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International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET) e-ISSN: 2395-0056
Volume: 11 Issue: 01 | Jan 2024 www.irjet.net p-ISSN: 2395-0072
© 2024, IRJET | Impact Factor value: 8.226 | ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal | Page 747
TUNNELING IN HIMALAYAS WITH NATM METHOD: A SPECIAL
REFERENCES TO SUNGAL TUNNEL IN JAMMU – POONCH HIGHWAY
ALIGNMENT AREAS OF J&K (UT)
Vishal verma1, Er. Shilpa Chauhan2
1M.tech Student, Rayat Bahra Univeristy
2Asst.Professor, Rayat Bahra Univeristy, Mohali, India.
--------------------------------------------------------------------------***----------------------------------------------------------------------------
Abstract
The Sungal Tunnel Work is ongoing Project using NATM method in Jammu Region Falls under Chowkichaura (Akhnoor) and
Bhambla (Reasi) of J&K (UT). Based on NATM method the tunnel work became more sophicated, easier and with safety that
bears pressure build up by enclosing rock mass and also made sismologically resistant zone. A brief about NATM methods in
tunneling in Himalayas zone special with the Sungal tunnel is also discussed in the present paper.
Key Words: Sungal Tunnel, NATM, Shotcrete, Mucking, Rock bolting, chowkichaura (Akhnnor), Bhambla (Reasi) J&K (UT).
INTRODUCTION
This paper is based on the observations made during the construction of the tunnels in Jammu Akhnoor- Poonch Highway
Project (NH-144A Project). The project is in Himalayan range with varying geological conditions the most effective method for
tunnel construction seems to be the New Austrian Tunneling Method (NATM) which works on the principle of continuous
observations after each execution cycle.
Tunneling in the young Himalayan Mountains having challenges due to existing Physical structure like faults and folds, other
stratigraphic and tectonic activities. Performing detailed site investigation in this type of area becomes most prerequisite
criteria to design a particular tunnel which will facilitate the smooth construction of the tunnel. The Sungal tunnel a highway
tunnel under NH-144A constructing in this area. During the construction we use different method to excavate the tunnel.
Among all available tunneling construction methods, the New Austrian Tunneling Method is the most suitable method of
tunneling construction in such varying unfavorable condition. The ground opening act as load bearing structural component.
Drilling and blasting methods are adopted in the excavation of tunnel in NATM technique in rock with the shotcrete and rock
bolts used as the main support system (Sauer and Gold 1989). The New Austrian Tunneling Method is flexible to adopt
different exaction geometries, large cross section area, change of support system at any time, easy to install etc.
International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET) e-ISSN: 2395-0056
Volume: 11 Issue: 01 | Jan 2024 www.irjet.net p-ISSN: 2395-0072
© 2024, IRJET | Impact Factor value: 8.226 | ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal | Page 748
PROJECT OVERVIEW
Photo 1: Showing overview of study area
The study area lies in the foothills of Himalaya and hence is marked by rugged relief consisting lofty ridges and deep V-shaped
valleys and gorges. The area of interest is drained by the mighty Chenab River in the east and Chander Khad and Barakh Khad
to the west of the Project side.
The Sungal Tunnel is -
of 677.469m and western portal at EI. 697.860m. Tunnel alignment is marked by undulating topography with 3 apex and 3
valleys. The first apex along the tunnel alignment exists at elevation of 762m providing rock cover 72m above the tunnel. The
second apex having elevation of 1006m with associated rock cover of 300m. The third apex with elevation of 970m providing
rock cover of 270m.
Seismology
As per seismic zone map of India the project lies in the seismic zone IV and according to GSHAP (Global seismic Hazards
Assessment Program), the area falls in a region of high seismic hazard. Historically, parts of the Jammu and Kashmir UT have
experienced seismic activity in 6.0-6.5 Richter scale range.
METHODOLOGY
NATM (New Austrian Tunneling Method) NATM is both a construction and a design philosophy. The philosophy is to use the
strength of the surrounding soil to the extent possible to strengthen the tunnel structure. Another mean, ground condition
drive the tunneling operation. The NATM philosophy promotes constant monitoring.
International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET) e-ISSN: 2395-0056
Volume: 11 Issue: 01 | Jan 2024 www.irjet.net p-ISSN: 2395-0072
© 2024, IRJET | Impact Factor value: 8.226 | ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal | Page 749
T NATM ’ c c f c f f c xc f c f c piece of
equipment. NATM is adapted to each project and it is often updated during excavation in order to changes in geometric
conditions and the nature of the ground. NATM method makes extensive use of shotcrete for the temporary liner in an attempt
to optimize both the amount and timing of support.
Prior to Excavate the tunnel Geotechnical Investigation performed. The Austrian Guideline procedure of geotechnical
design is represented as an array of studies depicted in the flow chart below.
Determination of
GROUND TYPES(Rock classes)
Tabular table: Showing Systematic Procedure for geotechnical design for tunnel
Ground Water Primary stresses
Orientation
Ground structure-tunnel
Size, shape, location of structure
Determination of
GROUND BEHAVIOUR
Assessment of boundary
conditions
Definition of requirement (RQ)
Selection of construction concept
Evaluation of system behavior in
excavation area
Detailed determination of
construction measures and
evaluation of
SYSTEM BEHAVIOUR (SB)
Geotechnical relevant parameters
International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET) e-ISSN: 2395-0056
Volume: 11 Issue: 01 | Jan 2024 www.irjet.net p-ISSN: 2395-0072
© 2024, IRJET | Impact Factor value: 8.226 | ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal | Page 750
NATM METHODS IN CONSTRUCTION OF TUNNELS
Tunnel: A tunnel is an underground or undersea passageway. It is dug through surrounding soil, earth or rock , or laid under
water, and is enclosed except for the entrance and exist, commonly at each end. Tunnels are constructed for Railway and
Highway facilities for public convenient .In India first tunnel was Parsik Railway tunnel which was constructed in the Parsik
hill in Thane, Maharashtra, India. Initially tunnels were constructed with convential method which is oldest method but now a
days NATM method is most useful technique to excavate tunnels.
Tunnel includes two types of support
1. Primary support: a) Profile marking b) Drilling, Loading, charging and Blast
c) Defuming d) mucking e) Chipping / breaking and scaling
f) Bottom cleaning g) Geological Face mapping
h) Initial shotcrete layer i) RIB (ISHB)/LG (Lattices girder)
j) Second shotcrete layer
2. Secondary support: Lining
For making tunnels we should have clear land near the Portals and there should be no populated areas which can be affected
by the tunnels works. In prior tunnels were made by conventional methods but present days we are using NATM(NEW
AUSTRIA TUNNELING METHOD).There are two approaches for making tunnels i.e outside and inside the tunnels, Outside
tunnel consists of portal making works and Inside activities are as follows:
1. Profile marking: In profile marking surveyor mark the face of the tunnel with paints/sprays for further activity.
2. Drilling, Loading, charging and Blast: It comprises drilling at tunnel face at given marks by the surveyor. After
completion of drilling loading and charging work started and taken Blast.
International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET) e-ISSN: 2395-0056
Volume: 11 Issue: 01 | Jan 2024 www.irjet.net p-ISSN: 2395-0072
© 2024, IRJET | Impact Factor value: 8.226 | ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal | Page 751
3. Defuming: After blast many gases and fogs defumed by ventilation Fan.
4. Mucking: Muck means broken fragments of rocks resulting after blast. Muck Transported from inside to outside the
tunnel by using dumper and dumped at approved dumping yard.
5. Chipping /breaking and scaling: After completion of mucking the hanged rock mass are scaled by breaker.
6. Bottom cleaning: Bottom cleaning comprises making platform for the machineries for the further activities.
International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET) e-ISSN: 2395-0056
Volume: 11 Issue: 01 | Jan 2024 www.irjet.net p-ISSN: 2395-0072
© 2024, IRJET | Impact Factor value: 8.226 | ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal | Page 752
7. Geological Face mapping: After completion of chipping, breaking and bottom cleaning a geologist has to prepare face log
through observing the rock, joint patterns, orientations present at tunnel face.
8. Initial shortcrete layer: To maintain standup time and reduce moisture content of the rock initial shotcrete layer has to
be done.
9. RIB (ISHB)/LG (Lattices girder): After initial layer of shotcrete, heavy steel beams are used to strengthen the tunnel and
maintain the tunnel profile.
International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET) e-ISSN: 2395-0056
Volume: 11 Issue: 01 | Jan 2024 www.irjet.net p-ISSN: 2395-0072
© 2024, IRJET | Impact Factor value: 8.226 | ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal | Page 753
10. Second shotcrete layer : After the installation of heavy beams of steels second layer of shotcrete has to be done .
SECONDARY SUPPORT
The Lining is the secondary support in tunneling using NATM method which consists of number of stages.
a) Cutting, padding and smooth layer of shotcrete.
b) Stitching of water proofing membrane and Geotextile.
International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET) e-ISSN: 2395-0056
Volume: 11 Issue: 01 | Jan 2024 www.irjet.net p-ISSN: 2395-0072
© 2024, IRJET | Impact Factor value: 8.226 | ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal | Page 754
c) Leveling PCC and construction of kicker kerbs.
d) Erection of Gantry and pouring.
CONCLUSION
After a detailed study carried out on the tunneling in the Himalaya with special references to Sungal tunnel under NH-144A in
the Jammu – Poonch alignment with respect to NATM method. It has been observed that construction of tunnel in Himalaya
zone with NATM is more convenient as compared to conventional method.
NATM is based on the observational approach whole outcome depends on the Geological interpretation and 3D Monitoring
data. This method provides flexibility to change the support systems at regular intervals depending on received data from face
logs and 3D monitoring. A quick analysis is done and applied on the field saving time, money and material. With this approach
and sequence followed better progress is achieved in a safer environment.
REFERENCES
1. Adachi, T., "Some Supporting Methods for Tunneling in J T A y c S ,” P c , F f
lntemational Conference on Numerical Methods in Geomechanics, Vol. 4, 1985, pp. 1747-1754.
2. A c , T , T , T , S k , M ”A y c Ex S y T S System" Proceedings, 4th
Intemational Conference on Numerical Methods in Geomechanics, Vol. 2, 1982, pp. 513-522.
3. Kovari K. 1994. Erronomeous concepts behind the New Austrian Tunnelling Method, Tunnels and Tunnelling, November
1994, Vol. 26, 38-42
International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET) e-ISSN: 2395-0056
Volume: 11 Issue: 01 | Jan 2024 www.irjet.net p-ISSN: 2395-0072
© 2024, IRJET | Impact Factor value: 8.226 | ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal | Page 755
4. Alan Muir Wood (2002). Tunneling: Management by Design. Abingdon, UK: Taylor & Francis. p. 328. ISBN 978-0-419-
23200-1.
5. Cater, R. W., Shirlaw, J. N., Sullivan, C. A., Chan, W. T. "Tunnels Constructed for the Hong Kong Mass Transit Railway/'
Hong Kong Engineer, October 1984, pp. 37-49.
6. Levent Özdemir (2006). North American Tunneling. Abingdon, UK: Taylor & Francis. p. 246. ISBN 0-415-40128-3.
7. Deinard M, Prinz H and Zeidler K (1991), Variations on a NATM Theme, Tunnels and Tunnelling November.
8. Barton N., Lien R. and Lunde J., 1974. Engineering classification of rock masses for the design of tunnel support. Rock
Mechanics, Vol. 6, Pages 189-236.
9. Suuer G. 1988.When an invention is something is new: from practice to theory in tunneling, Transactions of the
Institution of mining and metallurgy, vol 97, section A94-A108.
10. Wallis S. (1995), First principles of NATM, World Tunnelling, Vol. 8, 197-200.

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TUNNELING IN HIMALAYAS WITH NATM METHOD: A SPECIAL REFERENCES TO SUNGAL TUNNEL IN JAMMU – POONCH HIGHWAY ALIGNMENT AREAS OF J&K (UT)

  • 1. International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET) e-ISSN: 2395-0056 Volume: 11 Issue: 01 | Jan 2024 www.irjet.net p-ISSN: 2395-0072 © 2024, IRJET | Impact Factor value: 8.226 | ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal | Page 747 TUNNELING IN HIMALAYAS WITH NATM METHOD: A SPECIAL REFERENCES TO SUNGAL TUNNEL IN JAMMU – POONCH HIGHWAY ALIGNMENT AREAS OF J&K (UT) Vishal verma1, Er. Shilpa Chauhan2 1M.tech Student, Rayat Bahra Univeristy 2Asst.Professor, Rayat Bahra Univeristy, Mohali, India. --------------------------------------------------------------------------***---------------------------------------------------------------------------- Abstract The Sungal Tunnel Work is ongoing Project using NATM method in Jammu Region Falls under Chowkichaura (Akhnoor) and Bhambla (Reasi) of J&K (UT). Based on NATM method the tunnel work became more sophicated, easier and with safety that bears pressure build up by enclosing rock mass and also made sismologically resistant zone. A brief about NATM methods in tunneling in Himalayas zone special with the Sungal tunnel is also discussed in the present paper. Key Words: Sungal Tunnel, NATM, Shotcrete, Mucking, Rock bolting, chowkichaura (Akhnnor), Bhambla (Reasi) J&K (UT). INTRODUCTION This paper is based on the observations made during the construction of the tunnels in Jammu Akhnoor- Poonch Highway Project (NH-144A Project). The project is in Himalayan range with varying geological conditions the most effective method for tunnel construction seems to be the New Austrian Tunneling Method (NATM) which works on the principle of continuous observations after each execution cycle. Tunneling in the young Himalayan Mountains having challenges due to existing Physical structure like faults and folds, other stratigraphic and tectonic activities. Performing detailed site investigation in this type of area becomes most prerequisite criteria to design a particular tunnel which will facilitate the smooth construction of the tunnel. The Sungal tunnel a highway tunnel under NH-144A constructing in this area. During the construction we use different method to excavate the tunnel. Among all available tunneling construction methods, the New Austrian Tunneling Method is the most suitable method of tunneling construction in such varying unfavorable condition. The ground opening act as load bearing structural component. Drilling and blasting methods are adopted in the excavation of tunnel in NATM technique in rock with the shotcrete and rock bolts used as the main support system (Sauer and Gold 1989). The New Austrian Tunneling Method is flexible to adopt different exaction geometries, large cross section area, change of support system at any time, easy to install etc.
  • 2. International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET) e-ISSN: 2395-0056 Volume: 11 Issue: 01 | Jan 2024 www.irjet.net p-ISSN: 2395-0072 © 2024, IRJET | Impact Factor value: 8.226 | ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal | Page 748 PROJECT OVERVIEW Photo 1: Showing overview of study area The study area lies in the foothills of Himalaya and hence is marked by rugged relief consisting lofty ridges and deep V-shaped valleys and gorges. The area of interest is drained by the mighty Chenab River in the east and Chander Khad and Barakh Khad to the west of the Project side. The Sungal Tunnel is - of 677.469m and western portal at EI. 697.860m. Tunnel alignment is marked by undulating topography with 3 apex and 3 valleys. The first apex along the tunnel alignment exists at elevation of 762m providing rock cover 72m above the tunnel. The second apex having elevation of 1006m with associated rock cover of 300m. The third apex with elevation of 970m providing rock cover of 270m. Seismology As per seismic zone map of India the project lies in the seismic zone IV and according to GSHAP (Global seismic Hazards Assessment Program), the area falls in a region of high seismic hazard. Historically, parts of the Jammu and Kashmir UT have experienced seismic activity in 6.0-6.5 Richter scale range. METHODOLOGY NATM (New Austrian Tunneling Method) NATM is both a construction and a design philosophy. The philosophy is to use the strength of the surrounding soil to the extent possible to strengthen the tunnel structure. Another mean, ground condition drive the tunneling operation. The NATM philosophy promotes constant monitoring.
  • 3. International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET) e-ISSN: 2395-0056 Volume: 11 Issue: 01 | Jan 2024 www.irjet.net p-ISSN: 2395-0072 © 2024, IRJET | Impact Factor value: 8.226 | ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal | Page 749 T NATM ’ c c f c f f c xc f c f c piece of equipment. NATM is adapted to each project and it is often updated during excavation in order to changes in geometric conditions and the nature of the ground. NATM method makes extensive use of shotcrete for the temporary liner in an attempt to optimize both the amount and timing of support. Prior to Excavate the tunnel Geotechnical Investigation performed. The Austrian Guideline procedure of geotechnical design is represented as an array of studies depicted in the flow chart below. Determination of GROUND TYPES(Rock classes) Tabular table: Showing Systematic Procedure for geotechnical design for tunnel Ground Water Primary stresses Orientation Ground structure-tunnel Size, shape, location of structure Determination of GROUND BEHAVIOUR Assessment of boundary conditions Definition of requirement (RQ) Selection of construction concept Evaluation of system behavior in excavation area Detailed determination of construction measures and evaluation of SYSTEM BEHAVIOUR (SB) Geotechnical relevant parameters
  • 4. International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET) e-ISSN: 2395-0056 Volume: 11 Issue: 01 | Jan 2024 www.irjet.net p-ISSN: 2395-0072 © 2024, IRJET | Impact Factor value: 8.226 | ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal | Page 750 NATM METHODS IN CONSTRUCTION OF TUNNELS Tunnel: A tunnel is an underground or undersea passageway. It is dug through surrounding soil, earth or rock , or laid under water, and is enclosed except for the entrance and exist, commonly at each end. Tunnels are constructed for Railway and Highway facilities for public convenient .In India first tunnel was Parsik Railway tunnel which was constructed in the Parsik hill in Thane, Maharashtra, India. Initially tunnels were constructed with convential method which is oldest method but now a days NATM method is most useful technique to excavate tunnels. Tunnel includes two types of support 1. Primary support: a) Profile marking b) Drilling, Loading, charging and Blast c) Defuming d) mucking e) Chipping / breaking and scaling f) Bottom cleaning g) Geological Face mapping h) Initial shotcrete layer i) RIB (ISHB)/LG (Lattices girder) j) Second shotcrete layer 2. Secondary support: Lining For making tunnels we should have clear land near the Portals and there should be no populated areas which can be affected by the tunnels works. In prior tunnels were made by conventional methods but present days we are using NATM(NEW AUSTRIA TUNNELING METHOD).There are two approaches for making tunnels i.e outside and inside the tunnels, Outside tunnel consists of portal making works and Inside activities are as follows: 1. Profile marking: In profile marking surveyor mark the face of the tunnel with paints/sprays for further activity. 2. Drilling, Loading, charging and Blast: It comprises drilling at tunnel face at given marks by the surveyor. After completion of drilling loading and charging work started and taken Blast.
  • 5. International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET) e-ISSN: 2395-0056 Volume: 11 Issue: 01 | Jan 2024 www.irjet.net p-ISSN: 2395-0072 © 2024, IRJET | Impact Factor value: 8.226 | ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal | Page 751 3. Defuming: After blast many gases and fogs defumed by ventilation Fan. 4. Mucking: Muck means broken fragments of rocks resulting after blast. Muck Transported from inside to outside the tunnel by using dumper and dumped at approved dumping yard. 5. Chipping /breaking and scaling: After completion of mucking the hanged rock mass are scaled by breaker. 6. Bottom cleaning: Bottom cleaning comprises making platform for the machineries for the further activities.
  • 6. International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET) e-ISSN: 2395-0056 Volume: 11 Issue: 01 | Jan 2024 www.irjet.net p-ISSN: 2395-0072 © 2024, IRJET | Impact Factor value: 8.226 | ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal | Page 752 7. Geological Face mapping: After completion of chipping, breaking and bottom cleaning a geologist has to prepare face log through observing the rock, joint patterns, orientations present at tunnel face. 8. Initial shortcrete layer: To maintain standup time and reduce moisture content of the rock initial shotcrete layer has to be done. 9. RIB (ISHB)/LG (Lattices girder): After initial layer of shotcrete, heavy steel beams are used to strengthen the tunnel and maintain the tunnel profile.
  • 7. International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET) e-ISSN: 2395-0056 Volume: 11 Issue: 01 | Jan 2024 www.irjet.net p-ISSN: 2395-0072 © 2024, IRJET | Impact Factor value: 8.226 | ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal | Page 753 10. Second shotcrete layer : After the installation of heavy beams of steels second layer of shotcrete has to be done . SECONDARY SUPPORT The Lining is the secondary support in tunneling using NATM method which consists of number of stages. a) Cutting, padding and smooth layer of shotcrete. b) Stitching of water proofing membrane and Geotextile.
  • 8. International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET) e-ISSN: 2395-0056 Volume: 11 Issue: 01 | Jan 2024 www.irjet.net p-ISSN: 2395-0072 © 2024, IRJET | Impact Factor value: 8.226 | ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal | Page 754 c) Leveling PCC and construction of kicker kerbs. d) Erection of Gantry and pouring. CONCLUSION After a detailed study carried out on the tunneling in the Himalaya with special references to Sungal tunnel under NH-144A in the Jammu – Poonch alignment with respect to NATM method. It has been observed that construction of tunnel in Himalaya zone with NATM is more convenient as compared to conventional method. NATM is based on the observational approach whole outcome depends on the Geological interpretation and 3D Monitoring data. This method provides flexibility to change the support systems at regular intervals depending on received data from face logs and 3D monitoring. A quick analysis is done and applied on the field saving time, money and material. With this approach and sequence followed better progress is achieved in a safer environment. REFERENCES 1. Adachi, T., "Some Supporting Methods for Tunneling in J T A y c S ,” P c , F f lntemational Conference on Numerical Methods in Geomechanics, Vol. 4, 1985, pp. 1747-1754. 2. A c , T , T , T , S k , M ”A y c Ex S y T S System" Proceedings, 4th Intemational Conference on Numerical Methods in Geomechanics, Vol. 2, 1982, pp. 513-522. 3. Kovari K. 1994. Erronomeous concepts behind the New Austrian Tunnelling Method, Tunnels and Tunnelling, November 1994, Vol. 26, 38-42
  • 9. International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET) e-ISSN: 2395-0056 Volume: 11 Issue: 01 | Jan 2024 www.irjet.net p-ISSN: 2395-0072 © 2024, IRJET | Impact Factor value: 8.226 | ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal | Page 755 4. Alan Muir Wood (2002). Tunneling: Management by Design. Abingdon, UK: Taylor & Francis. p. 328. ISBN 978-0-419- 23200-1. 5. Cater, R. W., Shirlaw, J. N., Sullivan, C. A., Chan, W. T. "Tunnels Constructed for the Hong Kong Mass Transit Railway/' Hong Kong Engineer, October 1984, pp. 37-49. 6. Levent Özdemir (2006). North American Tunneling. Abingdon, UK: Taylor & Francis. p. 246. ISBN 0-415-40128-3. 7. Deinard M, Prinz H and Zeidler K (1991), Variations on a NATM Theme, Tunnels and Tunnelling November. 8. Barton N., Lien R. and Lunde J., 1974. Engineering classification of rock masses for the design of tunnel support. Rock Mechanics, Vol. 6, Pages 189-236. 9. Suuer G. 1988.When an invention is something is new: from practice to theory in tunneling, Transactions of the Institution of mining and metallurgy, vol 97, section A94-A108. 10. Wallis S. (1995), First principles of NATM, World Tunnelling, Vol. 8, 197-200.