javier_Fernandez_CARS_workshop_presentation.pptx
Javier_Fernandez_CARS_workshop_presentation.pptxJavier_Fernandez_CARS_workshop_presentation.pptx
Javier_Fernandez_CARS_workshop_presentation.pptx
 
ASME-B31.4-2019-estandar para diseño de ductos
ASME-B31.4-2019-estandar para diseño de ductosASME-B31.4-2019-estandar para diseño de ductos
ASME-B31.4-2019-estandar para diseño de ductos
 
Uk-NO1 Black Magic Specialist In Lahore Black magic In Pakistan Kala Ilam Exp...
Uk-NO1 Black Magic Specialist In Lahore Black magic In Pakistan Kala Ilam Exp...Uk-NO1 Black Magic Specialist In Lahore Black magic In Pakistan Kala Ilam Exp...
Uk-NO1 Black Magic Specialist In Lahore Black magic In Pakistan Kala Ilam Exp...
 
Analysis and Evaluation of Dal Lake Biomass for Conversion to Fuel/Green fert...
Analysis and Evaluation of Dal Lake Biomass for Conversion to Fuel/Green fert...Analysis and Evaluation of Dal Lake Biomass for Conversion to Fuel/Green fert...
Analysis and Evaluation of Dal Lake Biomass for Conversion to Fuel/Green fert...
 
Curve setting (Basic Mine Surveying)_MI10412MI.pptx
Curve setting (Basic Mine Surveying)_MI10412MI.pptxCurve setting (Basic Mine Surveying)_MI10412MI.pptx
Curve setting (Basic Mine Surveying)_MI10412MI.pptx
 
multiple access in wireless communication
multiple access in wireless communicationmultiple access in wireless communication
multiple access in wireless communication
 
Designing pile caps according to ACI 318-19.pptx
Designing pile caps according to ACI 318-19.pptxDesigning pile caps according to ACI 318-19.pptx
Designing pile caps according to ACI 318-19.pptx
 
Triangulation survey (Basic Mine Surveying)_MI10412MI.pptx
Triangulation survey (Basic Mine Surveying)_MI10412MI.pptxTriangulation survey (Basic Mine Surveying)_MI10412MI.pptx
Triangulation survey (Basic Mine Surveying)_MI10412MI.pptx
 
A brief look at visionOS - How to develop app on Apple's Vision Pro
A brief look at visionOS - How to develop app on Apple's Vision ProA brief look at visionOS - How to develop app on Apple's Vision Pro
A brief look at visionOS - How to develop app on Apple's Vision Pro
 
KCD Costa Rica 2024 - Nephio para parvulitos
KCD Costa Rica 2024 - Nephio para parvulitosKCD Costa Rica 2024 - Nephio para parvulitos
KCD Costa Rica 2024 - Nephio para parvulitos
 
Immutable Image-Based Operating Systems - EW2024.pdf
Immutable Image-Based Operating Systems - EW2024.pdfImmutable Image-Based Operating Systems - EW2024.pdf
Immutable Image-Based Operating Systems - EW2024.pdf
 
2022 AWS DNA Hackathon 장애 대응 솔루션 jarvis.
2022 AWS DNA Hackathon 장애 대응 솔루션 jarvis.2022 AWS DNA Hackathon 장애 대응 솔루션 jarvis.
2022 AWS DNA Hackathon 장애 대응 솔루션 jarvis.
 
ADM100 Running Book for sap basis domain study
ADM100 Running Book for sap basis domain studyADM100 Running Book for sap basis domain study
ADM100 Running Book for sap basis domain study
 
The Satellite applications in telecommunication
The Satellite applications in telecommunicationThe Satellite applications in telecommunication
The Satellite applications in telecommunication
 
Theory of Machine Notes / Lecture Material .pdf
Theory of Machine Notes / Lecture Material .pdfTheory of Machine Notes / Lecture Material .pdf
Theory of Machine Notes / Lecture Material .pdf
 
CS 3251 Programming in c all unit notes pdf
CS 3251 Programming in c all unit notes pdfCS 3251 Programming in c all unit notes pdf
CS 3251 Programming in c all unit notes pdf
 
Gravity concentration_MI20612MI_________
Gravity concentration_MI20612MI_________Gravity concentration_MI20612MI_________
Gravity concentration_MI20612MI_________
 

Cost Optimization of Construction Using Plastic Waste as a Sustainable Construction Material

  • 1. International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET) e-ISSN: 2395-0056 Volume: 11 Issue: 01 | Jan 2024 www.irjet.net p-ISSN: 2395-0072 © 2024, IRJET | Impact Factor value: 8.226 | ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal | Page 605 Cost Optimization of Construction Using Plastic Waste as a Sustainable Construction Material Mr. Nihalahmad R. Faras1, Mr. Ranjeet S. patil2, Mr Yash A. pawar3, Mr.A.S. Ingale4 1Under Graduate student, Department of Civil Engineering, Padmabhooshan Vasantraodada Patil Institute of Technology Budhgaon, Sangli, Maharashtra, India 2,3Under Graduate student, Department of Civil Engineering, Rajarambapu Institute of Technology, Sangli, Maharashtra, India. 4 Associate Professor, Department of Civil Engineering, Padmabhooshan Vasantraodada Patil Institute of Technology Budhgaon, Sangli, Maharashtra, India. ---------------------------------------------------------------------***--------------------------------------------------------------------- Abstract - This research paper explores the innovative integration of plastic waste into construction materials to achieve cost optimization and sustainability in the construction industry. With the escalating environmental concerns associated with plastic waste, there is a pressing need to explore alternative applications that contribute to both waste reduction and construction cost efficiency. This study focuses on utilizing plasticwastetomanufacturepavers, and bricks, and partially replacing conventionalconcrete with plastic-based alternatives. The investigation involves the development and characterization of plastic-waste-infused construction materials, evaluating their mechanical properties, durability, and environmental impact. Pavers and bricks made from recycled plastic demonstrate comparable strength and durability to traditional counterparts while offering a cost-effective and environmentallyfriendlysolution. Furthermore, the research explores the feasibility of incorporating plastic waste as a partial replacement for concrete in construction projects. Thisdual-purposeapproach not only addresses the environmental challenges posed by plastic waste but also significantly reduces constructioncosts. The paper also presents a comprehensive cost analysis, comparing the expenses associated with traditional construction materials to those incorporating plastic waste. The findings indicate substantial cost savings without compromising structural integrity or construction quality. Additionally, the environmental benefits, such as reduced plastic pollution and lower carbon footprint, contributetothe overall sustainability of construction practices. In conclusion, this research advocates for the adoption of plastic waste as a viable and cost-effective construction material, promoting sustainable building practices that align with contemporary environmental goals while optimizing construction expenses. The outcomes of this study offer valuable insights for industry professionals, policymakers, and researchers seeking innovative solutions for cost-effective and environmentally conscious construction practices. Key Words: Sustainability, Cost-effective. 1.INTRODUCTION In the face of escalating environmental concerns and the urgent need for sustainable practices in the construction industry, the project titled "Cost Optimization of Construction Using Plastic Waste as a Sustainable Construction Material" emerges as a beacon of innovation and responsibility. Thisgroundbreakinginitiativefocuses on harnessing the untapped potential of plastic waste to create eco-friendly alternatives for traditional construction materials, such as pavers, bricks, and concrete. The construction industry, known for its resource-intensive nature, is at a pivotal juncture where the adoption of sustainable practices is not just a choice but a necessity. The detrimental impact of plastic waste on the environment has long been a global challenge, prompting the exploration of inventive solutions. This project sets out to address two critical issues simultaneously - the environmental hazard posed by plastic waste and the soaring costs associatedwith conventional construction materials. The core objective of this sustainable approach is to optimize construction costs by reimagining the role of plastic waste in the construction process. By transforming discarded plastic into durable and versatile building materials, we aim to create a circular economy model that mitigates environmental harm while providing cost-effective alternatives for construction projects. The project will delve into the innovative use of plastic waste in manufacturing pavers, bricks, and exploring ways to partially replace concrete. This multifacetedapproachnot only tackles the reduction of plastic waste but also targets the high costs traditionally associated with construction materials. The incorporation of plastic waste into construction materials has the potential to revolutionize the industry, fostering a paradigm shift towards more responsible and sustainable practices. As we embark onthis journey, the project seeks to contribute to a more sustainable and economically viable future for the construction sector. Through rigorous research, testing,and collaboration, we aspire to unveil a blueprint that not only optimizes construction costs but also sets a precedent for
  • 2. International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET) e-ISSN: 2395-0056 Volume: 11 Issue: 01 | Jan 2024 www.irjet.net p-ISSN: 2395-0072 © 2024, IRJET | Impact Factor value: 8.226 | ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal | Page 606 environmentally conscious building practices.Thefollowing chapters will delve into the methodologies, findings, and implications of this groundbreaking project, aiming to inspire a wider adoption of sustainable construction practices across the industry. 1.1 Types of Plastic 1) Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET or PETE) 2) High-Density Polyethylene (HOPE) 3) Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC or Vinyl) 4) Low-Density Polyethylene (LOPE) 5) Polypropylene (PP) 6) Polystyrene (PS or Styrofoam) 7) Other These types of plastics, can be used in the casting of construction material. 1.2 ABOUT POLYPROPYLENE (PP) Ensinger produces standard stock shapes for machining PPE material, chemically identified as Polyphenylene Ether. Sheets and rods of PPE are extruded for manufacturing purposes. The inherent composition of PPE polymer results in remarkably low moisture absorption, leading to effective electrical insulation across diverse humidity and temperature ranges. Moreover, PPE material demonstrates minimal susceptibility to chemical attack from water, various salt solutions, acids, and bases. PPE Plastics offer: a) Good electrical insulating properties b) Long-term dimensional stability c) Superior impact strength d) Lightweight e) Thermoformable capability f) Good hydrolytic stability 2. LITERATURE REVIEW 1) Prof. Siddesh Pail & Sridhar Sawant, Assistant Professor @ NICMAR Goa, India (et al. 2017) [1]. Studied that, one of the main technical problems is to master the cracking of green concrete. The cracking is mainlygenerated byrestrainedshrinkage.Itappearswhen the tensile stress developed by shrinkage is greater than the tensile strength of concrete. To reduce the phenomenon of shrinkage and the induced cracking, satisfactory results are obtained by adding fibres. The fibres used in this study are polypropylene 2) Ankur C. Bhogayata (et al. 2017) [2]. Carried out experimental investigation on workability and toughness properties of concrete, strengthened with plastic waste resulting by abandoned food bundle articles. Evaluating slump, compressive and splittingtensilestrength and flexure strength as sasses the feasibility of metalized plastic waste fibre's as reinforcing constituent for concrete. Films of metalized plasticwastewereshreddedintofive mm, ten mm and twenty mm long fibre's and blended in concrete from zero percent to two percent by volume of blend. 3) F.S. Khalid (et al. 2018) [3]. Performed a study on the fibre content that increases the tensile strength of the concrete matrix. A large quantity of threads results in a significant volume of threads crossing a fractured section, triggering the mechanisms for failure resistance. Circular threads, primarily intended to trigger fibre output instead of threads pullback, are improved than irregular polyethylene terephthalate and waste wire fibres. The failure mode of the strengthened concrete beam specimensprovedthehypothesisthatstrengthenedconcrete beams should break down due to tensile reinforcement delivery and not due to a rapid deadly failure of compression. The experiments showed that the addition of Recycled Polyethylene Terephthalate -5 or Recycled Polyethylene Terephthalate -10 fibres to the strengthened concrete beams did not decrease the deviation of the strengthened concrete beam control specimens. 4) Alexander Kumi-Larbi Jnr (et al. 2018) [4]. Performed a study on Low-density polyethylene water bags that were melted and mixed with sand to form LDPE- bonded sand blocks. Low-density polyethylenebondedsand is a strong, hard material with compressive strengths of up to 27 MPa when manufactured under best circumstances. There was increase in density and compressive strength as the grain size of the sand decreases. 75 percent by weight of sand is added to accomplish the best compressive strength. The compressive strength of optimal low- density polyethylene bondedsandiscomparabletoconcreteC20/25 and greater than typical Portland cement concrete. It fails in shear, but sand samples bonded with LDPE retain minimum30 percent of the load after failure. 5) Asif Abdul Razak Momin (et al. 2022) [5]. Had done experiments with plastic tiles resultsfor50% of waste plastic by weight of sand is found to have transverse resistance nearertonormalcementtileandthe other properties like water absorption, resistance to impact and abrasion resistance were on higher side. Hence50% of wasteplasticcontentcanbeconsidered asan ideal for preparation of floor tile using waste plastic as binding agent instead of cement. Overall, the results
  • 3. International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET) e-ISSN: 2395-0056 Volume: 11 Issue: 01 | Jan 2024 www.irjet.net p-ISSN: 2395-0072 © 2024, IRJET | Impact Factor value: 8.226 | ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal | Page 607 obtained for waste plastic have shown better results as compared to normal cement tile. 3. OBJECTIVES i. The initiative aims toestablishenvironment-friendly plastic waste disposal solutions. ii. To reduce the cost of construction. iii. It mitigates the negative impact of construction industry on environment. iv. To achieve the sustainability in construction 4. METHODOLOGY 1) Collection, Segregation and shredding of Plastic waste. After collection of plastic waste from Waste collection management, non-biodegradable part is removed, segregated andshreddedintosmall pieces. 2) Air drying the segregated plastic waste by spreading over open area. 3) The proposed work is to Cast blocks using two types of materials.  Concrete block by using Granular/ Shredded plastic as admixture.  Block of different types of plastic waste. 4.1 Concrete block by using granular/ shredded plastic as admixture. 1. The Standard size of concrete blocks are 150 mm in length, 150 mm in width and 150 mm in depth. 2. The moulds is coated with oil for easy demoulding, before placing the mixture. The mould is casted by using MS sheet, base plate with nut and bolt connections for easy demoulding. 3. The air-dried plastic waste is shredded into small pieces and then it will be powdered or crushed into small granular material. 4. This granular plastic material is added into the concrete of M20 grade. 5. The granular plastic material isaddedinproportion to 1%, 3%, 5%, 6.11%, and 7% of total volume of block. 6. Once the homogeneous mixture of waste plastic with concrete is formed then it is fed into the mould. Then moulds are placed on vibrating machine for compaction and voids are removed. 7. The mould is then allowed for its setting time of concrete, then demoulding is done. 8. After demoulding that block is kept in water for 28 days, for gaining its strength. 9. The Concrete block are casted by using granular plastic as admixture. 4.2 Block of different types of plastic waste. 1. The methodology adopted for producing plastic blocks using waste plastic material. 2. The selected wasteplasticfromdifferentelementsis weighed, crushed to smaller pieces and then melted in a container at its melting point (150- l 70°C) by arrangement for melting the waste plastic using Furnace. 3. The waste plastic is melted in the container. During heating the mixture is stirred continuously, so that homogeneous mix is obtained. 4. Care shall be taken so that the mixturedoesn'tcatch fire. 10. Once the homogeneous mixture of waste plastic in melted form obtained, then mixture is fed into a mould of size 150 mm in length, 150 mm in width and 75 mm in depth. 5. The moulds was coated with oil for easy demoulding, before placing the mixture. The moulds are prepared by MS base plate with nut and bolt connectionsfor easy demoulding. 6. The Placing of mixture in moulds will be done with care. 7. Once themouldcompletelyprepared,themouldwill be cooled either by air cooling or by placing it in water. After the mould cooled, the block is removed from the mould. 5. PROPOSED WORK 5.1 PRIMARY WORK - Standard Concrete Block of M20 grade Casted -  M20 - 1 : 1.5 : 3  1 part of Cement  1.5 part of Fine Aggregate  3 part of Coarse Aggregate  Water cement ratio is 0.45 Standard Block: M20 = 1: 1.5: 3 = 1+ 1.5 + 3 = 5.5 Material required for 1 block of standard size = 11000gm Approx. 1. Cement = 2000gm 2. Fine aggregate = 2 x 1.5 = 3000gm 3. Coarse aggregate= 2 x 3 = 6000gm 2000gm Cement+ 3000gm Fine Aggregate+ 6000gm Coarse Aggregate = ll000gm  After final setting the Concrete block is kept in water for 28 days for curing and achieving its strength.
  • 4. International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET) e-ISSN: 2395-0056 Volume: 11 Issue: 01 | Jan 2024 www.irjet.net p-ISSN: 2395-0072 © 2024, IRJET | Impact Factor value: 8.226 | ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal | Page 608 5.2 SECONDARY WORK - Casting of concrete block by using Shredded or Granular plastic as Admixture.  The plastic is shredded in small size and weighted. D After shredding the plastic waste is passed from 16mm, 12.5mm, 8mm IS sieve respectively. D The appropriate size plastic waste is takenformixingwith concrete. 5.2.1 BLOCK 1 - Replacing 1% of concrete with plastic waste. The 1% of total volume of Concrete block is Replaced by the shredded plastic, while casting the standard size concrete block. 1. Cement = 2000gm 2. Fine Aggregate = 2970gm 3. Coarse Aggregate= 5940gm TOTAL = 2000gm + 2970gm + 5940gm = 109 lOgm 1 l000gm- 10910gm = 90gm So, 90gm concrete is replaced by 90gm plastic. 4. 0gm cement replaced by plastic 5. 30gm F.A is replaced by plastic 6. 60gm C.A is replaced by plastic 7. Water cement ratio= 0.45 or 0.5 8. So, the mix plastic proportion is - Cement : Fine aggregate : Coarse aggregate : Plastic waste 1 1.485 2.97 0.045 5.2.1 BLOCK 2 - Replacing 3% of concrete with plastic waste. The 3% of total volume of Concrete block is Replaced by the shredded plastic, while casting the standard size concrete block. 1. Cement = 2000gm 2. Fine Aggregate = 2910gm 3. Coarse Aggregate= 5820gm TOTAL= 2000gm + 2910gm + 5820gm = 10730gm l lO00gm - 10730gm = 270gm So, 270gm concrete is replaced by 270gm plastic. 4. 0gm cement replaced by plastic 5. 90gm F.A is replaced by plastic 6. 180gm C.A is replaced by plastic 7. Water cement ratio = 0.45 or 0.5 8. So, the mix plastic proportion is - Cement : Fine aggregate : Coarse aggregate : Plastic waste 1 1.455 2.91 0.135 5.2.1 BLOCK 3 - Replacing 5% of concrete with plastic waste. The 5% of total volume of Concrete block is Replaced by the shredded plastic, while casting the standard size concrete block. 1. Cement = 2000gm 2. Fine Aggregate = 2850gm 3. Coarse Aggregate= 5700gm TOTAL = 2000gm + 2850gm + 5700gm = 10550gm l lO00gm - 10550gm = 450gm So, 450gm concrete is replaced by 450gm plastic. 4. 0gm cement replaced by plastic 5. 150gm F.A is replaced by plastic 6. 300gm C.A is replaced by plastic 7. Water cement ratio= 0.45 or 0.5 8. So, the mix plastic proportion is - Cement : Fine aggregate : Coarse aggregate : Plastic waste 1 1.425 2.85 0.225 5.2.1 BLOCK 4 - Replacing 6.11% of concrete with plastic waste. The 6.11% of total volume of Concrete block is Replaced by the shredded plastic, while casting the standard size concrete block. 1. Cement = 1900gm 2. Fine Aggregate = 2850gm 3. Coarse Aggregate= 5700gm TOTAL = 1900gm + 2850gm + 5700gm = 10450gm l lO00gm - 10450gm = 550gm So, 550gm concrete is replaced by 550gm plastic. 4. 100gm cement replaced by plastic 5. 150gm F.A is replaced by plastic 6. 300gm C.A is replaced by plastic 7. Water cement ratio= 0.45 or 0.5 8. So, the mix plastic proportion is - Cement : Fine aggregate : Coarse aggregate : Plastic waste 1 1.5 3 0.289 5.2.1 BLOCK 5 - Replacing 7% of concrete with plastic waste. The 7% of total volume of Concrete block is Replaced by the shredded plastic, while casting the standard size concrete block. 1. Cement = 2000gm 2. Fine Aggregate = 2790gm 3. Coarse Aggregate= 5580gm TOTAL = 2000gm + 2790gm + 5580gm = 10370gm l lO00gm - 10370gm = 630gm So, 630gm concrete is replaced by 630gm plastic. 4. 0gm cement replaced by plastic 5. 210gm F.A is replaced by plastic
  • 5. International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET) e-ISSN: 2395-0056 Volume: 11 Issue: 01 | Jan 2024 www.irjet.net p-ISSN: 2395-0072 © 2024, IRJET | Impact Factor value: 8.226 | ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal | Page 609 6. 420gm C.A is replaced by plastic 7. Water cement ratio= 0.45 or 0.5 8. So, the mix plastic proportion is - Cement : Fine aggregate : Coarse aggregate : Plastic waste 1 1.395 2.79 0.315 Table No. 1: Mix Plastic Proportion Fig. 1 - Casted concrete blocks Fig. 2 - Curing of casted blocks in water tank 6. COST ANALYSIS  PAVING BLOCK: 6.1 POLYPROPYLENE PAVING BLOCK Material for manufacturing polypropylene block - Raw material (Polypropylene) - 12 Rs. /Kg Lums producing cost - 6 Rs. /Kg For manufacturing 1 block, we require ½ kg material Cost of½ kg - 6 Rs. Lums producing cost for half kg - 3 Rs. Therefore, Total Cost of 1 PolypropylenePaving block – 9Rs. (NOTE: This cost will reduced, when mass production of blocks is carried out) 6.2 CONCRETE PAVING BLOCK Concrete paving block rate - 4000 Rs/brass There are different shapes of concrete paving blocks, so approximately 160 pieces in 1 brass. The cost of 1 concrete paving block - 25 Rs. So, As compared to Concert Paving block the Polypropylene Paving block has the less cost and hence the Construction cost can be optimized by using this pavers  CONCRETE: Depending upon the replacement of Plastic waste the cost of concrete may varies but it can definitely conclude that due to partially replacement of concrete with plastic one can save the cost just by using the plastic in concrete which will definitely optimize the construction cost. 7. RESULTS Table No. 2: Compresive strengths of each concrete blocks & quantity of plastic used in each block
  • 6. International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET) e-ISSN: 2395-0056 Volume: 11 Issue: 01 | Jan 2024 www.irjet.net p-ISSN: 2395-0072 © 2024, IRJET | Impact Factor value: 8.226 | ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal | Page 610 Fig. 3 - Polypropylene Paving Blocks 8. CONCLUSION  The compressive strength of standard concrete block is 36.61 N/mm2 and the block with 5% of plastic waste is 34.87 N/mm2 that is nearly equal. So, there is no harm to use that much amount of plastic waste in concrete.  Total Cost of 1 Polypropylene Paving block – 9 Rs, So The polypropylene paving blocks are more cost effective than normal concrete paving blocks.  Using Plastic Waste for manufacturing of construction materials, helps to minimise the quantity of plastic from the environment REFERENCES [1] “The study of plastic waste” Prof. Siddesh Pail & Sridhar Sawant, Assistant Professor @ NICMAR Goa, India (etal. 2017). [2] “Exprimential Investigation on plastic blocks”Ankur C. Bhogayata (et al. 2017). [3] “A study on Fiber concrete by using plastic waste” F.S. Khalid (et al. 2018). [4] “A study on Low-density polyethylene waterbags waste blocks” Alexander Kumi-Larbi Jnr (et al. 2018). [5] “Experiments with plastic tiles” Asif Abdul Razak Momin (et al. 2022) BIOGRAPHIES Mr. Nihalahmad Riyaj Faras. Undergraduate student, Department of Civil Engineering, Padmabhooshan Vasantraodada Patil Institute of Technology Budhgaon, Sangli, Maharashtra, India. Mr. Ranjeet S. Patil. Undergraduate student, Department of Civil Engineering, Rajarambapu Institute of Technology, Sangli, Maharashtra, India. Mr. Yash A. Pawar. Undergraduate student, Department of Civil Engineering, Rajarambapu Institute of Technology, Sangli, Maharashtra, India. Mr. A S. Ingale is Associate Professor at Department of Civil Engineering, Padmabhooshan Vasantraodada Patil Institute of Technology Budhgaon, Sangli, Maharashtra, India. He had completed his M.E in Construction Management.