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Classification of Hybrid Electric
Vehicle
Seminar
Power Electronics for Automobile
By
Intakhab khan (VTP2984)
&
Navin Kumar(VTP2563)
21/11/2020 Power Electronics Seminar 1
Under the Guidance of
Prof. N.K Rayaguru
Points of Discussion
• Introduction of hybrid Vehicles
• Importance of Hybrid vehicle
• Types of hybrid based on architecture
• Series
• Parallel
• Series-parallel
• Complex
• Power electronics in hybrid Vehicle
• Types of hybrid Vehicle based on amount of hybridization
• Micro hybrid
• Mild hybrid
• Full hybrid
• Plug in hybrid
21/11/2020 Power Electronics Seminar 2
Hybrid Vehicles
• A vehicle in which power to the wheels comes from different power sources
combined together to run the vehicle at different conditions. Such as combining
power from battery and fuel known as hybrid electric vehicle, combining muscular
force and power from battery also known as electric cycle, fuel cell hybrid electric
vehicle combines power from fuel cell and battery charged from grid, etc.
21/11/2020 3
Power Electronics Seminar
Why Hybrid Electric Vehicle?
• Hybrid electric vehicle uses the advantage of high torque at low speed.
• Less emission meeting the government emission rules
• Saves fuel
• Low running cost
• Generation of power during braking
• Higher efficiency
• Overcomes the problem of range anxiety of fully electric vehicle
• Charge the vehicle during running which leads to less charging time and more range on battery as well
• Solves the problem of extensive use of fossil fuels.
• Tax advantages mainly in India(To increase the trend of electric vehicles)
• Silent start stop of vehicle can be achieved by using motor
• Dual power during requirement
• Smaller engines
• Less maintenance since the engine is operated for less time
21/11/2020 Power Electronics Seminar 4
21/11/2020 Power Electronics Seminar 5
Hybrid electric vehicles in Indian market
21/11/2020 6Power Electronics Seminar
BMW i8 Toyota Camry Toyota Prius
Honda Accord Hybrid MG hector Volvo XC 90
21/11/2020 Power Electronics Seminar 7
AND THERE ARE MANY MORE
Suzuki ciaz smart hybridKIA optimaSwift hybrid
Chevrolet volt Ford Fusion Hybrid Hyundai Sonata hybrid
All these are Hybrid vehicles but have different architecture
21/11/2020 Power Electronics Seminar 8
According to Architecture Hybrid Vehicle are classified as follows
21/11/2020 Power Electronics Seminar 9
Hybrid vehicle
Series hybrid Parallel hybrid
Series parallel
hybrid
complex hybrid
21/11/2020 Power Electronics Seminar 10
Series Hybrid
• A series hybrid is like a battery electric vehicle (BEV) in
design.
• Here, the combustion engine drives an electric generator
instead of directly driving the wheels.
• The generator both charges a battery and powers an
electric motor that moves the vehicle.
• When large amounts of power are required, the motor
draws electricity from both the battery and the generator.
• A computer determines how much of the power comes
from the battery or the engine/generator.
• The engine is typically smaller in a series drivetrain
because it only has to meet certain power demands
• the battery pack is generally more powerful than the one
in parallel hybrids in order to provide the remaining
power needs.
21/11/2020 11
Power Electronics seminar
Power Electronics Seminar
Operating modes
21/11/2020 Power Electronics Seminar 12
• Mode 1: During startup, normal driving or acceleration of the series HEV, both the
ICE and battery deliver electric energy to the power converter which then drives the
electric motor and hence the wheels via transmission.
• Mode 2: At light load the ICE output is greater than that required to drive the wheels.
Hence, a fraction of the generated electrical energy is used to charge the battery. The
charging of the battery takes place till the battery capacity reaches a proper level.
• Mode 3: During braking or deceleration, the electric motor acts as a generator, which
converts the kinetic energy of the wheels into electricity and this, is used to charge the
battery.
• Mode 4: The battery can also be charged by the ICE via the generator even when the
vehicle comes to a complete stop.
21/11/2020 Power Electronics Seminar 13
ADVANTAGES DISADVANTAGES
• When compared to the parallel hybrid design,
series hybrid systems achieve better fuel
efficiency and emission reductions.
• Series hybrid vehicles have no connection
between the ICE and the vehicle drive train,
relying on stored power to provide for
acceleration demands.
• IC Engines run at optimal speeds resulting in
smaller, more efficient engines.
• In this electric motors drive the wheels,
energy saving is also achieved through
regenerative braking systems that use the
vehicle’s momentum to allow the traction
motor to act as a generator, providing braking
torque to the wheels and back to the batteries.
• Additional weight/cost due to increased
components.
• The power from the combustion engine has to
run through both the generator and electric
motor. During long-distance highway driving,
the total efficiency is inferior to a
conventional transmission, due to the several
energy conversions.
BMW i3-Series Hybrid Vehicle
21/11/2020 Power Electronics Seminar 14
Parallel Hybrid Vehicle
21/11/2020 Power Electronics Seminar 15
• Parallel hybrid vehicle is the vehicle which uses the power
from battery and engine to work together to run the vehicle.
Operation modes
• Mode 1: During start up or full throttle acceleration; both
the ICE and the EM share the required power to propel the
vehicle. Typically, the relative distribution between the ICE
and electric motor is 80-20%.
• Mode 2: During normal driving, the required traction
power is supplied by the ICE only and the EM remains in
off mode.
• Mode 3: During braking or deceleration , the EM acts as a
generator to charge the battery via the power converter.
• Mode 4: Under light load condition, the traction power is
delivered by the ICE and the ICE also charges the battery
via the EM.
ADVANTAGES DISADVANTAGES
• Both the engine and motor drives the vehicle
which implies higher torque
• No conversion of engine power to electricity
for storing and than again extracting the
power to run the vehicle as in series hybrid
hence no need of generator and motor size can
be reduced also the efficiency is improved
• Less emission since the engine runs for less
time
• Compact arrangement
• Battery can be charged only when the vehicle
is moving hence possible with plugin hybrid
system
• Complex transmission as compared to series
• Splitting of power needs a power split device
21/11/2020 Power Electronics Seminar 16
Honda Parallel Hybrid electric Vehicle
21/11/2020 Power Electronics Seminar 17
21/11/2020 Power Electronics Seminar 18
Series Parallel Hybrid Vehicle
21/11/2020 Power Electronics Seminar 19
Series/parallel drivetrains merge the advantages and
complications of the parallel and series drivetrains.
Operating modes
At low speed the motor is used to run the vehicle due to
higher instant torque from motor at this case it acts as
series hybrid since the engine is used to run the
generator. At high demand mode both motor and engine
is used. During cruising motor works to its maximum
limit of speed then the engine is also switched on. If the
excess amount of energy is produced than required the
power is split and sent to generator mechanically. During
braking the motor is rotated and engine power is cutoff
and this power split device sends that rotation to
generator and this generates energy. At stand still
condition when the charge is low the engine starts
rotating generator and hence charges the battery
21/11/2020
Power Electronics Seminar
20
At vehicle stationary condition
the engine runs and warms up
in this case it rotates the
generator and charges the
battery
To start the vehicle the outer ring
has to be rotated which is
connected to motor. When the
motor starts the outer ring rotates
but planetary gear set won’t rotate.
This outer ring is connected to
further transmission
This mode occurs during
regenerative braking as well
During acceleration both the
engine and motor rotates and the
combined power is supplied to the
final drive also the excess power
of engine is used to rotate the
generator charging the vehicle
while running or supplying the
power directly to the motor
through convertor
ADVANTAGES DISADVANTAGES
• Can charge the vehicle at standstill condition
• Battery can be charged and no plugin system
is needed.
• Both engine and motor power is combined to
drive the vehicle hence higher torque can be
generated.
• Low fuel consumption and less emission
• Costly
• Complex transmission
• Heavy
21/11/2020 Power Electronics Seminar 21
Toyota Prius , corolla and camry- Series Parallel Hybrid
21/11/2020 Power Electronics Seminar 22
Complex Hybrid Vehicle
• The complex hybrid system involves a
complex configuration which cannot be
classified into the above three kinds.
• The complex hybrid is similar to the series-
parallel hybrid since the generator and
electric motor is both electric machines.
• The key difference is due to the bi-
directional power flow of the electric motor
in complex hybrid and the unidirectional
power flow of the generator in the series-
parallel hybrid.
21/11/2020 Power Electronics Seminar 23
Modes of operation
• Mode 1: During startup, the required traction power is delivered by the EMs and the engine is in
off mode.
• Mode 2: During full throttle acceleration, both the ICE and the front wheel EM deliver the
power to the front wheel and the second EM delivers power to the rear wheel.
• Mode 3: During normal driving, the ICE delivers power to propel the front wheel and to drive
the first EM as a generator to charge the battery.
• Mode 4: During driving at light load first EM delivers the required traction power to the front
wheel. The second EM and the ICE are in off sate.
• Mode 5: During braking or deceleration, both the front and rear wheel EMs act as generators to
simultaneously charge the battery.
• Mode 6: A unique operating mode of complex hybrid system is axial balancing. In this mode if
the front wheel slips, the front EM works as a generator to absorb the change of ICE power.
Through the battery, this power difference is then used to drive the rear wheels to achieve the
axle balancing
21/11/2020 Power Electronics Seminar 24
21/11/2020 Power Electronics Seminar 25
ADVANTAGES DISADVANTAGES
• Can charge the vehicle at standstill condition
• Battery can be charged and no plugin system
is needed.
• Both engine and motor power is combined to
drive the vehicle hence higher torque can be
generated.
• Low fuel consumption and less emission
• All wheel drive is possible
• Regenerative braking is possible
• Costly
• Complex transmission
• Heavy
Power Electronics used in Hybrid vehicles architecture
• Power Control Unit
The power control unit in hybrid vehicle consists of an inverter to
convert battery-supplied DC to motor-driving AC and a voltage
booster circuit that increases voltage up to 650 volts.
21/11/2020 Power Electronics Seminar 26
The circuit diagram shows the inverter for generator
this is used in case of complex hybrid where generator
is also used as motor
• Toyota's hybrid technology is equipped with a Power Control Unit that consists of an inverter, a
Voltage-Boosting Converter and an AC/DC converter to run the car on electric motors.
• Inverter
The inverter converts DC supplied by the battery to AC to turn the electric motors and to use in
the generator. Conversely, it converts AC generated by the electric motors and the generator
into DC to recharge the battery. Direct cooling of switching device is featured in the new
(2009) Prius, improving cooling efficiency and enabling inverter downsizing and weight
reduction.
• Voltage-Boosting
The Voltage-Boosting Converter steplessly increases the normal 201.6 V DC supply voltage to
a maximum of 650 V to feed the electric motors and the generator as required. This means
more power can be generated from a small current to bring out high performance from the high
output motors, enhancing overall system efficiency. It also means that the inverter could be
made smaller and lighter.
• DC/DC-Converter
The DC/DC converter steps down the 201.6 V supply voltage from the battery to 12 V, to be
used by auxillary systems and electronic devices like the ECU.
21/11/2020 Power Electronics Seminar 27
According to Extent of Hybridization Hybrid Vehicle are classified as
follows
21/11/2020 Power Electronics Seminar 28
Hybrid vehicle
Micro Hybrid(<5%)
Mild hybrid(up to
10%)
Full hybrid(10-75%)
Plug in hybrid(75-
80%)
• Micro Hybrid Vehicle- In micro hybrid vehicle the motor is used to start
or stop the engine and not providing extra torque while driving.
21/11/2020 Power Electronics Seminar 29
• Mild Hybrid Vehicle- In mild hybrid vehicle the motor is used in
parallel to engine and providing small amount of extra torque while
driving.(power provided by motor is equal to 10% of the engine power)
• Full Hybrid Vehicle- In full hybrid vehicle the motor provides the
power equal to 30%-40% of the engine power. Motor is even used
to drive the vehicle
• Plug in Hybrid Vehicle- In full hybrid vehicle with rechargeable
battery which can be plugged in and charged if the charge of the
vehicle is too low.
Function
Automatically stops/starts the engine in stop-
and-go traffic
Uses regenerative braking and operates above
60 volts
Uses an electric motor to assist a combustion
engine
Can drive at times using only the electric
motor
Recharges batteries from a wall outlet for
extended all-electric range
21/11/2020 Power Electronics Seminar 30
Full Hybrid
Toyota Prius
Plug-in Hybrid
Chevy Volt
Mild Hybrid
Honda Insight
Micro Hybrid
Citroën C3
References
• http://www.toyota.com.cn/innovation/environmental_technology/technology_
file/plug-in_hybrid.html
• https://www.nxp.com/design/training/hev-ev-power-inverter-module-for-next-
generation-electric-and-hybrid-vehicles:HEV-EV-PW-INVERTER-NG-VEHICLES
• Govardhan, O. M. (2017). Fundamentals and classification of hybrid electric
vehicles. International Journal of Engineering and Techniques, 3(5), 194-198.
• NPTEL, Electrical Engineering-Introduction to hybrid Vehicle, Lecture 5”Basic
architecture of hybrid Vehicle”
21/11/2020 Power Electronics Seminar 31
21/11/2020 Power Electronics Seminar 32

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Hybrid vehicle architecture

  • 1. Classification of Hybrid Electric Vehicle Seminar Power Electronics for Automobile By Intakhab khan (VTP2984) & Navin Kumar(VTP2563) 21/11/2020 Power Electronics Seminar 1 Under the Guidance of Prof. N.K Rayaguru
  • 2. Points of Discussion • Introduction of hybrid Vehicles • Importance of Hybrid vehicle • Types of hybrid based on architecture • Series • Parallel • Series-parallel • Complex • Power electronics in hybrid Vehicle • Types of hybrid Vehicle based on amount of hybridization • Micro hybrid • Mild hybrid • Full hybrid • Plug in hybrid 21/11/2020 Power Electronics Seminar 2
  • 3. Hybrid Vehicles • A vehicle in which power to the wheels comes from different power sources combined together to run the vehicle at different conditions. Such as combining power from battery and fuel known as hybrid electric vehicle, combining muscular force and power from battery also known as electric cycle, fuel cell hybrid electric vehicle combines power from fuel cell and battery charged from grid, etc. 21/11/2020 3 Power Electronics Seminar
  • 4. Why Hybrid Electric Vehicle? • Hybrid electric vehicle uses the advantage of high torque at low speed. • Less emission meeting the government emission rules • Saves fuel • Low running cost • Generation of power during braking • Higher efficiency • Overcomes the problem of range anxiety of fully electric vehicle • Charge the vehicle during running which leads to less charging time and more range on battery as well • Solves the problem of extensive use of fossil fuels. • Tax advantages mainly in India(To increase the trend of electric vehicles) • Silent start stop of vehicle can be achieved by using motor • Dual power during requirement • Smaller engines • Less maintenance since the engine is operated for less time 21/11/2020 Power Electronics Seminar 4
  • 6. Hybrid electric vehicles in Indian market 21/11/2020 6Power Electronics Seminar BMW i8 Toyota Camry Toyota Prius Honda Accord Hybrid MG hector Volvo XC 90
  • 7. 21/11/2020 Power Electronics Seminar 7 AND THERE ARE MANY MORE Suzuki ciaz smart hybridKIA optimaSwift hybrid Chevrolet volt Ford Fusion Hybrid Hyundai Sonata hybrid
  • 8. All these are Hybrid vehicles but have different architecture 21/11/2020 Power Electronics Seminar 8
  • 9. According to Architecture Hybrid Vehicle are classified as follows 21/11/2020 Power Electronics Seminar 9 Hybrid vehicle Series hybrid Parallel hybrid Series parallel hybrid complex hybrid
  • 11. Series Hybrid • A series hybrid is like a battery electric vehicle (BEV) in design. • Here, the combustion engine drives an electric generator instead of directly driving the wheels. • The generator both charges a battery and powers an electric motor that moves the vehicle. • When large amounts of power are required, the motor draws electricity from both the battery and the generator. • A computer determines how much of the power comes from the battery or the engine/generator. • The engine is typically smaller in a series drivetrain because it only has to meet certain power demands • the battery pack is generally more powerful than the one in parallel hybrids in order to provide the remaining power needs. 21/11/2020 11 Power Electronics seminar Power Electronics Seminar
  • 12. Operating modes 21/11/2020 Power Electronics Seminar 12 • Mode 1: During startup, normal driving or acceleration of the series HEV, both the ICE and battery deliver electric energy to the power converter which then drives the electric motor and hence the wheels via transmission. • Mode 2: At light load the ICE output is greater than that required to drive the wheels. Hence, a fraction of the generated electrical energy is used to charge the battery. The charging of the battery takes place till the battery capacity reaches a proper level. • Mode 3: During braking or deceleration, the electric motor acts as a generator, which converts the kinetic energy of the wheels into electricity and this, is used to charge the battery. • Mode 4: The battery can also be charged by the ICE via the generator even when the vehicle comes to a complete stop.
  • 13. 21/11/2020 Power Electronics Seminar 13 ADVANTAGES DISADVANTAGES • When compared to the parallel hybrid design, series hybrid systems achieve better fuel efficiency and emission reductions. • Series hybrid vehicles have no connection between the ICE and the vehicle drive train, relying on stored power to provide for acceleration demands. • IC Engines run at optimal speeds resulting in smaller, more efficient engines. • In this electric motors drive the wheels, energy saving is also achieved through regenerative braking systems that use the vehicle’s momentum to allow the traction motor to act as a generator, providing braking torque to the wheels and back to the batteries. • Additional weight/cost due to increased components. • The power from the combustion engine has to run through both the generator and electric motor. During long-distance highway driving, the total efficiency is inferior to a conventional transmission, due to the several energy conversions.
  • 14. BMW i3-Series Hybrid Vehicle 21/11/2020 Power Electronics Seminar 14
  • 15. Parallel Hybrid Vehicle 21/11/2020 Power Electronics Seminar 15 • Parallel hybrid vehicle is the vehicle which uses the power from battery and engine to work together to run the vehicle. Operation modes • Mode 1: During start up or full throttle acceleration; both the ICE and the EM share the required power to propel the vehicle. Typically, the relative distribution between the ICE and electric motor is 80-20%. • Mode 2: During normal driving, the required traction power is supplied by the ICE only and the EM remains in off mode. • Mode 3: During braking or deceleration , the EM acts as a generator to charge the battery via the power converter. • Mode 4: Under light load condition, the traction power is delivered by the ICE and the ICE also charges the battery via the EM.
  • 16. ADVANTAGES DISADVANTAGES • Both the engine and motor drives the vehicle which implies higher torque • No conversion of engine power to electricity for storing and than again extracting the power to run the vehicle as in series hybrid hence no need of generator and motor size can be reduced also the efficiency is improved • Less emission since the engine runs for less time • Compact arrangement • Battery can be charged only when the vehicle is moving hence possible with plugin hybrid system • Complex transmission as compared to series • Splitting of power needs a power split device 21/11/2020 Power Electronics Seminar 16
  • 17. Honda Parallel Hybrid electric Vehicle 21/11/2020 Power Electronics Seminar 17
  • 19. Series Parallel Hybrid Vehicle 21/11/2020 Power Electronics Seminar 19 Series/parallel drivetrains merge the advantages and complications of the parallel and series drivetrains. Operating modes At low speed the motor is used to run the vehicle due to higher instant torque from motor at this case it acts as series hybrid since the engine is used to run the generator. At high demand mode both motor and engine is used. During cruising motor works to its maximum limit of speed then the engine is also switched on. If the excess amount of energy is produced than required the power is split and sent to generator mechanically. During braking the motor is rotated and engine power is cutoff and this power split device sends that rotation to generator and this generates energy. At stand still condition when the charge is low the engine starts rotating generator and hence charges the battery
  • 20. 21/11/2020 Power Electronics Seminar 20 At vehicle stationary condition the engine runs and warms up in this case it rotates the generator and charges the battery To start the vehicle the outer ring has to be rotated which is connected to motor. When the motor starts the outer ring rotates but planetary gear set won’t rotate. This outer ring is connected to further transmission This mode occurs during regenerative braking as well During acceleration both the engine and motor rotates and the combined power is supplied to the final drive also the excess power of engine is used to rotate the generator charging the vehicle while running or supplying the power directly to the motor through convertor
  • 21. ADVANTAGES DISADVANTAGES • Can charge the vehicle at standstill condition • Battery can be charged and no plugin system is needed. • Both engine and motor power is combined to drive the vehicle hence higher torque can be generated. • Low fuel consumption and less emission • Costly • Complex transmission • Heavy 21/11/2020 Power Electronics Seminar 21
  • 22. Toyota Prius , corolla and camry- Series Parallel Hybrid 21/11/2020 Power Electronics Seminar 22
  • 23. Complex Hybrid Vehicle • The complex hybrid system involves a complex configuration which cannot be classified into the above three kinds. • The complex hybrid is similar to the series- parallel hybrid since the generator and electric motor is both electric machines. • The key difference is due to the bi- directional power flow of the electric motor in complex hybrid and the unidirectional power flow of the generator in the series- parallel hybrid. 21/11/2020 Power Electronics Seminar 23
  • 24. Modes of operation • Mode 1: During startup, the required traction power is delivered by the EMs and the engine is in off mode. • Mode 2: During full throttle acceleration, both the ICE and the front wheel EM deliver the power to the front wheel and the second EM delivers power to the rear wheel. • Mode 3: During normal driving, the ICE delivers power to propel the front wheel and to drive the first EM as a generator to charge the battery. • Mode 4: During driving at light load first EM delivers the required traction power to the front wheel. The second EM and the ICE are in off sate. • Mode 5: During braking or deceleration, both the front and rear wheel EMs act as generators to simultaneously charge the battery. • Mode 6: A unique operating mode of complex hybrid system is axial balancing. In this mode if the front wheel slips, the front EM works as a generator to absorb the change of ICE power. Through the battery, this power difference is then used to drive the rear wheels to achieve the axle balancing 21/11/2020 Power Electronics Seminar 24
  • 25. 21/11/2020 Power Electronics Seminar 25 ADVANTAGES DISADVANTAGES • Can charge the vehicle at standstill condition • Battery can be charged and no plugin system is needed. • Both engine and motor power is combined to drive the vehicle hence higher torque can be generated. • Low fuel consumption and less emission • All wheel drive is possible • Regenerative braking is possible • Costly • Complex transmission • Heavy
  • 26. Power Electronics used in Hybrid vehicles architecture • Power Control Unit The power control unit in hybrid vehicle consists of an inverter to convert battery-supplied DC to motor-driving AC and a voltage booster circuit that increases voltage up to 650 volts. 21/11/2020 Power Electronics Seminar 26 The circuit diagram shows the inverter for generator this is used in case of complex hybrid where generator is also used as motor
  • 27. • Toyota's hybrid technology is equipped with a Power Control Unit that consists of an inverter, a Voltage-Boosting Converter and an AC/DC converter to run the car on electric motors. • Inverter The inverter converts DC supplied by the battery to AC to turn the electric motors and to use in the generator. Conversely, it converts AC generated by the electric motors and the generator into DC to recharge the battery. Direct cooling of switching device is featured in the new (2009) Prius, improving cooling efficiency and enabling inverter downsizing and weight reduction. • Voltage-Boosting The Voltage-Boosting Converter steplessly increases the normal 201.6 V DC supply voltage to a maximum of 650 V to feed the electric motors and the generator as required. This means more power can be generated from a small current to bring out high performance from the high output motors, enhancing overall system efficiency. It also means that the inverter could be made smaller and lighter. • DC/DC-Converter The DC/DC converter steps down the 201.6 V supply voltage from the battery to 12 V, to be used by auxillary systems and electronic devices like the ECU. 21/11/2020 Power Electronics Seminar 27
  • 28. According to Extent of Hybridization Hybrid Vehicle are classified as follows 21/11/2020 Power Electronics Seminar 28 Hybrid vehicle Micro Hybrid(<5%) Mild hybrid(up to 10%) Full hybrid(10-75%) Plug in hybrid(75- 80%)
  • 29. • Micro Hybrid Vehicle- In micro hybrid vehicle the motor is used to start or stop the engine and not providing extra torque while driving. 21/11/2020 Power Electronics Seminar 29 • Mild Hybrid Vehicle- In mild hybrid vehicle the motor is used in parallel to engine and providing small amount of extra torque while driving.(power provided by motor is equal to 10% of the engine power) • Full Hybrid Vehicle- In full hybrid vehicle the motor provides the power equal to 30%-40% of the engine power. Motor is even used to drive the vehicle • Plug in Hybrid Vehicle- In full hybrid vehicle with rechargeable battery which can be plugged in and charged if the charge of the vehicle is too low.
  • 30. Function Automatically stops/starts the engine in stop- and-go traffic Uses regenerative braking and operates above 60 volts Uses an electric motor to assist a combustion engine Can drive at times using only the electric motor Recharges batteries from a wall outlet for extended all-electric range 21/11/2020 Power Electronics Seminar 30 Full Hybrid Toyota Prius Plug-in Hybrid Chevy Volt Mild Hybrid Honda Insight Micro Hybrid Citroën C3
  • 31. References • http://www.toyota.com.cn/innovation/environmental_technology/technology_ file/plug-in_hybrid.html • https://www.nxp.com/design/training/hev-ev-power-inverter-module-for-next- generation-electric-and-hybrid-vehicles:HEV-EV-PW-INVERTER-NG-VEHICLES • Govardhan, O. M. (2017). Fundamentals and classification of hybrid electric vehicles. International Journal of Engineering and Techniques, 3(5), 194-198. • NPTEL, Electrical Engineering-Introduction to hybrid Vehicle, Lecture 5”Basic architecture of hybrid Vehicle” 21/11/2020 Power Electronics Seminar 31