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International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET) e-ISSN: 2395-0056
Volume: 11 Issue: 01 | Jan 2024 www.irjet.net p-ISSN: 2395-0072
© 2024, IRJET | Impact Factor value: 8.226 | ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal | Page 104
A Comprehensive Review of Integrating IoT and Blockchain
Technologies in the Implementation of National Education Policy in
education sector
Sahil Sawant1, Prof. Ganesh .V. Manerkar2
1Student, Department of Information Technology and Engineering, Goa College of Engineering, Farmagudi, Goa,
India
2Assistant Professor, Department of Information Technology and Engineering, Goa College of Engineering,
Farmagudi, Goa, India
---------------------------------------------------------------------***---------------------------------------------------------------------
Abstract - This paper explores the synergistic application of
Internet of Things (IoT) and blockchain technologies to bolster the
successful implementation of National Education Policy (NEP)
initiatives in the education sector. As education undergoes
transformative changes, the integration of these technologies offers
promising solutions to address challenges related to data security,
transparency, and efficiency. The proposed framework includes
leveraging blockchain for secure student data management,
credential verification, and decentralized learning platforms.
Concurrently, IoT devices are employed to create smart classrooms,
automate attendance tracking, enable real-time monitoring, and
enhance the overall learning experience. The use of blockchain
ensures the integrity of examination processes and resource
allocation, while smart contracts automate agreements among
stakeholders. While highlighting the potential benefits, this paper
also emphasizes the need for careful consideration of challenges and
collaborative efforts among educational institutions, government
bodies, and technology providers. The envisioned integration of IoT
and blockchain technologies has the potential to revolutionize the
education landscape, fostering a more secure, transparent, and
efficient educational ecosystem aligned with the objectives of the
National Education Policy.
Key Words: Internet of Things (IOT), Blockchain, National
education policy(NEP), Security, communication
1.INTRODUCTION
In the wake of the evolving landscape of education, the
successful implementation of National Education Policy
(NEP) mandates a proactive embrace of innovative
technologies to address emerging challenges. This paper
explores the integration of two transformativetechnologies,
the Internet of Things (IoT) and blockchain, to enhance the
realization of NEP objectives within the education sector.
The convergence of these technologies holds the promise of
fostering a more secure, transparent, and efficient
educational ecosystem,aligningwiththeprinciplesandgoals
outlined in the NEP.
The advent of NEP signifies a paradigm shift in educational
strategies, emphasizing holistic learning, technological
integration, and adaptability. As institutions strive to meet
these objectives, there arises a critical need to harness
technological advancements that not only fortify data
security and privacy but also streamline administrative
processes and enhance the overall learning experience. In
this context, IoT and blockchain technologies emerge as key
enablers, offering solutions to various challenges
encountered in traditional education systems.
This paper delves intothepotential applicationsandbenefits
of integrating IoT and blockchain technologiesinthecontext
of NEP implementation. The ensuing discussion
encompasses a spectrum of educational facets, rangingfrom
securestudentdata management,credential verification, and
decentralized learning platformsfacilitatedby blockchain,to
the establishment of smart classrooms, automated
attendance tracking, and real-time monitoring enabled by
IoT devices. Additionally, the role of blockchain in securing
examination processesandresourceallocation,coupled with
the use of smart contracts for automating agreements, is
explored.
While illuminating the transformative potential of these
technologies, this paper also acknowledges the need for a
comprehensive understanding of associated challenges.
Infrastructure requirements, data privacy concerns, andthe
imperative for collaborative efforts among educational
institutions, government bodies, and technology providers
are essential considerations in the successful deployment of
IoT and blockchain in education. Through this exploration,
the paper endeavors to contribute insights that can guide
educators, policymakers, and technologists in leveraging
these technologies effectively to usher in a new era of
education aligned with the vision of the National Education
Policy.
2. LITERATURE REVIEW
The paper highlights the role of BlockchaininIOT.TheBCisa
chain of verified and cryptographic blocks of transactions
held by the device connected in a network.The blocks data
are stored in the digital ledger that is publicly shared and
distributed.The BC provides secure communication in IOT
International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET) e-ISSN: 2395-0056
Volume: 11 Issue: 01 | Jan 2024 www.irjet.net p-ISSN: 2395-0072
© 2024, IRJET | Impact Factor value: 8.226 | ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal | Page 105
network. The BC-IOT integration approach has a lot of
remarkable opportunities. [1]
The paper discusses on how blockchain and IOT can be used
to provide solution in education sector. BCcanbeusedinthe
management of certificates, retrieval of certificates and
handling. Making lecture plan for students IOT can be used
for effective feedback analysis Student feedback relates to
lecture quality IOT can be used to monitor student reaction
so that lecture quality can be tracked effectively. [2]
This paper discusses the challengesofIOTcentralizedmodel
like [3]
 Single Point of Failure
 Security and privacy
 Scalability - Centralized IoT model workswell with
limited IoT devices if number of IoT devices
increases the network gets complex and scalability
issues arises.
 Accessibility and Diversity- Heterogeneous IoT
devices connected to centralize IoT model causes
difficulties to access the network.
 Cost - The cost involved to maintain high capability
hardware and software of centralized server and
database.
 The integration of smart contracts and IoT leads to
secure sharing of information and provides
automated services to the users.
This paper discusses the cybersecurity issues of the
blockchain based IOT systems.The use of blockchain
technology for the Internet of Things (IoT) can help solve
various security and privacy issue. IoT systems are
vulnerable to several security threats like data breaches,
malware attacks and physical attacksBlockchaintechnology
can be used to improve the security of IoT systems in a
number of ways: [4]
 Encryption
 Authentication
 Access control
 Vulnerability management
3. OPPORTUNITIES
The BC-IoT integration approach has a lot of remarkable
opportunities. It opens the new doors for both together.
Some of the opportunities are described as follows.
1. Building the Trust between parties: The BC-IoT
approach will build trust among the various connected
devices because of its security features.Onlyverifieddevices
can communicate in the network and every block of the
transaction will first verify by the minersthentheycanenter
in the BC.
2. Reduce the Cost: This approach will reduce the cost
because it communicates directly without the third party. It
eliminates all the third-party nodes between the sender and
the receiver. It provides direct communication.
3: Reduce Time: This approach is reduced the time a lot. It
reduces the time taken in transactions from days to second.
4: Security and Privacy: It provides security and privacy to
the devices and information.
5. Social Services: This approach provides public andsocial
services to the connected devices. All connected devices can
communicate and exchange information between them.
6. financial Services: This approach transfer funds in a
secure way without the third party. It provides fast, secure
and private financial service. It reduced transfer cost and
time.
7. Risk management: Thisapproachisplayedtheimportant
roles to analyze and reduce the risk of failing the resources
and transactions
International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET) e-ISSN: 2395-0056
Volume: 11 Issue: 01 | Jan 2024 www.irjet.net p-ISSN: 2395-0072
© 2024, IRJET | Impact Factor value: 8.226 | ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal | Page 106
Fig -2: Opportunities in BC-IOT
4. NEP 2020 in engineering sector
NEP (National education Policy) is a 5+3+3+4 design
covering children in the age group of 3-18 years. It is a
reform in the current exams and assessment system.It focus
on strengthening of teacher training, and restructuring the
education regulatory framework in Higher Education, NEP,
2020 provides valuable insights and recommendations on
various aspects of education that include moving towards
multidisciplinary and holistic education,
Fig -3: Features of NEP
NEP-2020 provides scope for flexibility in earning academic
credits through differentmodesoflearningtoenableMXMEs
(Multiple Exit- Multiple Entry) culture. However, technical
institute have to assign minimum number of credits to be
earned by the student for award of a certificate/degree. In
this process, the studentshavetoundergofollowinglearning
process to realize the MXMEs:
•Finishing school/ Bridge courses to orient the student
aspiring for admission under MXME mode.
• In-house opportunities primarily at enrolled institute for
start-up or for employability while exit at any level.
• NEP-2020 enables plenty of opportunity for every learner
from undergraduate program to Ph.D. program. Therefore,
the curriculum will be tailored in accordancewithobjectives
of the program offering department in
the particular discipline, and vision-mission of the institute.
Thus, during MXMEs the student have to undergo the
finishing school/ bridge courses to become eligible for
higher studies, as well as enhance their skills to meet the
employability criteria, and also become a valuable resource
to the society. The execution aspects of the 6 Ms mentioned
in the previous section lies in the successful implementation
of the Flexible Academic Program (FAP). The entire process
of higher education is the interconnection of learning and
the development of competencies, academic mobility at
various stages of exits and entries, and integrating the
diverse educational options to converge at the level of
Masters and Doctorate degrees.
Fig -4: Programme Scheme in engineering
5. Methodology
The main idea in this paper revolves around developing
method for efficient implementing NEP in education sector
by using IOT and Blockchain. So here we will have different
department which will have control in determining
particular action in administration. This action can include
various things like monitoring student progress online,
keeping track of academic progress, relevant courses
completed by student. So each department will be
responsible for the verification of credentials of the student.
IOT devices can be used for storing the course
information(eg.Coursecompletedandthecertificatedetails)
and the Blockchain can be used along with it to secure the
information of the students. With this kind of system the
employers can verify the employee detailslikethe education
background and the course studied. Stakeholders have to
approve in order to grant the access of data.51% consensus
International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET) e-ISSN: 2395-0056
Volume: 11 Issue: 01 | Jan 2024 www.irjet.net p-ISSN: 2395-0072
© 2024, IRJET | Impact Factor value: 8.226 | ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal | Page 107
mechanism enables the security of the data. After the
approval from the stakeholders the data can be accessed for
the verification of candidate information by the employers.
Traditional IOT system involves centralized data server
which can sometimes crash due to technical glitches and
server attacks by fraudsters. Since all the data is stored on a
central server it can crash as it is easy target of attack. So
avoiding this centralized system we can use IOT along with
Blockchain to implement a distributed ledger system. Here
the data is with all the stakeholder of the system and the
stakeholders can provide their consent whether toacceptor
reject any system.
Fig -4: Proposed Idea
6. CONCLUSIONS
In conclusion, this review paper has examined the potential
of integrating Internet of Things (IoT) and blockchain
technologies as transformative tools in the realization ofthe
National Education Policy's (NEP) objectives within the
education sector. The synthesisofthesetechnologiesoffersa
compelling visionforaneducational landscapecharacterized
by enhanced security, transparency, and efficiency.
The exploration of blockchain applications in securing
student data, streamlining credential verification, and
fostering decentralized learning platforms underscores the
technology's potential to address critical challenges in data
management and authenticity. Concurrently, the
incorporation of IoT devices in creating smart classrooms,
automating attendance tracking, and facilitating real-time
monitoringexemplifieshow interconnectedtechnologies can
elevate the overall quality of the learning experience.
Moreover, the discussion on blockchain's role in securing
examination processes, ensuring fair resource allocation,
and the utilization of smart contracts for automating
agreements emphasizes the potential for these technologies
to bring about systemic changes in administrative and
governance aspects of education.
However, it is essential to acknowledge that the successful
implementation of IoT and blockchain in education is
contingent on addressing challenges such as infrastructure
requirements, data privacy concerns, and fostering
collaborative efforts among stakeholders. These challenges
necessitate a concerted commitment from educational
institutions,governmentbodies,andtechnologyprovidersto
create an environmentconducivetotheseamlessintegration
of these technologies.
As education stands on the precipice of transformation, the
insights presented in this paper aim to guide educators,
policymakers, and technologists toward harnessing the full
potential of IoT and blockchain technologies. By aligning
technological innovations with the objectives of theNEP,we
can aspire to create an educational ecosystem that is not
only adaptive to contemporary challengesbutalsopavesthe
way for a future where learning is secure, transparent, and
accessible to all. In essence, the fusion of IoT and blockchain
technologies offers a promising trajectory for the evolution
of education, marking a crucial steptowardtherealizationof
the NEP's vision.
7. Future Work:
While this review has provided valuable insights into the
integration of Internet of Things (IoT) and blockchain
technologies in the context of National Education Policy
(NEP) implementation, several avenues for future research
and development emerge. The following areas warrant
further exploration and investigation:
1. Implementation Studies:
- Conducting in-depth implementation studies in diverse
educational settings to understand the practical challenges,
successes, and lessons learned. This could involve pilot
programs or case studies to assess the scalability and
adaptability of IoT and blockchain solutions.
2. Privacy-Preserving Mechanisms:
- Developing and exploring advanced privacy-preserving
mechanisms within blockchain systems to addressconcerns
related to data privacy. This includes investigating
techniques such as zero-knowledge proofs or homomorphic
encryption to ensure confidentiality while leveraging
blockchain for educational data.
3. Interoperability Standards:
- Establishing interoperability standards for IoT devices
and blockchain platforms within the education sector. This
would facilitate seamless communicationanddata exchange
among different educational institutions and systems,
promoting a more cohesive and integrated ecosystem.
International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET) e-ISSN: 2395-0056
Volume: 11 Issue: 01 | Jan 2024 www.irjet.net p-ISSN: 2395-0072
© 2024, IRJET | Impact Factor value: 8.226 | ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal | Page 108
4. User Experience Studies:
- Conducting userexperiencestudiesto evaluatetheimpact
of IoT and blockchain technologies on various stakeholders,
including students, educators, administrators, and
employers. Understanding user perceptions and addressing
usability concerns is crucial for widespread adoption.
5. Scalability Considerations:
- Investigating and addressing scalability issuesassociated
with both IoT and blockchain technologies. As educational
ecosystems grow, it is essential to ensure that the proposed
solutions can handle increased data volume, transaction
throughput, and network demands.
6. Regulatory and Policy Frameworks:
- Developing regulatory frameworks and policies that
govern the use of IoT and blockchain in education. This
includes addressing legal and ethical considerations, data
ownership, and compliance with existing regulations to
provide a clear and supportive environment for
implementation.
By addressing these areas in future research endeavors, the
education sector can continue to harness thepotential ofIoT
and blockchain technologies, ensuring a sustainable,
inclusive, and technologically advanced learning
environment in alignment with the goals of the National
Education Policy.
REFERENCES
[1] Tanweer Alam,” Blockchain and its Role in the
Internet of Things (IoT) ”, International Journal of
Scientific Research in Computer Science,
Engineering and Information Technology 2019
IJSRCSEIT | Volume 5 | Issue 1 | ISSN : 2456-3307
[2] Parul Agarwal,“Blockchain and IoT Technology in
Transformation of Education Sector”, International
Journal of Online andBiomedical Engineering(iJOE)
· November 2021
[3] Arshiya S Mohmmad,”Integration of IoT and
Blockchain”,Technium Vol. 3, Issue 8 pp.32-41
(2021) ISSN: 2668-778X
[4] Razan Alajlan,“Cybersecurity for Blockchain-Based
IoT Systems: A Review”, Appl. Sci. 2023, 13,
7432.https://doi.org/10.3390/app13137432 MDPI
[5] Zheng, Zibin, et al. "Blockchain challenges and
opportunities: A survey." International Journal of
Web and Grid Services 14.4 (2018): 352-375. DOI:
https://doi.org/10.1504/IJWGS.2018.095
[6] Reyna, Ana, et al. "On blockchain and its integration
with IoT. Challenges and opportunities." Future
Generation Computer Systems (2018). DOI:
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.future.2018.05.046
[7] Huh, S., Cho, S., and Kim, S. (2017). “Managing IoT
Devices using Blockchain Platform,” in Proceedings
of the 19th International Conference on Advanced
Communication Technology (Piscataway,NJ:IEEE),
464–467.
[8] Dorri, A., Kanhere, S., and Jurdak, R. (2017).
“Towards an Optimized BlockChain for IoT,”in
Proceedings of the IEEE/ACM Second International
Conference on Internet-of-Things Design and
Implementation (Piscataway, NJ: IEEE), 173–178.
[9] Yli-Huumo, J., Ko, D., Choi, S., Park, S., and
Smolander, K. Where is current research
onBlockchain technology? A systematic review.
PLoS One 11(10), e0163477 (2016).
https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0163477
[10] Han, M., Li, Z., He, J. S., Wu, D., Xie, Y., and Baba, A. A
Novel Blockchain-based Education Records
Verification Solution. In Proceedings of the 19th
Annual SIG Conference on Information Technology
Education, Fort Lauderdale, FL, USA, 3–6 October
2018; pp. 178–183.
https://doi.org/10.1145/3241815.3241870
[11] Cornel C., and Ph, D. “The Role of Internet of Things
for a Continuous Improvement in Education,”vol.2,
no. 2, pp. 24–31, 2015.
[12] Oriwoh E., and Conrad, M. “Things”intheInternetof
Things :TowardsaDefinition,” vol. 4, no. 1, pp. 1– 5,
2015.
[13] Kahlert, M., Understanding customer acceptance of
Internet of Things services in retailing:an empirical
study about the moderating effect of degree of
technological autonomy and shopping motivations.
2016, University of Twente.
[14] Kosba, A., Miller, A., Shi, E., Wen, Z., and
Papamanthou, C., in 2016 IEEE Symposium on
Security and Privacy (SP). Hawk: The Blockchain
Model of Cryptography and Privacy-Preserving
Smart Contracts (2016), pp. 839–858.
https://doi.org/10.1109/SP.2016.55

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A Comprehensive Review of Integrating IoT and Blockchain Technologies in the Implementation of National Education Policy in education sector

  • 1. International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET) e-ISSN: 2395-0056 Volume: 11 Issue: 01 | Jan 2024 www.irjet.net p-ISSN: 2395-0072 © 2024, IRJET | Impact Factor value: 8.226 | ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal | Page 104 A Comprehensive Review of Integrating IoT and Blockchain Technologies in the Implementation of National Education Policy in education sector Sahil Sawant1, Prof. Ganesh .V. Manerkar2 1Student, Department of Information Technology and Engineering, Goa College of Engineering, Farmagudi, Goa, India 2Assistant Professor, Department of Information Technology and Engineering, Goa College of Engineering, Farmagudi, Goa, India ---------------------------------------------------------------------***--------------------------------------------------------------------- Abstract - This paper explores the synergistic application of Internet of Things (IoT) and blockchain technologies to bolster the successful implementation of National Education Policy (NEP) initiatives in the education sector. As education undergoes transformative changes, the integration of these technologies offers promising solutions to address challenges related to data security, transparency, and efficiency. The proposed framework includes leveraging blockchain for secure student data management, credential verification, and decentralized learning platforms. Concurrently, IoT devices are employed to create smart classrooms, automate attendance tracking, enable real-time monitoring, and enhance the overall learning experience. The use of blockchain ensures the integrity of examination processes and resource allocation, while smart contracts automate agreements among stakeholders. While highlighting the potential benefits, this paper also emphasizes the need for careful consideration of challenges and collaborative efforts among educational institutions, government bodies, and technology providers. The envisioned integration of IoT and blockchain technologies has the potential to revolutionize the education landscape, fostering a more secure, transparent, and efficient educational ecosystem aligned with the objectives of the National Education Policy. Key Words: Internet of Things (IOT), Blockchain, National education policy(NEP), Security, communication 1.INTRODUCTION In the wake of the evolving landscape of education, the successful implementation of National Education Policy (NEP) mandates a proactive embrace of innovative technologies to address emerging challenges. This paper explores the integration of two transformativetechnologies, the Internet of Things (IoT) and blockchain, to enhance the realization of NEP objectives within the education sector. The convergence of these technologies holds the promise of fostering a more secure, transparent, and efficient educational ecosystem,aligningwiththeprinciplesandgoals outlined in the NEP. The advent of NEP signifies a paradigm shift in educational strategies, emphasizing holistic learning, technological integration, and adaptability. As institutions strive to meet these objectives, there arises a critical need to harness technological advancements that not only fortify data security and privacy but also streamline administrative processes and enhance the overall learning experience. In this context, IoT and blockchain technologies emerge as key enablers, offering solutions to various challenges encountered in traditional education systems. This paper delves intothepotential applicationsandbenefits of integrating IoT and blockchain technologiesinthecontext of NEP implementation. The ensuing discussion encompasses a spectrum of educational facets, rangingfrom securestudentdata management,credential verification, and decentralized learning platformsfacilitatedby blockchain,to the establishment of smart classrooms, automated attendance tracking, and real-time monitoring enabled by IoT devices. Additionally, the role of blockchain in securing examination processesandresourceallocation,coupled with the use of smart contracts for automating agreements, is explored. While illuminating the transformative potential of these technologies, this paper also acknowledges the need for a comprehensive understanding of associated challenges. Infrastructure requirements, data privacy concerns, andthe imperative for collaborative efforts among educational institutions, government bodies, and technology providers are essential considerations in the successful deployment of IoT and blockchain in education. Through this exploration, the paper endeavors to contribute insights that can guide educators, policymakers, and technologists in leveraging these technologies effectively to usher in a new era of education aligned with the vision of the National Education Policy. 2. LITERATURE REVIEW The paper highlights the role of BlockchaininIOT.TheBCisa chain of verified and cryptographic blocks of transactions held by the device connected in a network.The blocks data are stored in the digital ledger that is publicly shared and distributed.The BC provides secure communication in IOT
  • 2. International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET) e-ISSN: 2395-0056 Volume: 11 Issue: 01 | Jan 2024 www.irjet.net p-ISSN: 2395-0072 © 2024, IRJET | Impact Factor value: 8.226 | ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal | Page 105 network. The BC-IOT integration approach has a lot of remarkable opportunities. [1] The paper discusses on how blockchain and IOT can be used to provide solution in education sector. BCcanbeusedinthe management of certificates, retrieval of certificates and handling. Making lecture plan for students IOT can be used for effective feedback analysis Student feedback relates to lecture quality IOT can be used to monitor student reaction so that lecture quality can be tracked effectively. [2] This paper discusses the challengesofIOTcentralizedmodel like [3]  Single Point of Failure  Security and privacy  Scalability - Centralized IoT model workswell with limited IoT devices if number of IoT devices increases the network gets complex and scalability issues arises.  Accessibility and Diversity- Heterogeneous IoT devices connected to centralize IoT model causes difficulties to access the network.  Cost - The cost involved to maintain high capability hardware and software of centralized server and database.  The integration of smart contracts and IoT leads to secure sharing of information and provides automated services to the users. This paper discusses the cybersecurity issues of the blockchain based IOT systems.The use of blockchain technology for the Internet of Things (IoT) can help solve various security and privacy issue. IoT systems are vulnerable to several security threats like data breaches, malware attacks and physical attacksBlockchaintechnology can be used to improve the security of IoT systems in a number of ways: [4]  Encryption  Authentication  Access control  Vulnerability management 3. OPPORTUNITIES The BC-IoT integration approach has a lot of remarkable opportunities. It opens the new doors for both together. Some of the opportunities are described as follows. 1. Building the Trust between parties: The BC-IoT approach will build trust among the various connected devices because of its security features.Onlyverifieddevices can communicate in the network and every block of the transaction will first verify by the minersthentheycanenter in the BC. 2. Reduce the Cost: This approach will reduce the cost because it communicates directly without the third party. It eliminates all the third-party nodes between the sender and the receiver. It provides direct communication. 3: Reduce Time: This approach is reduced the time a lot. It reduces the time taken in transactions from days to second. 4: Security and Privacy: It provides security and privacy to the devices and information. 5. Social Services: This approach provides public andsocial services to the connected devices. All connected devices can communicate and exchange information between them. 6. financial Services: This approach transfer funds in a secure way without the third party. It provides fast, secure and private financial service. It reduced transfer cost and time. 7. Risk management: Thisapproachisplayedtheimportant roles to analyze and reduce the risk of failing the resources and transactions
  • 3. International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET) e-ISSN: 2395-0056 Volume: 11 Issue: 01 | Jan 2024 www.irjet.net p-ISSN: 2395-0072 © 2024, IRJET | Impact Factor value: 8.226 | ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal | Page 106 Fig -2: Opportunities in BC-IOT 4. NEP 2020 in engineering sector NEP (National education Policy) is a 5+3+3+4 design covering children in the age group of 3-18 years. It is a reform in the current exams and assessment system.It focus on strengthening of teacher training, and restructuring the education regulatory framework in Higher Education, NEP, 2020 provides valuable insights and recommendations on various aspects of education that include moving towards multidisciplinary and holistic education, Fig -3: Features of NEP NEP-2020 provides scope for flexibility in earning academic credits through differentmodesoflearningtoenableMXMEs (Multiple Exit- Multiple Entry) culture. However, technical institute have to assign minimum number of credits to be earned by the student for award of a certificate/degree. In this process, the studentshavetoundergofollowinglearning process to realize the MXMEs: •Finishing school/ Bridge courses to orient the student aspiring for admission under MXME mode. • In-house opportunities primarily at enrolled institute for start-up or for employability while exit at any level. • NEP-2020 enables plenty of opportunity for every learner from undergraduate program to Ph.D. program. Therefore, the curriculum will be tailored in accordancewithobjectives of the program offering department in the particular discipline, and vision-mission of the institute. Thus, during MXMEs the student have to undergo the finishing school/ bridge courses to become eligible for higher studies, as well as enhance their skills to meet the employability criteria, and also become a valuable resource to the society. The execution aspects of the 6 Ms mentioned in the previous section lies in the successful implementation of the Flexible Academic Program (FAP). The entire process of higher education is the interconnection of learning and the development of competencies, academic mobility at various stages of exits and entries, and integrating the diverse educational options to converge at the level of Masters and Doctorate degrees. Fig -4: Programme Scheme in engineering 5. Methodology The main idea in this paper revolves around developing method for efficient implementing NEP in education sector by using IOT and Blockchain. So here we will have different department which will have control in determining particular action in administration. This action can include various things like monitoring student progress online, keeping track of academic progress, relevant courses completed by student. So each department will be responsible for the verification of credentials of the student. IOT devices can be used for storing the course information(eg.Coursecompletedandthecertificatedetails) and the Blockchain can be used along with it to secure the information of the students. With this kind of system the employers can verify the employee detailslikethe education background and the course studied. Stakeholders have to approve in order to grant the access of data.51% consensus
  • 4. International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET) e-ISSN: 2395-0056 Volume: 11 Issue: 01 | Jan 2024 www.irjet.net p-ISSN: 2395-0072 © 2024, IRJET | Impact Factor value: 8.226 | ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal | Page 107 mechanism enables the security of the data. After the approval from the stakeholders the data can be accessed for the verification of candidate information by the employers. Traditional IOT system involves centralized data server which can sometimes crash due to technical glitches and server attacks by fraudsters. Since all the data is stored on a central server it can crash as it is easy target of attack. So avoiding this centralized system we can use IOT along with Blockchain to implement a distributed ledger system. Here the data is with all the stakeholder of the system and the stakeholders can provide their consent whether toacceptor reject any system. Fig -4: Proposed Idea 6. CONCLUSIONS In conclusion, this review paper has examined the potential of integrating Internet of Things (IoT) and blockchain technologies as transformative tools in the realization ofthe National Education Policy's (NEP) objectives within the education sector. The synthesisofthesetechnologiesoffersa compelling visionforaneducational landscapecharacterized by enhanced security, transparency, and efficiency. The exploration of blockchain applications in securing student data, streamlining credential verification, and fostering decentralized learning platforms underscores the technology's potential to address critical challenges in data management and authenticity. Concurrently, the incorporation of IoT devices in creating smart classrooms, automating attendance tracking, and facilitating real-time monitoringexemplifieshow interconnectedtechnologies can elevate the overall quality of the learning experience. Moreover, the discussion on blockchain's role in securing examination processes, ensuring fair resource allocation, and the utilization of smart contracts for automating agreements emphasizes the potential for these technologies to bring about systemic changes in administrative and governance aspects of education. However, it is essential to acknowledge that the successful implementation of IoT and blockchain in education is contingent on addressing challenges such as infrastructure requirements, data privacy concerns, and fostering collaborative efforts among stakeholders. These challenges necessitate a concerted commitment from educational institutions,governmentbodies,andtechnologyprovidersto create an environmentconducivetotheseamlessintegration of these technologies. As education stands on the precipice of transformation, the insights presented in this paper aim to guide educators, policymakers, and technologists toward harnessing the full potential of IoT and blockchain technologies. By aligning technological innovations with the objectives of theNEP,we can aspire to create an educational ecosystem that is not only adaptive to contemporary challengesbutalsopavesthe way for a future where learning is secure, transparent, and accessible to all. In essence, the fusion of IoT and blockchain technologies offers a promising trajectory for the evolution of education, marking a crucial steptowardtherealizationof the NEP's vision. 7. Future Work: While this review has provided valuable insights into the integration of Internet of Things (IoT) and blockchain technologies in the context of National Education Policy (NEP) implementation, several avenues for future research and development emerge. The following areas warrant further exploration and investigation: 1. Implementation Studies: - Conducting in-depth implementation studies in diverse educational settings to understand the practical challenges, successes, and lessons learned. This could involve pilot programs or case studies to assess the scalability and adaptability of IoT and blockchain solutions. 2. Privacy-Preserving Mechanisms: - Developing and exploring advanced privacy-preserving mechanisms within blockchain systems to addressconcerns related to data privacy. This includes investigating techniques such as zero-knowledge proofs or homomorphic encryption to ensure confidentiality while leveraging blockchain for educational data. 3. Interoperability Standards: - Establishing interoperability standards for IoT devices and blockchain platforms within the education sector. This would facilitate seamless communicationanddata exchange among different educational institutions and systems, promoting a more cohesive and integrated ecosystem.
  • 5. International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET) e-ISSN: 2395-0056 Volume: 11 Issue: 01 | Jan 2024 www.irjet.net p-ISSN: 2395-0072 © 2024, IRJET | Impact Factor value: 8.226 | ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal | Page 108 4. User Experience Studies: - Conducting userexperiencestudiesto evaluatetheimpact of IoT and blockchain technologies on various stakeholders, including students, educators, administrators, and employers. Understanding user perceptions and addressing usability concerns is crucial for widespread adoption. 5. Scalability Considerations: - Investigating and addressing scalability issuesassociated with both IoT and blockchain technologies. As educational ecosystems grow, it is essential to ensure that the proposed solutions can handle increased data volume, transaction throughput, and network demands. 6. Regulatory and Policy Frameworks: - Developing regulatory frameworks and policies that govern the use of IoT and blockchain in education. This includes addressing legal and ethical considerations, data ownership, and compliance with existing regulations to provide a clear and supportive environment for implementation. By addressing these areas in future research endeavors, the education sector can continue to harness thepotential ofIoT and blockchain technologies, ensuring a sustainable, inclusive, and technologically advanced learning environment in alignment with the goals of the National Education Policy. REFERENCES [1] Tanweer Alam,” Blockchain and its Role in the Internet of Things (IoT) ”, International Journal of Scientific Research in Computer Science, Engineering and Information Technology 2019 IJSRCSEIT | Volume 5 | Issue 1 | ISSN : 2456-3307 [2] Parul Agarwal,“Blockchain and IoT Technology in Transformation of Education Sector”, International Journal of Online andBiomedical Engineering(iJOE) · November 2021 [3] Arshiya S Mohmmad,”Integration of IoT and Blockchain”,Technium Vol. 3, Issue 8 pp.32-41 (2021) ISSN: 2668-778X [4] Razan Alajlan,“Cybersecurity for Blockchain-Based IoT Systems: A Review”, Appl. Sci. 2023, 13, 7432.https://doi.org/10.3390/app13137432 MDPI [5] Zheng, Zibin, et al. "Blockchain challenges and opportunities: A survey." International Journal of Web and Grid Services 14.4 (2018): 352-375. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1504/IJWGS.2018.095 [6] Reyna, Ana, et al. "On blockchain and its integration with IoT. Challenges and opportunities." Future Generation Computer Systems (2018). DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.future.2018.05.046 [7] Huh, S., Cho, S., and Kim, S. (2017). “Managing IoT Devices using Blockchain Platform,” in Proceedings of the 19th International Conference on Advanced Communication Technology (Piscataway,NJ:IEEE), 464–467. [8] Dorri, A., Kanhere, S., and Jurdak, R. (2017). “Towards an Optimized BlockChain for IoT,”in Proceedings of the IEEE/ACM Second International Conference on Internet-of-Things Design and Implementation (Piscataway, NJ: IEEE), 173–178. [9] Yli-Huumo, J., Ko, D., Choi, S., Park, S., and Smolander, K. Where is current research onBlockchain technology? A systematic review. PLoS One 11(10), e0163477 (2016). https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0163477 [10] Han, M., Li, Z., He, J. S., Wu, D., Xie, Y., and Baba, A. A Novel Blockchain-based Education Records Verification Solution. In Proceedings of the 19th Annual SIG Conference on Information Technology Education, Fort Lauderdale, FL, USA, 3–6 October 2018; pp. 178–183. https://doi.org/10.1145/3241815.3241870 [11] Cornel C., and Ph, D. “The Role of Internet of Things for a Continuous Improvement in Education,”vol.2, no. 2, pp. 24–31, 2015. [12] Oriwoh E., and Conrad, M. “Things”intheInternetof Things :TowardsaDefinition,” vol. 4, no. 1, pp. 1– 5, 2015. [13] Kahlert, M., Understanding customer acceptance of Internet of Things services in retailing:an empirical study about the moderating effect of degree of technological autonomy and shopping motivations. 2016, University of Twente. [14] Kosba, A., Miller, A., Shi, E., Wen, Z., and Papamanthou, C., in 2016 IEEE Symposium on Security and Privacy (SP). Hawk: The Blockchain Model of Cryptography and Privacy-Preserving Smart Contracts (2016), pp. 839–858. https://doi.org/10.1109/SP.2016.55