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International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET) e-ISSN: 2395-0056
Volume: 11 Issue: 01 | Jan 2024 www.irjet.net p-ISSN: 2395-0072
© 2024, IRJET | Impact Factor value: 8.226 | ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal | Page 650
A Review on Innovative Fiber Integration for Enhanced Reinforcement
of Concrete Structures
Aayush Saraniya1, Kishan Jayswal2, Aakash Suthara3
1M.Tech Student, L.J. University, Ahmedabad
2Kishan Jayswal, Assistance Professor, Civil Engineering Department, L.J. University, Ahmedabad, India.
---------------------------------------------------------------------***---------------------------------------------------------------------
Abstract - This study investigates the diverse applications
of Fiber Reinforced Polymer (FRP) composites in
strengthening concrete structures. Assessing the efficacy of
Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer (CFRP) with recycled
Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET) fine plastic aggregate, it
explores sustainable CFRP strengthening. Additionally, the
research examines the use of Ultra-High Performance Fiber
Reinforced Concrete (UHPFRC) to enhance shearstrengthin
reinforced concrete beams. Insights into dynamic responses
of FRP-strengthened beams under static and impact loads,
along withthe performanceofpreloadedCFRP-strengthened
Fiber Reinforced Concrete (FRC) beams, contribute to
advancing our understanding of FRP composites. This
research underscores their potential for sustainable and
resilient constructionpractices,offeringinnovative solutions
in modern civil engineering.
Key Words: FRP, Fiber Reinforced Polymer,Carbon
Fiber..
1.INTRODUCTION
Reinforced concrete stands as a cornerstone in modern
construction, seamlessly blending strength with versatility
to craft iconic structures that define our architectural and
infrastructural landscapes. However, the aging process and
various environmental challenges necessitate effective
strengthening techniques. This research delves into the
intricate realm of reinforcing reinforcedconcretestructures,
addressing the evolving needs of safety and functionality.
The enduring significance of reinforced concrete, spanning
over a century, manifests in its adaptability seen in
skyscrapers and bridges shaping urban environments. Yet,
as time takes its toll through environmental exposure and
cyclic loading, a proactive approach becomes crucial. The
study of strengthening techniques emerges asanimperative
response to the challenges posed by aging infrastructure,
emphasizing the need for a forward-thinking approach in
structural engineering to ensure safety, optimize
performance, and extend operational life.
Figure 1: Concrete
Motivated by the global reality of aging infrastructure, this
research recognizes the widespread challenges posed by
structural deterioration. Safety, economic viability, and
environmental responsibility are shared concerns
worldwide. As societies navigate the balance between
preserving architectural heritage and meeting future
demands, the study of strengthening techniques becomes a
focal point of shared interest. Beyond immediate structural
considerations, the exploration of strengthening
methodologies aligns with the global priority of sustainable
development, contributing to the broader goal of fostering
resilient and environmentally consciousurbandevelopment
through responsible resource management.
Figure 2: Reinforcing existing column
International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET) e-ISSN: 2395-0056
Volume: 11 Issue: 01 | Jan 2024 www.irjet.net p-ISSN: 2395-0072
© 2024, IRJET | Impact Factor value: 8.226 | ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal | Page 651
This research seeks to comprehensively explore various
strategies for strengthening reinforced concrete, evaluating
their effectiveness through real-world applications. With a
focus on contributing valuable insights to the evolving field
of structural engineering, the overarching goal is to ensure
that inherited structures not only endure but also persist as
enduring symbols of human ingenuity and progress in the
face of evolving challenges.
1.2 Objective
 Explore traditional and innovative methods for
reinforcing concrete structures, both internallyand
externally.
 Investigate the resistance of strengthened
structures to corrosion and chemical exposure,
enhancing their long-term durability.
 Demonstrate successful strengthening techniques
through practical case studies, considering
environmental and economic impacts.
 Provide a comprehensive overview of the current
state of reinforced concrete strengthening,
identifying gaps and proposing future research
directions.
 Deepen understanding of challenges related to
aging infrastructure, considering mechanical
behavior and durability during the strengthening
process.
2. Literature Review
[1] A.Bansal, G. Mishra and S. Bishnoi “Behavior of fiber-
reinforced polymer-strengthened reinforced concrete
beams under static and impact loads” International
Journal of Protective Structures 1–22 2016
This research paper presents a comprehensive
investigation into the response of reinforced concrete (RC)
beams subjected to drop-weight tests after being
strengthened through flexural reinforcement with Fiber-
Reinforced Polymer (FRP). The study introduces an
innovative approach that significantly enhances the
performance of RC beams against both static and impact
loads, surpassing conventional strengthening methods. The
modified beams, utilizinga comparablequantityofmaterials,
effectivelyalleviatestress concentration at the FRPU-wraps,
applying confining pressure on the longitudinal FRP strip.
This innovative enhancement results in increased load-
bearing capacities under both static and impact conditions.
The primary objectives of the research encompass the
examination of failure modes, crack patterns, analysis of
dynamic responses, and the evaluation of the efficacy of this
novel strengthening technique. A series of comprehensive
tests were conducted, particularly drop-weight impact tests
on RC beams reinforced with FRP. Two sets of beams, one
with regular rectangular sections andanother with modified
sections featuring FRP U-wraps, underwent testing under
both static and impact loading conditions.
The investigation aimed to elucidatefailure modes, crack
patterns, and the dynamic response of the beams under
diverse loading conditions. The static tests revealed flexural
failurewith vertical cracks atmidspan in beams with regular
rectangularsections,whilethosewithFRPU-wrapsdisplayed
improved resistance to debonding, showcasing higher load
capacities. Impact testsindicatedashiftinfailuremodesfrom
flexural to both shear and flexural failures. The modified-
section beams exhibited enhanced impact resistance,
effectively restraining inclined cracks, and outperforming
their counterparts with the same quantity of materials in
normal rectangular sections.
In summary, the study successfully demonstrated the
efficacy of utilizing FRP for strengthening RC beams against
impact loads. The proposed modified-section beams,
featuring FRP U-wraps, exhibited superiorimpactresistance,
mitigating debonding failures, and preventing crack
propagation.Thesefindingsprovidevaluableinsightsintothe
design of structures with enhanced impact resistance,
particularly relevant in the current global security context.
The research contributes to the advancement of structural
engineering practices by introducing an innovative method
forimproving the performanceofRCbeamsunderbothstatic
and impact loading conditions.
[2] ShakerQaidiID,YamanS.S.Al-KamakiID,RiadhAl-
Mahaidi, Ahmed S. Mohammed, HemnUnis Ahmed,
Osama Zaid, FadiAlthoeyID, Jawad Ahmad, Haytham F.
IsleemID, Ian Bennetts “OInvestigation of the
effectiveness of CFRPstrengthening of concrete made
with recycledwaste PET fine plasticaggregate”PLoSONE
17(7):e0269664 (2022)
The exploration of Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET)
concrete for structural applications represents a
groundbreaking endeavor within the realm of sustainable
construction practices. PET,known foritsubiquityinvarious
plastic products, has been a focal point of environmental
apprehensions due to its widespread use and persistence in
the ecosystem.Recognizingtheurgentneedtoaddressplastic
waste concerns, researchers have turned to innovative
solutions,andonesuchapproachinvolvesthetransformation
of PET into construction materials, with a particular
emphasis on its integration into green concrete.
While PET concrete has historically been relegated to
non-structural roles because of its perceived lower
compressive strength, recent advancements in research are
challenging these limitations. The endeavor is not only to
repurpose PET waste but also to explore its potential as a
International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET) e-ISSN: 2395-0056
Volume: 11 Issue: 01 | Jan 2024 www.irjet.net p-ISSN: 2395-0072
© 2024, IRJET | Impact Factor value: 8.226 | ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal | Page 652
structural component, thereby diversifying its applications
and contributing to sustainable construction practices.
A key aspect of this research involves the strategic
substitution of a portion of the conventional aggregate with
PET and reinforcing the composite material using Carbon
Fiber Reinforced Polymer (CFRP). This methodology aims to
augment the structural capabilities of PET concrete and
potentially pave the way for its use in load-bearing elements
of construction. By systematically investigating the effects of
PET substitution and CFRP reinforcement on concrete
properties, the study provides a comprehensive
understanding of the material's behavior under different
conditions.
The experimental program scrutinizes various aspects,
including compressive strength tests, which reveal a
reduction in strength with increasing PET substitution.
However, the innovative use of CFRP wrapping emerges as a
critical solutiontocounterthisstrengthreduction,presenting
a significant breakthrough in enhancing the overall
robustness of PET concrete.Thestudyalsodelvesintostress-
strain relationships, shedding light on how CFRP wrapping
influences confining pressure and strain development,
further elucidating the intricate mechanics at play.
The outcomes of this research not only challenge
preconceived notions about the limitations of PET concrete
but also propose a viable path forward for sustainable
construction. The combination of PET aggregate and CFRP
reinforcement emerges as a promisingstrategyforstructural
applications, offering insights that could revolutionize
construction methodologies by incorporating waste
valorization principles and fostering the development of
high-performance, structural-grade materials.
In conclusion, this innovative research not only seeks to
repurpose PET waste but also endeavors to redefine the role
of PET concrete in the construction industry. By addressing
the environmental concerns associated with plastic waste
and simultaneously exploring the structural potential of PET
in concrete, this study represents a crucial step toward
sustainable practices, offering a glimpse into a future where
waste materials contribute to the development of durable
and environmentally friendly construction materials.
[3] AsmaaSaid , Mahmoud Elsayed, Ahmed Abd El-
Azim, FadiAlthoey, Bassam. Tayeh “Using ultra-high
performance fiber reinforced concrete in improvement
shear strength of reinforced concrete beams” Case
Studies in Construction Materials 16 (2022) e01009
This comprehensive research project delves into the
realm of shear strengthening of reinforced concrete (RC)
beams, focusing on the utilization ofUltra-High-Performance
Fiber-Reinforced Concrete (UHPFRC)topushtheboundaries
of existing knowledge in the field. The study's primary
objectives revolve aroundexpandingtheshearstrengthening
database and scrutinizing the behavior of RC beams under
diverse conditions.
The experimental program is designed with meticulous
attention to detail, involving twelve RC beams with specific
dimensions. The variations explored encompass UHPFRC
layer thickness, strengthening length, the number of sides
strengthened,and steelfiberratios.Twodistinctmethodsare
employed to apply UHPFRC: casting fresh UHPFRC on the
rough side and anchoring UHPFRC laminates with drilled
holes and epoxy resin.
The results of the study paint a compelling picture of
UHPFRC's impact on shear behavior. Notably, the
incorporation of UHPFRC demonstrates a substantial
enhancement in ductility, toughness, and load-carrying
capacity. Failuremodes, includingshearfailure,debondingof
UHPFRC laminate, and flexural failure, are meticulously
analyzed. Strengthened beams emerge as stalwarts in terms
of superiorstiffness,shearstrength,andductility,showcasing
the efficacy of UHPFRC in shear strengthening applications.
Throughout the research, critical attention is paid to the
influence of various parameters, such as steel fiber ratio,
UHPFRC layer thickness, andstrengtheningtechnique,onthe
overall effectiveness of the shear strengthening process. The
nuanced analysis provides valuableinsightsintothenuanced
interplay of these factors in achieving optimal results.
Inconclusion,thisresearchsignificantlycontributestothe
understanding of UHPFRC's role in shear strengthening and
holds immense implications for therehabilitationofconcrete
structures. Despite the acknowledged challenges, such as
high production costs, the study posits that the potential
benefits of UHPFRC in contemporary construction practices
warrant further exploration. The encouragement for future
research endeavors tofocusonoptimizingstrategiesforcost-
effective applications in shear strengthening solidifies the
importance of this work in shaping the futureofconstruction
practices.
[4] MY Yuhazri “Fiber Reinforced PolymerComposite
as a Strengthening of Concrete Structures” iop
conference series: materials scince and engineering.
1003 012135, 2020.
Thiscomprehensiveresearchpaperdelvesdeeplyintothe
complex and vital realm of reinforcing damaged concrete
structures, with a particular emphasis on the transformative
potential offered by fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP)
compositematerials. The primary objective of thisstudyisto
unravel the critical role played by FRP in enhancing the
structural integrity of concrete, presenting an exhaustive
analysis of various composite materials and their
applications.
The research meticulously explores a spectrum of
compositematerials, shedding lightonthediversecategories
International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET) e-ISSN: 2395-0056
Volume: 11 Issue: 01 | Jan 2024 www.irjet.net p-ISSN: 2395-0072
© 2024, IRJET | Impact Factor value: 8.226 | ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal | Page 653
of FRP materials. These encompass natural fibers like jute
and kenaf, synthetic counterparts such as glass and carbon
fibers, and hybrid combinations like sisal/glass and
jute/glass. The paper navigates through a labyrinth of
application techniques, elucidating methods like steel jacket
application,handlay-up,andcarbonanchor,whichemergeas
indispensable tools in the rehabilitationofdamagedconcrete
structures.
As the exploration progresses, the research meticulously
categorizes composite materials into particle-reinforced,
fiber-reinforced, and structure-reinforced composites. It
intricately unveils the classification intricacies of fibers and
matrices, placing a spotlight on the renewable and
biodegradable attributes of natural fibers. This
comprehensiveanalysisextendstoevaluatingthemechanical
properties of various fibers, with synthetic contenders such
as glass and carbon, as well as hybrid alternatives, coming
under the scrutiny of the study.
The paper strategically encapsulates the evolutionofFRP
composite applications, illustrating their diverse roles in
scenarios such as fortifying flexural strength in reinforced
concrete beams and resurrecting fire-damaged columns.
Within this narrative, the research accentuates the myriad
advantages associated with FRP, including its lightweight
nature, ease of handling, anti-corrosive properties, and an
impressive strength-to-weight ratio. Collectively, these
qualities render FRP a preferred choice for structural
reinforcement.
In summation, this research paper not only provides a
roadmap for the judicious application of FRP materials but
also contributes significantly to the broader discourse on
advancements in structural engineering. By meticulously
categorizingandscrutinizingvarioustypesofcomposites,the
study underscores the distinctive contributions of natural,
synthetic, and hybrid fibers to the mechanical behavior of
reinforced concrete. This holistic exploration not only
positions FRP as a pivotal player in the domain of structural
engineering but also sets the stage for futureinnovationsand
breakthroughs in the field.
[5] MKareem Hela, SherifYehi, Rami Hawileh, Jamal
Abdall “Performance of preloaded CFRP-strengthened
fiber reinforced concrete beams” ELSEVIER, Composite
Structure 244 (2020)112262
This comprehensive study delves into the intricate realm
of concrete engineering, specifically concentrating on the
synergistic enhancement of concrete properties through the
strategic integration of various reinforcing elements. The
primary focus lies on the amalgamationofsteelandsynthetic
fibers, coupledwiththeutilizationofCarbonFiberReinforced
Polymer (CFRP), to scrutinize their collective impact on
strengthening weakened concrete beams.
The research endeavors encompassed the meticulous
creation of fifteen concrete beams, each subjected to a
diverse array of fiber combinations and treatments. The
overarching goal was to discern the efficacy of these fibers,
particularly when harmonized with CFRP, in fortifying and
revitalizingcompromised concretestructures.Theempirical
outcomes yielded compelling evidence of a substantial
positive impact, elucidating notable advancements in
strength, crack reduction, and flexibility, with a distinct
emphasis on the symbiotic efficacy of steel and synthetic
fibers when used in tandem with CFRP.
The experimental framework encompassed a holistic
exploration of crack patterns, deflection metrics, and the
ultimate failure mode of the beams, meticulously examining
their behavior under varied conditions. A noteworthy
revelation emerged from the study, underscoring the
advantageous effects of pre-loading – a simulation of
additional weight prior to reinforcement, particularly
pertinent for plain concrete beams. The overarching
conclusion of this in-depth inquiry posits thattheintegration
of fibers, in conjunction with the protective prowessofCFRP,
significantlyamplifiesconcretebeamstrength.Theanalogyof
CFRP acting asa structural shield,akintoendowingbuildings
with an additional layer of resilience, aptly captures its role
as a strength booster.
The study culminates in a profound endorsement of the
approach, affirming that the combination of steel and
synthetic fibers, harmonized with CFRP, presents an
exceptionally effective strategy forfortifying structures.This
innovative method is portrayed as a potent catalyst for
extending the lifespan of buildings and elevating their
structural integrity to unprecedented levels.
In summation, this research unfolds as a seminal
contribution to the understanding of the collaborative
influence of fibers and CFRP in the realm of concrete
construction. The implicationsextendbeyondthelaboratory,
hinting at a transformative potential for the construction
industry. The study envisions a paradigm shift, envisioning
these reinforced elements as a superpower-like upgrade,
offering a pragmatic andreliablesolutiontofortifystructures
and propel the construction industry towards a future
characterized by enhanced durability and strength.
3. CONCLUSIONS
The amalgamationof researchpapersonreinforcedconcrete
strengthening yields a comprehensive understanding of
diverse methodologies, from fiber reinforcement to seismic
resilience. The application of fiber-reinforced materials
shows promise in enhancing load-carrying capacity, while
focus on seismic strengthening emphasizes the critical need
for fortifying structures against seismic forces. Repair
strategies,diversestrengtheningtechniques,andexploration
of beam-column joint enhancements contribute to overall
structural integrity. This inclusive overview widens the
International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET) e-ISSN: 2395-0056
Volume: 11 Issue: 01 | Jan 2024 www.irjet.net p-ISSN: 2395-0072
© 2024, IRJET | Impact Factor value: 8.226 | ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal | Page 654
toolkit for engineers, offering practical solutions for
improved performance, durability, and resilience in diverse
contexts. The findings not only contribute to theoretical
knowledge but also address practical challenges, advancing
the understanding of reinforced concrete elements for long-
term sustainability.
REFERENCES
[1] Mangesh Vhanmane and Maheshkumar Bhanuse“Study
of Behavior of High-Rise Buildings with Diagrid
Systems” Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2021 M. C.
Narasimhan et al. (eds.), Trends in Civil Engineeringand
Challenges for Sustainability, Lecture Notes in Civil
Engineering 99, https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-15-
6828-2_19
[2] Chittaranjan Nayak, Snehal Walke, and Suraj Kokare
“Optimal Structural Design of Diagrid Structure for Tall
Structure” Springer Nature SingaporePteLtd.2020V.K.
Gunjan et al. (Eds.): ICRRM 2019– System Reliability,
Quality Control, Safety, Maintenance and Management,
pp. 263–271, 2020. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-
13-8507-0_39
[3] Merry James and Neeraja Nair “Seismic Performance
Analysis of Vertically Irregular Structure with Diagrid”
Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020 K. Dasgupta et al.
(eds.), Proceedings of SECON’19, Lecture Notes in Civil
Engineering 46, https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-
26365-2_55
[4] Chetan S.Patta, Prof. Smt. Varsha Gokak “Analysis of
diagrid structure with irregularity” International
Research Journal ofEngineeringandTechnology(IRJET)
Volume: 05 Issue: 08 Aug 2018
[5] Saurabh Babhulkar, Kuldeep R Dabhekar, S.S. Sanghal,
Isha P. Khedikar, “Comparative Study of Seismic
Behavior of Diagrid Structure with Conventional
Structure” IOP Conf. Series: Materials Science and
Engineering 1197 (2021) 012049 doi:10.1088/1757-
899X/1197/1/012049

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A Review on Innovative Fiber Integration for Enhanced Reinforcement of Concrete Structures

  • 1. International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET) e-ISSN: 2395-0056 Volume: 11 Issue: 01 | Jan 2024 www.irjet.net p-ISSN: 2395-0072 © 2024, IRJET | Impact Factor value: 8.226 | ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal | Page 650 A Review on Innovative Fiber Integration for Enhanced Reinforcement of Concrete Structures Aayush Saraniya1, Kishan Jayswal2, Aakash Suthara3 1M.Tech Student, L.J. University, Ahmedabad 2Kishan Jayswal, Assistance Professor, Civil Engineering Department, L.J. University, Ahmedabad, India. ---------------------------------------------------------------------***--------------------------------------------------------------------- Abstract - This study investigates the diverse applications of Fiber Reinforced Polymer (FRP) composites in strengthening concrete structures. Assessing the efficacy of Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer (CFRP) with recycled Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET) fine plastic aggregate, it explores sustainable CFRP strengthening. Additionally, the research examines the use of Ultra-High Performance Fiber Reinforced Concrete (UHPFRC) to enhance shearstrengthin reinforced concrete beams. Insights into dynamic responses of FRP-strengthened beams under static and impact loads, along withthe performanceofpreloadedCFRP-strengthened Fiber Reinforced Concrete (FRC) beams, contribute to advancing our understanding of FRP composites. This research underscores their potential for sustainable and resilient constructionpractices,offeringinnovative solutions in modern civil engineering. Key Words: FRP, Fiber Reinforced Polymer,Carbon Fiber.. 1.INTRODUCTION Reinforced concrete stands as a cornerstone in modern construction, seamlessly blending strength with versatility to craft iconic structures that define our architectural and infrastructural landscapes. However, the aging process and various environmental challenges necessitate effective strengthening techniques. This research delves into the intricate realm of reinforcing reinforcedconcretestructures, addressing the evolving needs of safety and functionality. The enduring significance of reinforced concrete, spanning over a century, manifests in its adaptability seen in skyscrapers and bridges shaping urban environments. Yet, as time takes its toll through environmental exposure and cyclic loading, a proactive approach becomes crucial. The study of strengthening techniques emerges asanimperative response to the challenges posed by aging infrastructure, emphasizing the need for a forward-thinking approach in structural engineering to ensure safety, optimize performance, and extend operational life. Figure 1: Concrete Motivated by the global reality of aging infrastructure, this research recognizes the widespread challenges posed by structural deterioration. Safety, economic viability, and environmental responsibility are shared concerns worldwide. As societies navigate the balance between preserving architectural heritage and meeting future demands, the study of strengthening techniques becomes a focal point of shared interest. Beyond immediate structural considerations, the exploration of strengthening methodologies aligns with the global priority of sustainable development, contributing to the broader goal of fostering resilient and environmentally consciousurbandevelopment through responsible resource management. Figure 2: Reinforcing existing column
  • 2. International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET) e-ISSN: 2395-0056 Volume: 11 Issue: 01 | Jan 2024 www.irjet.net p-ISSN: 2395-0072 © 2024, IRJET | Impact Factor value: 8.226 | ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal | Page 651 This research seeks to comprehensively explore various strategies for strengthening reinforced concrete, evaluating their effectiveness through real-world applications. With a focus on contributing valuable insights to the evolving field of structural engineering, the overarching goal is to ensure that inherited structures not only endure but also persist as enduring symbols of human ingenuity and progress in the face of evolving challenges. 1.2 Objective  Explore traditional and innovative methods for reinforcing concrete structures, both internallyand externally.  Investigate the resistance of strengthened structures to corrosion and chemical exposure, enhancing their long-term durability.  Demonstrate successful strengthening techniques through practical case studies, considering environmental and economic impacts.  Provide a comprehensive overview of the current state of reinforced concrete strengthening, identifying gaps and proposing future research directions.  Deepen understanding of challenges related to aging infrastructure, considering mechanical behavior and durability during the strengthening process. 2. Literature Review [1] A.Bansal, G. Mishra and S. Bishnoi “Behavior of fiber- reinforced polymer-strengthened reinforced concrete beams under static and impact loads” International Journal of Protective Structures 1–22 2016 This research paper presents a comprehensive investigation into the response of reinforced concrete (RC) beams subjected to drop-weight tests after being strengthened through flexural reinforcement with Fiber- Reinforced Polymer (FRP). The study introduces an innovative approach that significantly enhances the performance of RC beams against both static and impact loads, surpassing conventional strengthening methods. The modified beams, utilizinga comparablequantityofmaterials, effectivelyalleviatestress concentration at the FRPU-wraps, applying confining pressure on the longitudinal FRP strip. This innovative enhancement results in increased load- bearing capacities under both static and impact conditions. The primary objectives of the research encompass the examination of failure modes, crack patterns, analysis of dynamic responses, and the evaluation of the efficacy of this novel strengthening technique. A series of comprehensive tests were conducted, particularly drop-weight impact tests on RC beams reinforced with FRP. Two sets of beams, one with regular rectangular sections andanother with modified sections featuring FRP U-wraps, underwent testing under both static and impact loading conditions. The investigation aimed to elucidatefailure modes, crack patterns, and the dynamic response of the beams under diverse loading conditions. The static tests revealed flexural failurewith vertical cracks atmidspan in beams with regular rectangularsections,whilethosewithFRPU-wrapsdisplayed improved resistance to debonding, showcasing higher load capacities. Impact testsindicatedashiftinfailuremodesfrom flexural to both shear and flexural failures. The modified- section beams exhibited enhanced impact resistance, effectively restraining inclined cracks, and outperforming their counterparts with the same quantity of materials in normal rectangular sections. In summary, the study successfully demonstrated the efficacy of utilizing FRP for strengthening RC beams against impact loads. The proposed modified-section beams, featuring FRP U-wraps, exhibited superiorimpactresistance, mitigating debonding failures, and preventing crack propagation.Thesefindingsprovidevaluableinsightsintothe design of structures with enhanced impact resistance, particularly relevant in the current global security context. The research contributes to the advancement of structural engineering practices by introducing an innovative method forimproving the performanceofRCbeamsunderbothstatic and impact loading conditions. [2] ShakerQaidiID,YamanS.S.Al-KamakiID,RiadhAl- Mahaidi, Ahmed S. Mohammed, HemnUnis Ahmed, Osama Zaid, FadiAlthoeyID, Jawad Ahmad, Haytham F. IsleemID, Ian Bennetts “OInvestigation of the effectiveness of CFRPstrengthening of concrete made with recycledwaste PET fine plasticaggregate”PLoSONE 17(7):e0269664 (2022) The exploration of Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET) concrete for structural applications represents a groundbreaking endeavor within the realm of sustainable construction practices. PET,known foritsubiquityinvarious plastic products, has been a focal point of environmental apprehensions due to its widespread use and persistence in the ecosystem.Recognizingtheurgentneedtoaddressplastic waste concerns, researchers have turned to innovative solutions,andonesuchapproachinvolvesthetransformation of PET into construction materials, with a particular emphasis on its integration into green concrete. While PET concrete has historically been relegated to non-structural roles because of its perceived lower compressive strength, recent advancements in research are challenging these limitations. The endeavor is not only to repurpose PET waste but also to explore its potential as a
  • 3. International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET) e-ISSN: 2395-0056 Volume: 11 Issue: 01 | Jan 2024 www.irjet.net p-ISSN: 2395-0072 © 2024, IRJET | Impact Factor value: 8.226 | ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal | Page 652 structural component, thereby diversifying its applications and contributing to sustainable construction practices. A key aspect of this research involves the strategic substitution of a portion of the conventional aggregate with PET and reinforcing the composite material using Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer (CFRP). This methodology aims to augment the structural capabilities of PET concrete and potentially pave the way for its use in load-bearing elements of construction. By systematically investigating the effects of PET substitution and CFRP reinforcement on concrete properties, the study provides a comprehensive understanding of the material's behavior under different conditions. The experimental program scrutinizes various aspects, including compressive strength tests, which reveal a reduction in strength with increasing PET substitution. However, the innovative use of CFRP wrapping emerges as a critical solutiontocounterthisstrengthreduction,presenting a significant breakthrough in enhancing the overall robustness of PET concrete.Thestudyalsodelvesintostress- strain relationships, shedding light on how CFRP wrapping influences confining pressure and strain development, further elucidating the intricate mechanics at play. The outcomes of this research not only challenge preconceived notions about the limitations of PET concrete but also propose a viable path forward for sustainable construction. The combination of PET aggregate and CFRP reinforcement emerges as a promisingstrategyforstructural applications, offering insights that could revolutionize construction methodologies by incorporating waste valorization principles and fostering the development of high-performance, structural-grade materials. In conclusion, this innovative research not only seeks to repurpose PET waste but also endeavors to redefine the role of PET concrete in the construction industry. By addressing the environmental concerns associated with plastic waste and simultaneously exploring the structural potential of PET in concrete, this study represents a crucial step toward sustainable practices, offering a glimpse into a future where waste materials contribute to the development of durable and environmentally friendly construction materials. [3] AsmaaSaid , Mahmoud Elsayed, Ahmed Abd El- Azim, FadiAlthoey, Bassam. Tayeh “Using ultra-high performance fiber reinforced concrete in improvement shear strength of reinforced concrete beams” Case Studies in Construction Materials 16 (2022) e01009 This comprehensive research project delves into the realm of shear strengthening of reinforced concrete (RC) beams, focusing on the utilization ofUltra-High-Performance Fiber-Reinforced Concrete (UHPFRC)topushtheboundaries of existing knowledge in the field. The study's primary objectives revolve aroundexpandingtheshearstrengthening database and scrutinizing the behavior of RC beams under diverse conditions. The experimental program is designed with meticulous attention to detail, involving twelve RC beams with specific dimensions. The variations explored encompass UHPFRC layer thickness, strengthening length, the number of sides strengthened,and steelfiberratios.Twodistinctmethodsare employed to apply UHPFRC: casting fresh UHPFRC on the rough side and anchoring UHPFRC laminates with drilled holes and epoxy resin. The results of the study paint a compelling picture of UHPFRC's impact on shear behavior. Notably, the incorporation of UHPFRC demonstrates a substantial enhancement in ductility, toughness, and load-carrying capacity. Failuremodes, includingshearfailure,debondingof UHPFRC laminate, and flexural failure, are meticulously analyzed. Strengthened beams emerge as stalwarts in terms of superiorstiffness,shearstrength,andductility,showcasing the efficacy of UHPFRC in shear strengthening applications. Throughout the research, critical attention is paid to the influence of various parameters, such as steel fiber ratio, UHPFRC layer thickness, andstrengtheningtechnique,onthe overall effectiveness of the shear strengthening process. The nuanced analysis provides valuableinsightsintothenuanced interplay of these factors in achieving optimal results. Inconclusion,thisresearchsignificantlycontributestothe understanding of UHPFRC's role in shear strengthening and holds immense implications for therehabilitationofconcrete structures. Despite the acknowledged challenges, such as high production costs, the study posits that the potential benefits of UHPFRC in contemporary construction practices warrant further exploration. The encouragement for future research endeavors tofocusonoptimizingstrategiesforcost- effective applications in shear strengthening solidifies the importance of this work in shaping the futureofconstruction practices. [4] MY Yuhazri “Fiber Reinforced PolymerComposite as a Strengthening of Concrete Structures” iop conference series: materials scince and engineering. 1003 012135, 2020. Thiscomprehensiveresearchpaperdelvesdeeplyintothe complex and vital realm of reinforcing damaged concrete structures, with a particular emphasis on the transformative potential offered by fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP) compositematerials. The primary objective of thisstudyisto unravel the critical role played by FRP in enhancing the structural integrity of concrete, presenting an exhaustive analysis of various composite materials and their applications. The research meticulously explores a spectrum of compositematerials, shedding lightonthediversecategories
  • 4. International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET) e-ISSN: 2395-0056 Volume: 11 Issue: 01 | Jan 2024 www.irjet.net p-ISSN: 2395-0072 © 2024, IRJET | Impact Factor value: 8.226 | ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal | Page 653 of FRP materials. These encompass natural fibers like jute and kenaf, synthetic counterparts such as glass and carbon fibers, and hybrid combinations like sisal/glass and jute/glass. The paper navigates through a labyrinth of application techniques, elucidating methods like steel jacket application,handlay-up,andcarbonanchor,whichemergeas indispensable tools in the rehabilitationofdamagedconcrete structures. As the exploration progresses, the research meticulously categorizes composite materials into particle-reinforced, fiber-reinforced, and structure-reinforced composites. It intricately unveils the classification intricacies of fibers and matrices, placing a spotlight on the renewable and biodegradable attributes of natural fibers. This comprehensiveanalysisextendstoevaluatingthemechanical properties of various fibers, with synthetic contenders such as glass and carbon, as well as hybrid alternatives, coming under the scrutiny of the study. The paper strategically encapsulates the evolutionofFRP composite applications, illustrating their diverse roles in scenarios such as fortifying flexural strength in reinforced concrete beams and resurrecting fire-damaged columns. Within this narrative, the research accentuates the myriad advantages associated with FRP, including its lightweight nature, ease of handling, anti-corrosive properties, and an impressive strength-to-weight ratio. Collectively, these qualities render FRP a preferred choice for structural reinforcement. In summation, this research paper not only provides a roadmap for the judicious application of FRP materials but also contributes significantly to the broader discourse on advancements in structural engineering. By meticulously categorizingandscrutinizingvarioustypesofcomposites,the study underscores the distinctive contributions of natural, synthetic, and hybrid fibers to the mechanical behavior of reinforced concrete. This holistic exploration not only positions FRP as a pivotal player in the domain of structural engineering but also sets the stage for futureinnovationsand breakthroughs in the field. [5] MKareem Hela, SherifYehi, Rami Hawileh, Jamal Abdall “Performance of preloaded CFRP-strengthened fiber reinforced concrete beams” ELSEVIER, Composite Structure 244 (2020)112262 This comprehensive study delves into the intricate realm of concrete engineering, specifically concentrating on the synergistic enhancement of concrete properties through the strategic integration of various reinforcing elements. The primary focus lies on the amalgamationofsteelandsynthetic fibers, coupledwiththeutilizationofCarbonFiberReinforced Polymer (CFRP), to scrutinize their collective impact on strengthening weakened concrete beams. The research endeavors encompassed the meticulous creation of fifteen concrete beams, each subjected to a diverse array of fiber combinations and treatments. The overarching goal was to discern the efficacy of these fibers, particularly when harmonized with CFRP, in fortifying and revitalizingcompromised concretestructures.Theempirical outcomes yielded compelling evidence of a substantial positive impact, elucidating notable advancements in strength, crack reduction, and flexibility, with a distinct emphasis on the symbiotic efficacy of steel and synthetic fibers when used in tandem with CFRP. The experimental framework encompassed a holistic exploration of crack patterns, deflection metrics, and the ultimate failure mode of the beams, meticulously examining their behavior under varied conditions. A noteworthy revelation emerged from the study, underscoring the advantageous effects of pre-loading – a simulation of additional weight prior to reinforcement, particularly pertinent for plain concrete beams. The overarching conclusion of this in-depth inquiry posits thattheintegration of fibers, in conjunction with the protective prowessofCFRP, significantlyamplifiesconcretebeamstrength.Theanalogyof CFRP acting asa structural shield,akintoendowingbuildings with an additional layer of resilience, aptly captures its role as a strength booster. The study culminates in a profound endorsement of the approach, affirming that the combination of steel and synthetic fibers, harmonized with CFRP, presents an exceptionally effective strategy forfortifying structures.This innovative method is portrayed as a potent catalyst for extending the lifespan of buildings and elevating their structural integrity to unprecedented levels. In summation, this research unfolds as a seminal contribution to the understanding of the collaborative influence of fibers and CFRP in the realm of concrete construction. The implicationsextendbeyondthelaboratory, hinting at a transformative potential for the construction industry. The study envisions a paradigm shift, envisioning these reinforced elements as a superpower-like upgrade, offering a pragmatic andreliablesolutiontofortifystructures and propel the construction industry towards a future characterized by enhanced durability and strength. 3. CONCLUSIONS The amalgamationof researchpapersonreinforcedconcrete strengthening yields a comprehensive understanding of diverse methodologies, from fiber reinforcement to seismic resilience. The application of fiber-reinforced materials shows promise in enhancing load-carrying capacity, while focus on seismic strengthening emphasizes the critical need for fortifying structures against seismic forces. Repair strategies,diversestrengtheningtechniques,andexploration of beam-column joint enhancements contribute to overall structural integrity. This inclusive overview widens the
  • 5. International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET) e-ISSN: 2395-0056 Volume: 11 Issue: 01 | Jan 2024 www.irjet.net p-ISSN: 2395-0072 © 2024, IRJET | Impact Factor value: 8.226 | ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal | Page 654 toolkit for engineers, offering practical solutions for improved performance, durability, and resilience in diverse contexts. The findings not only contribute to theoretical knowledge but also address practical challenges, advancing the understanding of reinforced concrete elements for long- term sustainability. REFERENCES [1] Mangesh Vhanmane and Maheshkumar Bhanuse“Study of Behavior of High-Rise Buildings with Diagrid Systems” Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2021 M. C. Narasimhan et al. (eds.), Trends in Civil Engineeringand Challenges for Sustainability, Lecture Notes in Civil Engineering 99, https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-15- 6828-2_19 [2] Chittaranjan Nayak, Snehal Walke, and Suraj Kokare “Optimal Structural Design of Diagrid Structure for Tall Structure” Springer Nature SingaporePteLtd.2020V.K. Gunjan et al. (Eds.): ICRRM 2019– System Reliability, Quality Control, Safety, Maintenance and Management, pp. 263–271, 2020. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981- 13-8507-0_39 [3] Merry James and Neeraja Nair “Seismic Performance Analysis of Vertically Irregular Structure with Diagrid” Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020 K. Dasgupta et al. (eds.), Proceedings of SECON’19, Lecture Notes in Civil Engineering 46, https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030- 26365-2_55 [4] Chetan S.Patta, Prof. Smt. Varsha Gokak “Analysis of diagrid structure with irregularity” International Research Journal ofEngineeringandTechnology(IRJET) Volume: 05 Issue: 08 Aug 2018 [5] Saurabh Babhulkar, Kuldeep R Dabhekar, S.S. Sanghal, Isha P. Khedikar, “Comparative Study of Seismic Behavior of Diagrid Structure with Conventional Structure” IOP Conf. Series: Materials Science and Engineering 1197 (2021) 012049 doi:10.1088/1757- 899X/1197/1/012049