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Oral Administration Of
Medications
Deblina Roy
M.Sc. Nursing 1st Year
Drug/ medication
• Substance administered for the
diagnosis, treatment, or relief of a
symptom or for the prevention of
diseases
• Used interchangeably with the word
drug
• Drug also has the connotation of an
illegally obtained substance.
Prescription
• Written directions for the
preparation and
administration of a drug
Generic name and Trade name
• Genric name:Name given before a drug
becomes officially approved as a
medication.
• Trade name: easy to remember name
given by manufactuters.
• Eg:
Trade name : Crocin
Generic name : Paracitamol.
Legal Aspects of Administering
Medications
– Nursing practice acts
– Responsibility for actions
– Question any order that appears unreasonable
– Refuse to give the medication until the order is
clarified
Routes of drug administration
• Local
• Systemic
Oral Medications
• In oral administration the drug is swallowed. It
is the most common, least expensive, and
most convenient route for most clients
Parts of a Medication Order
– Full name of the client
– Date and time the order written
– Name of drug to be administered
– Dosage
– Frequency of administration
– Route of administration
– Signature of person writing the order
Articles for the procedure
Articles number
Steel Tray 1
Drinking water in a Jug 1
prescription
Medicines prescribed
Medicine Cup 1
Pill crusher or tablet
cutter
if required
Kidney tray and paper bag
Procedure To give oral medication.
• Gather equipment. Check each medication
order against original physician’s order
according to agency policy. Clarify any
inconsistencies. Check patient’s chart for
allergies.
• Know actions, special nursing consideration,
and adverse effects of medications to be
administered.
• Perform proper hand hygiene.
• Move medication cart outside patient’s room
or prepare for administration in medication
area.
• Unlock medication cart or drawer.
• Prepare medications for one patient at a time.
• Select proper medication from drawer or stock
and compare with Kardex or order. Check
expiration dates and perform calculations if
necessary.
• 8. Recheck each medication package or
preparation with the order as it is poured.
• 9. When all medications for one patient have
been prepared, recheck once again with the
medication order before taking them to patient.
• 10.Carefully transport medications to patient’s
bedside. Keep medications in sight at all times.
• 11.See that patient receives medications at the
correct time.
• 12.Identify the patient carefully. There are three
correct ways to do this.
• a. Check name on patient’s identification
bracelet.
• b. Ask patient his or her name.
• c. Verify patient’s identification with a staff
member who knows patient.
• 13.Complete necessary assessments before
administration of medications. Check allergy
bracelet or ask patient about allergies. Explain
purpose and action of each medication to
patient.
• 14.Assist patient to an upright or lateral
position.
• 15.Administer medications.
• a. Offer water or other permitted fluids with pills,
capsules, tablets, and some liquid medications.
• b. Ask patient’s preference regarding medications
to be taken by hand or in cup and one at a time
or all at once.
• c. If capsule or tablet falls to the floor, discard it
and administer a new one.
• d. Record and fluid intake I-O measurement is
ordered.
• 16.Remain with patient until each medication
is swallowed unless nurse has been patient
swallow drug, she or he cannot record drug as
having been administered.
• 17.Perform hand hygiene.
• 18.Record each medication given on
medication chart or record using required
format.
• a. If drug was refused or omitted, record this
in appropriate area on medication record.
• 19.Check on patient within 30 minutes of drug
administration to verify response to
medication
Nursing Process
• Assessment:
• Attitude about medication use
• Knowledge of therapy
• Learning needs
Nursing Diagnoses
• Deficient knowledge (medications)
• Noncompliance (medications)
• Disturbed sensory perception
• Impaired swallowing
• Ineffective therapeutic regimen
management
Planning
• Goals and outcomes
– Example:
Client will verbalize therapeutic
and adverse effects of
medications
• Setting priorities
• Continuity of care
Implementation
• Client and family teaching
• Medication orders: receipt, transcription,
communication
• Calculation and measurement
• Correct administration technique
• Recording
Special Considerations
• Infants and children
• Older adults
– Self-prescribing
– Over-the-counter medications
– Misuse
– Noncompliance
Evaluation
• Client response to medications
• Client and family ability to administer
medications
Questions????
– Place unit dose-package medications in a disposable
cup. Do not open wrapper until at bedside. Keep
narcotics and medications that require special
nursing assessments in a separate container.
– When removing tablets or capsules from a bottle,
pour the necessary number into bottle cap and then
place tablets in a medications cup. Break only scored
tablets, if necessary, to obtain proper dose.
– Hold liquid medication bottles with the label against
palm. Use appropriate measuring device when
pouring liquids and read the amount of medication at
the bottom of the meniscus at eye level.
Wipe bottle lip with a paper towel.
10 Rights for administering
medications
– Right medication (Drug)
– Right dose
– Right time
– Right route
– Right client
– Right documentation
– Right client education
– Right to refuse
– Right assessment
– Right evaluation

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Oral administration of medications

  • 1. Oral Administration Of Medications Deblina Roy M.Sc. Nursing 1st Year
  • 2. Drug/ medication • Substance administered for the diagnosis, treatment, or relief of a symptom or for the prevention of diseases • Used interchangeably with the word drug • Drug also has the connotation of an illegally obtained substance.
  • 3. Prescription • Written directions for the preparation and administration of a drug
  • 4. Generic name and Trade name • Genric name:Name given before a drug becomes officially approved as a medication. • Trade name: easy to remember name given by manufactuters. • Eg: Trade name : Crocin Generic name : Paracitamol.
  • 5. Legal Aspects of Administering Medications – Nursing practice acts – Responsibility for actions – Question any order that appears unreasonable – Refuse to give the medication until the order is clarified
  • 6. Routes of drug administration • Local • Systemic
  • 7. Oral Medications • In oral administration the drug is swallowed. It is the most common, least expensive, and most convenient route for most clients
  • 8. Parts of a Medication Order – Full name of the client – Date and time the order written – Name of drug to be administered – Dosage – Frequency of administration – Route of administration – Signature of person writing the order
  • 9. Articles for the procedure Articles number Steel Tray 1 Drinking water in a Jug 1 prescription Medicines prescribed Medicine Cup 1 Pill crusher or tablet cutter if required Kidney tray and paper bag
  • 10. Procedure To give oral medication. • Gather equipment. Check each medication order against original physician’s order according to agency policy. Clarify any inconsistencies. Check patient’s chart for allergies. • Know actions, special nursing consideration, and adverse effects of medications to be administered.
  • 11. • Perform proper hand hygiene. • Move medication cart outside patient’s room or prepare for administration in medication area. • Unlock medication cart or drawer. • Prepare medications for one patient at a time.
  • 12. • Select proper medication from drawer or stock and compare with Kardex or order. Check expiration dates and perform calculations if necessary. • 8. Recheck each medication package or preparation with the order as it is poured. • 9. When all medications for one patient have been prepared, recheck once again with the medication order before taking them to patient. • 10.Carefully transport medications to patient’s bedside. Keep medications in sight at all times.
  • 13. • 11.See that patient receives medications at the correct time. • 12.Identify the patient carefully. There are three correct ways to do this. • a. Check name on patient’s identification bracelet. • b. Ask patient his or her name. • c. Verify patient’s identification with a staff member who knows patient.
  • 14. • 13.Complete necessary assessments before administration of medications. Check allergy bracelet or ask patient about allergies. Explain purpose and action of each medication to patient. • 14.Assist patient to an upright or lateral position.
  • 15. • 15.Administer medications. • a. Offer water or other permitted fluids with pills, capsules, tablets, and some liquid medications. • b. Ask patient’s preference regarding medications to be taken by hand or in cup and one at a time or all at once. • c. If capsule or tablet falls to the floor, discard it and administer a new one. • d. Record and fluid intake I-O measurement is ordered.
  • 16. • 16.Remain with patient until each medication is swallowed unless nurse has been patient swallow drug, she or he cannot record drug as having been administered. • 17.Perform hand hygiene.
  • 17. • 18.Record each medication given on medication chart or record using required format. • a. If drug was refused or omitted, record this in appropriate area on medication record. • 19.Check on patient within 30 minutes of drug administration to verify response to medication
  • 18.
  • 19. Nursing Process • Assessment: • Attitude about medication use • Knowledge of therapy • Learning needs
  • 20. Nursing Diagnoses • Deficient knowledge (medications) • Noncompliance (medications) • Disturbed sensory perception • Impaired swallowing • Ineffective therapeutic regimen management
  • 21. Planning • Goals and outcomes – Example: Client will verbalize therapeutic and adverse effects of medications • Setting priorities • Continuity of care
  • 22. Implementation • Client and family teaching • Medication orders: receipt, transcription, communication • Calculation and measurement • Correct administration technique • Recording
  • 23. Special Considerations • Infants and children • Older adults – Self-prescribing – Over-the-counter medications – Misuse – Noncompliance
  • 24. Evaluation • Client response to medications • Client and family ability to administer medications
  • 26.
  • 27. – Place unit dose-package medications in a disposable cup. Do not open wrapper until at bedside. Keep narcotics and medications that require special nursing assessments in a separate container. – When removing tablets or capsules from a bottle, pour the necessary number into bottle cap and then place tablets in a medications cup. Break only scored tablets, if necessary, to obtain proper dose. – Hold liquid medication bottles with the label against palm. Use appropriate measuring device when pouring liquids and read the amount of medication at the bottom of the meniscus at eye level. Wipe bottle lip with a paper towel.
  • 28.
  • 29.
  • 30.
  • 31. 10 Rights for administering medications – Right medication (Drug) – Right dose – Right time – Right route – Right client – Right documentation – Right client education – Right to refuse – Right assessment – Right evaluation