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DRUG
ADMINISTRATION
INTRODUCTION
• Drug administration is
very important and can
be a dangerous duty
– Given correctly – restore
patient to health
– Given incorrectly –
patient’s condition can
worsen
• Medical assistant must
– Understand principles of
pharmacology
– Understand fundamentals of
drug administration
• Routes
• Dosage calculations
• Techniques for injection
• Seven rights
• Patient education
You should be familiar with the medications frequently
prescribed in your practice.
Preparing to Administer a Drug
• Drugs
– Local effect – applied
directly to skin, tissue, or
mucous membranes
– Systemic effect – given
by routes that allow the
drug to be absorbed or
distributed into the
bloodstream
• Pay close attention
– Dose
– Route
– Form of medication
• Rules for administration
– Give only drugs the doctor orders – use drug reference, if
necessary
– Wash your hands
• Prepare in a well-lit area
• Focus on task; avoid distractions
– Calculate the dose carefully
– Do not leave a prepared drug unattended – never give a
drug that someone else has prepared
Preparing to Administer a Drug (cont.)
• Rules for administration
– Identify patient properly
– Physician should be in the office
– Observe patient following administration
– Discard any ungiven medications properly
– Report error to physician immediately
– Document properly
Preparing to Administer a Drug (cont.)
RIGHTS OF MEDICATION
ADMINISTRATION
1) Right Patient
2) Right Medication
3) Right Dosage
4) Right Route
5) Right Time
6) Right Documentation
7) Right Client Education
8) Right to Refuse
9) Right Assessment
10) Right Evaluation
RIGHTS OF MEDICATION ADMINISTRATION
1. RIGHT PATIENT
 Check the name on the order and the patient.
 Use 2 identifiers.
 Ask patient to identify himself/herself.
 When available, use technology (for example,
bar-code system).
2. RIGHT MEDICATION
 Check the medication label.
 Check the order.
3. RIGHT DOSE
 Check the order.
 Confirm appropriateness of the dose using a
current drug reference.
 If necessary, calculate the dose and have another
nurse calculate the dose as well.
4. RIGHT ROUTE
 Again, check the order and appropriateness of
the route ordered.
 Confirm that the patient can take or receive the
medication by the ordered route.
5. RIGHT TIME
 Check the frequency of the ordered medication.
 Double-check that you are giving the ordered dose at
the correct time.
 Confirm when the last dose was given.
6. RIGHT DOCUMENTATION
 Document administration AFTER giving the ordered
medication.
 Chart the time, route, and any other specific
information as necessary. For example, the site of an
injection or any laboratory value or vital sign that
needed to be checked before giving the drug.
7. RIGHT REASON
 Confirm the rationale for the ordered medication. What
is the patient’s history? Why is he/she taking this
medication?
 Revisit the reasons for long-term medication use.
8. RIGHT RESPONSE
 Make sure that the drug led to the desired effect. If an
antihypertensive was given, has his/her blood pressure
improved? Does the patient verbalize improvement in
depression while on an antidepressant?
 Be sure to document your monitoring of the patient and
any other nursing interventions that are applicable.
Apply Your Knowledge
How do you properly identify the patient before
administering a drug?
ANSWER: To ensure that you have the right patient, you should
check the name and date of birth on the patient record and ask
the patient to state his/her name and date of birth.
Standards for administering medicines
Revision:
 Correct drug
 At correct time
 Given to the correct patient
 Has expected and desired outcome, with no ill
effects
Standards for administering medicines
The accountable nurse must therefore ensure that he/she:
 Has an understanding of the drug they are giving, this
includes understanding its therapeutic purpose
 Must be able to justify their actions
 Is prepared to be accountable for their actions
Is certain of the identity of the patient
Aware of current patient needs, the programme of
care and other drugs the patient is currently
receiving
Pay due regard to the environment in which care is
being given
Ensure prescription/medicine container agree and
all writing is clear, unambiguous and complete
That the patient is not allergic to the drug
That the drug has not reached its expiry
date
If there has been a withdrawal notice
issued by pharmacy, that it does not relate
to the drug being given
Techniques for
Administering Drugs
• Oral
– Tablets, capsules, lozenges, and
liquids
– Slower absorption through GI tract
• Buccal or sublingual
– Buccal – placed between the cheek and
gum
– Sublingual – placed under the tongue
– Faster absorption; bypasses GI tract
• Parenteral
– Administration of substance into a muscle or vein
– Fast absorption; bypasses GI tract
– Safety risks
• Rapid administration; rapid action
• Exposure to bloodborne pathogens
– Methods of injection
• Intradermal (ID)
• Subcutaneous (SC)
• Intramuscular (IM)
• Intravenous (IV)
Techniques for
Administering Drugs (cont.)
• Parenteral drug packaging
– Ampule – glass or plastic container that is sealed
and sterile (open with care)
– Cartridge – small barrel prefilled with sterile drug
– Vial – small bottle with rubber diaphragm that can
be punctured by needle
Techniques for
Administering Drugs (cont.)
• Methods of injection
– Intradermal
• Into upper layer of skin
• Used for skin tests
– Subcutaneous
• Provides slow, sustained
release and longer
duration of action
• Rotate sites
– Intramuscular
• More rapid absorption
• Less irritation of tissue
• Larger amount of drug
• Z-track method
– Intravenous
• Not usually given by
medical assistants
Techniques for
Administering Drugs (cont.)
• Inhalation – administered through the mouth or nose
• Topical
– Direct application of a drug on the skin
– Transdermal – use of a medication patch that will release
medication slowly and evenly
• Urethral – instill liquid drugs directly into the bladder
• Vaginal and rectal
• Eye or ear – creams, ointments, drops, or irrigations
Techniques for
Administering Drugs (cont.)
Apply Your Knowledge
Matching:
___ Absorption through GI tract A. Topical drug
___ Under the tongue B. Oral drug
___ Small bottle with rubber diaphragm C. Intramuscular drug
___ Less irritation of tissue D. Subcutaneous drug
___ Direct application to skin E. Sublingual drug
___ Need to rotate sites F. Vial
ANSWER:
F
E
D
C
B
A
Educating the Patient About
Drug Administration
• How to read the prescription drug label
• Interactions
– Drug-drug interactions
– Drug-food interactions
• Adverse effects
– Report changes
– Recognize significant adverse
effects
• Instructions on taking the drug
– At the right time
– In the right amount
– Under the right circumstances
Educating the Patient About
Drug Administration (cont.)
Apply Your Knowledge
What should you instruct the patient about drug
administration?
ANSWER: The patient should be taught how to read the
prescription label, drug-drug and drug-food interactions,
adverse effects, and how to take the drug correctly.
Bravo!
Special Considerations
• Pediatric patients
– Physiology and immature body systems may make
the drug effects less predictable
– Require dosage adjustments and careful
measurements of doses
– Observe pediatric patients closely for adverse
effects and interactions
– Administration sites and techniques may differ
• Pregnant patients
– Remember that you are caring
for two patients
– Giving the mother a drug also gives
it to the baby
– Check drug information sources for
pregnancy drug risk categories
Special Considerations (cont.)
• Patients who are breast-feeding
– Some drugs are excreted in
breast milk
– Ingestion can be dangerous
because baby can’t metabolize or
excrete drugs
– Check drug information sources
for contraindication during
lactation
Special Considerations (cont.)
• Elderly patients
– Age-related changes
affect
• Absorption
• Metabolism
• Distribution
• Excretion
– May have increased risk of
• Drug toxicity
• Adverse effects
• Lack of therapeutic effects
Special Considerations (cont.)
Apply Your Knowledge
What do children and the elderly have in
common in relation to drug administration?
ANSWER: Both have alterations in metabolism and
absorption of drugs requiring adjustments in dosages.
Fantastic!
Charting Medications
• Progress notes
– Administration
– Special problems
• New symptoms
• Patient’s statements
• Patient tolerance
• Be sure to have the right chart
• Be specific and accurate
Apply Your Knowledge
1. You administer a medication to Mr. Max. What and where
should you chart?
ANSWER: You should chart in the progress notes the date,
time, dosage, route, and name of the medication, as well
as how well the patient tolerated it.
I
M
P
R
E
S
S
I
V
E
!
Giving of drugs in Emergency
situations
A local protocol agreed by Medical Practitioners, Nurses,
Midwives and pharmacists may allow a Qualified Nurse
to give a specific Dose of a specific drug in emergency
situations.
Documentation of Drug Administration
• A critical element of drug administration is
documentation.
• The standard is “if it was not documented it was
not done.”
• The nurse should document that a drug has been
given after the client has received the drug.
Responsibilities of Nurses Regarding
Drug Administration
• Nurses are both legally and morally responsible
for correct administration of medications. They
must:
– Follow institutional policy.
– Consider clients’ desires and abilities.
– Foster compliance.
– Correctly document all actions related to medication
administration and medication errors.

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Drug Administration

  • 2. INTRODUCTION • Drug administration is very important and can be a dangerous duty – Given correctly – restore patient to health – Given incorrectly – patient’s condition can worsen • Medical assistant must – Understand principles of pharmacology – Understand fundamentals of drug administration • Routes • Dosage calculations • Techniques for injection • Seven rights • Patient education You should be familiar with the medications frequently prescribed in your practice.
  • 3. Preparing to Administer a Drug • Drugs – Local effect – applied directly to skin, tissue, or mucous membranes – Systemic effect – given by routes that allow the drug to be absorbed or distributed into the bloodstream • Pay close attention – Dose – Route – Form of medication
  • 4. • Rules for administration – Give only drugs the doctor orders – use drug reference, if necessary – Wash your hands • Prepare in a well-lit area • Focus on task; avoid distractions – Calculate the dose carefully – Do not leave a prepared drug unattended – never give a drug that someone else has prepared Preparing to Administer a Drug (cont.)
  • 5. • Rules for administration – Identify patient properly – Physician should be in the office – Observe patient following administration – Discard any ungiven medications properly – Report error to physician immediately – Document properly Preparing to Administer a Drug (cont.)
  • 6. RIGHTS OF MEDICATION ADMINISTRATION 1) Right Patient 2) Right Medication 3) Right Dosage 4) Right Route 5) Right Time 6) Right Documentation 7) Right Client Education 8) Right to Refuse 9) Right Assessment 10) Right Evaluation
  • 7. RIGHTS OF MEDICATION ADMINISTRATION 1. RIGHT PATIENT  Check the name on the order and the patient.  Use 2 identifiers.  Ask patient to identify himself/herself.  When available, use technology (for example, bar-code system). 2. RIGHT MEDICATION  Check the medication label.  Check the order.
  • 8. 3. RIGHT DOSE  Check the order.  Confirm appropriateness of the dose using a current drug reference.  If necessary, calculate the dose and have another nurse calculate the dose as well. 4. RIGHT ROUTE  Again, check the order and appropriateness of the route ordered.  Confirm that the patient can take or receive the medication by the ordered route.
  • 9. 5. RIGHT TIME  Check the frequency of the ordered medication.  Double-check that you are giving the ordered dose at the correct time.  Confirm when the last dose was given. 6. RIGHT DOCUMENTATION  Document administration AFTER giving the ordered medication.  Chart the time, route, and any other specific information as necessary. For example, the site of an injection or any laboratory value or vital sign that needed to be checked before giving the drug.
  • 10. 7. RIGHT REASON  Confirm the rationale for the ordered medication. What is the patient’s history? Why is he/she taking this medication?  Revisit the reasons for long-term medication use. 8. RIGHT RESPONSE  Make sure that the drug led to the desired effect. If an antihypertensive was given, has his/her blood pressure improved? Does the patient verbalize improvement in depression while on an antidepressant?  Be sure to document your monitoring of the patient and any other nursing interventions that are applicable.
  • 11. Apply Your Knowledge How do you properly identify the patient before administering a drug? ANSWER: To ensure that you have the right patient, you should check the name and date of birth on the patient record and ask the patient to state his/her name and date of birth.
  • 12. Standards for administering medicines Revision:  Correct drug  At correct time  Given to the correct patient  Has expected and desired outcome, with no ill effects
  • 13. Standards for administering medicines The accountable nurse must therefore ensure that he/she:  Has an understanding of the drug they are giving, this includes understanding its therapeutic purpose  Must be able to justify their actions  Is prepared to be accountable for their actions
  • 14. Is certain of the identity of the patient Aware of current patient needs, the programme of care and other drugs the patient is currently receiving Pay due regard to the environment in which care is being given Ensure prescription/medicine container agree and all writing is clear, unambiguous and complete
  • 15. That the patient is not allergic to the drug That the drug has not reached its expiry date If there has been a withdrawal notice issued by pharmacy, that it does not relate to the drug being given
  • 16. Techniques for Administering Drugs • Oral – Tablets, capsules, lozenges, and liquids – Slower absorption through GI tract • Buccal or sublingual – Buccal – placed between the cheek and gum – Sublingual – placed under the tongue – Faster absorption; bypasses GI tract
  • 17. • Parenteral – Administration of substance into a muscle or vein – Fast absorption; bypasses GI tract – Safety risks • Rapid administration; rapid action • Exposure to bloodborne pathogens – Methods of injection • Intradermal (ID) • Subcutaneous (SC) • Intramuscular (IM) • Intravenous (IV) Techniques for Administering Drugs (cont.)
  • 18. • Parenteral drug packaging – Ampule – glass or plastic container that is sealed and sterile (open with care) – Cartridge – small barrel prefilled with sterile drug – Vial – small bottle with rubber diaphragm that can be punctured by needle Techniques for Administering Drugs (cont.)
  • 19. • Methods of injection – Intradermal • Into upper layer of skin • Used for skin tests – Subcutaneous • Provides slow, sustained release and longer duration of action • Rotate sites – Intramuscular • More rapid absorption • Less irritation of tissue • Larger amount of drug • Z-track method – Intravenous • Not usually given by medical assistants Techniques for Administering Drugs (cont.)
  • 20. • Inhalation – administered through the mouth or nose • Topical – Direct application of a drug on the skin – Transdermal – use of a medication patch that will release medication slowly and evenly • Urethral – instill liquid drugs directly into the bladder • Vaginal and rectal • Eye or ear – creams, ointments, drops, or irrigations Techniques for Administering Drugs (cont.)
  • 21. Apply Your Knowledge Matching: ___ Absorption through GI tract A. Topical drug ___ Under the tongue B. Oral drug ___ Small bottle with rubber diaphragm C. Intramuscular drug ___ Less irritation of tissue D. Subcutaneous drug ___ Direct application to skin E. Sublingual drug ___ Need to rotate sites F. Vial ANSWER: F E D C B A
  • 22. Educating the Patient About Drug Administration • How to read the prescription drug label • Interactions – Drug-drug interactions – Drug-food interactions
  • 23. • Adverse effects – Report changes – Recognize significant adverse effects • Instructions on taking the drug – At the right time – In the right amount – Under the right circumstances Educating the Patient About Drug Administration (cont.)
  • 24. Apply Your Knowledge What should you instruct the patient about drug administration? ANSWER: The patient should be taught how to read the prescription label, drug-drug and drug-food interactions, adverse effects, and how to take the drug correctly. Bravo!
  • 25. Special Considerations • Pediatric patients – Physiology and immature body systems may make the drug effects less predictable – Require dosage adjustments and careful measurements of doses – Observe pediatric patients closely for adverse effects and interactions – Administration sites and techniques may differ
  • 26. • Pregnant patients – Remember that you are caring for two patients – Giving the mother a drug also gives it to the baby – Check drug information sources for pregnancy drug risk categories Special Considerations (cont.)
  • 27. • Patients who are breast-feeding – Some drugs are excreted in breast milk – Ingestion can be dangerous because baby can’t metabolize or excrete drugs – Check drug information sources for contraindication during lactation Special Considerations (cont.)
  • 28. • Elderly patients – Age-related changes affect • Absorption • Metabolism • Distribution • Excretion – May have increased risk of • Drug toxicity • Adverse effects • Lack of therapeutic effects Special Considerations (cont.)
  • 29. Apply Your Knowledge What do children and the elderly have in common in relation to drug administration? ANSWER: Both have alterations in metabolism and absorption of drugs requiring adjustments in dosages. Fantastic!
  • 30. Charting Medications • Progress notes – Administration – Special problems • New symptoms • Patient’s statements • Patient tolerance • Be sure to have the right chart • Be specific and accurate
  • 31. Apply Your Knowledge 1. You administer a medication to Mr. Max. What and where should you chart? ANSWER: You should chart in the progress notes the date, time, dosage, route, and name of the medication, as well as how well the patient tolerated it. I M P R E S S I V E !
  • 32. Giving of drugs in Emergency situations A local protocol agreed by Medical Practitioners, Nurses, Midwives and pharmacists may allow a Qualified Nurse to give a specific Dose of a specific drug in emergency situations.
  • 33. Documentation of Drug Administration • A critical element of drug administration is documentation. • The standard is “if it was not documented it was not done.” • The nurse should document that a drug has been given after the client has received the drug.
  • 34. Responsibilities of Nurses Regarding Drug Administration • Nurses are both legally and morally responsible for correct administration of medications. They must: – Follow institutional policy. – Consider clients’ desires and abilities. – Foster compliance. – Correctly document all actions related to medication administration and medication errors.