SlideShare a Scribd company logo
TYPES OF DOSAGE FORMS
DOSAGE FORMS
Definition: Dosage forms are the means by which drug molecules
are delivered to sites of action within the body.
The need for dosage forms:
1- Accurate dose.
2- Protection e.g. coated tablets, sealed ampules.
3- Protection from gastric juice.
4- Masking taste and odour.
5- Placement of drugs within body tissues.
6- Sustained release medication.
7- Controlled release medication.
8- Optimal drug action.
9- Insertion of drugs into body cavities (rectal, vaginal)
10- Use of desired vehicle for insoluble drugs.
They are classified according to:
I. Oral 1. Solid
II. Topical 2. Semisolid
III. Rectal 3. liquid
IV. Parenteral
V. Vaginal
VI. Inhaled
VII. Ophthalmic
VIII. Otic
I. ORAL DOSAGE FORMS
1-Tablet:
A tablet is a hard, compressed medication in round, oval or square
shape.
The excipients include:
-Binders, glidants (flow aids) and lubricants to ensure efficient
tabletting.
-Disintegrants to ensure that the tablet breaks up in the digestive
tract.
-Sweeteners or flavours to mask the taste of bad-tasting active
ingredients.
-Pigments to make uncoated tablets visually attractive.
1-Tablet (Cont.)
A coating may be applied to:
1- Hide the taste of the tablet's
components.
2- Make the tablet smoother and
easier to swallow.
3- Make it more resistant to the
environment.
4- Extending its shelf life.
2-Buccal and sublingual tablet:
- Sublingual and buccal medications are administered by
placing them in the mouth, either under the tongue
(sublingual) or between the gum and the cheek (buccal).
- The medications dissolve rapidly and are absorbed through
the mucous membranes of the mouth, where they enter into
the bloodstream.
- Avoid the acid and enzymatic environment of the stomach
and the drug metabolizing enzymes of the liver.
- Examples of drugs administered by this route: e.g.
3-Effervescent tablet
Effervescent tablets are uncoated tablets that
generally contain acid substances (citric and
tartaric acids) and carbonates or
bicarbonates and which react rapidly in the
presence of water by releasing carbon
dioxide.
-They are intended to be dissolved or
dispersed in water before use providing:
1. Very rapid tablet dispersion and dissolution.
2. Pleasant tasting carbonated drink.
4- Chewable tablet:
- They are tablets that chewed prior
to swallowing.
- They are designed for
administration to children e.g.
vitamin products.
5- Capsule
A capsule is a medication in a gelatin container.
- Advantage: mask the unpleasant taste of its
contents.
The two main types of capsules are:
1- Hard-shelled capsules, which are normally used
for dry, powdered ingredients,
2- Soft-shelled capsules, primarily used for oils and
for active ingredients that are dissolved or
suspended in oil.
6- Lozenge
- It is a solid preparation consisting of sugar
and gum, the latter giving strength and
cohesiveness to the lozenge and
facilitating slow release of the
medicament.
- It is used to medicate the mouth and throat
for the slow administration of indigestion
or cough remedies.
7- Pastilles
They are solid medicated
preparations designed to dissolve
slowly in the mouth. They are
softer than lozenges and their
bases are either glycerol and
gelatin, or sugar.
8- Dental Cones
- A tablet form intended to be
placed in the empty socket
following a tooth extraction, for
preventing the local
multiplication of pathogenic
bacteria associated with tooth
extractions.
- The cones may contain an
antibiotic or antiseptic.
9- Granules
- They are consisting of solid, dry aggregates
of powder particles often supplied in single-
dose sachets.
- Some granules are placed on the tongue
and swallowed with water, others are
intended to be dissolved in water before
taking.
- Effervescent granules evolve carbon
dioxide when added to water.
10- Powder (Oral)
There are two kinds of powder intended for
internal use.
1-Bulk Powders are multidose preparations
consisting of solid, loose, dry particles of
varying degrees of fineness. They contain one
or more active ingredients, with or without
excipients and, if necessary, coloring matter
and flavoring substances.
- Usually contain non-potent medicaments such
as antacids since the patient measures a dose
by volume using a 5ml medicine spoon. The
powder is then usually dispersed in water or, in
the case of effervescent powders, dissolved
before taking.
11- Powders for mixtures
- The mixed powders may be
stored in dry form and mixture
prepared by the pharmacist
when required for dispensing ,
by suspending the powders in
the appropriate vehicle.
12-Liquid preparations
A- ORAL SOLUTION:
Oral solutions are clear Liquid preparations for oral use
containing one or more active ingredients dissolved in a
suitable vehicle.
B- ORAL EMULSION:
Oral emulsions are stabilized oil-in-water dispersions, either
or both phases of which may contain dissolved solids.
C-ORAL SUSPENSION:
- Oral suspensions are Liquid preparations for oral use
containing one or more active ingredients suspended in a
suitable vehicle.
- Oral suspensions may show a sediment which is readily
dispersed on shaking to give a uniform suspension which
remains sufficiently stable to enable the correct dose to
12-Liquid preparations (Cont.)
D- SYRUP:
- It is a concentrated aqueous solution of a sugar,
usually sucrose.
- Flavored syrups are a convenient form of
masking disagreeable tastes.
E- ELIXIR:
-It is pleasantly flavored clear liquid oral preparation
of potent or nauseous drugs.
- The vehicle may contain a high proportion of
ethanol or sucrose together with antimicrobial
preservatives which confers the stability of the
12-Liquid preparations (Cont.)
F- LINCTUSES:
- Linctuses are viscous, liquid oral preparations that are
usually prescribed for the relief of cough.
- They usually contain a high proportion of syrup and
glycerol which have a demulcent effect on the
membranes of the throat.
- The dose volume is small (5ml) and, to prolong the
demulcent action, they should be taken undiluted.
G- ORAL DROPS:
- Oral drops are Liquid preparations for oral use that are
intended to be administered in small volumes with the aid
of a suitable measuring device. They may be solutions,
suspensions or emulsions.
12-Liquid preparations (Cont.)
H- GARGLES:
- They are aqueous solutions used in the
prevention or treatment of throat infections.
- Usually they are prepared in a concentrated
solution with directions for the patient to dilute
with warm water before use.
I- MOUTHWASHES:
These are similar to gargles but are used for oral
hygiene and to treat infections of the mouth.
II. Topical dosage forms
1- OINTMENTS
- Ointments are semi-solid, greasy preparations for
application to the skin, rectum or nasal mucosa.
- Ointments may be used as emollients or to apply
suspended or dissolved medicaments to the skin.
Topical dosage forms (Cont.)
2- CREAMS:
- Creams are semi-solid emulsions, that is mixtures of oil
and water.
- They are divided into two types:
A- OIL-IN-WATER (O/W) CREAMS: which are composed of
small droplets of oil dispersed in a continuous aqueous
phase.
Oil-in-water creams are more comfortable and
cosmetically acceptable as they are less greasy and more
easily washed off using water.
B- WATER-IN-OIL (W/O) CREAMS: which are composed of
small droplets of water dispersed in a continuous oily
phase.
Water-in-oil creams are more difficult to handle but many
drugs which are incorporated into creams are hydrophobic
Topical dosage forms (Cont.)
3- GELS (JELLIES):
 Gels are semisolid system in which a liquid phase is
constrained within a 3-D polymeric matrix (consisting of
natural or synthetic gum) having a high degree of physical
or chemical cross-linking.
 They are used for medication, lubrication and some
miscellaneous applications like carrier for spermicidal
agents to be used intra vaginally .
4- POULTICE:
 It is soft, viscous, pasty preparation for external use. They
are applied to skin while they are hot. Poultice must retain
heat for a considerable time because they are intended to
supply warmth to inflamed parts of body.
Topical dosage forms (Cont.)
5- PASTES :
 Pastes are basically ointments into which a high
percentage of insoluble solid has been added.
 Pastes are less penetrating and less macerating and less
heating than ointment.
 Pastes make particularly good protective barrier when
placed on the skin.
 Like ointments, paste forms an unbroken relatively water –
impermeable film unlike ointments the film is opaque and
therefore can be used as an effective sun block
accordingly.
 Pastes are less greasy because of the absorption of the
Topical dosage forms (Cont.)
There are two types of paste:
a) Fatty pastes (e.g: leaser's paste) .
b) Non greasy pastes (e g: - bassorin
paste).
Topical dosage forms (Cont.)
6- DUSTING POWDERS:
- These are free flowing very fine powders
for external use.
- Not for use on open wounds unless the
powders are sterilized.
Topical dosage forms (Cont.)7- TRANSDERMAL PATCH:
-A transdermal patch or skin patch is a
medicated adhesive patch that is placed on the
skin to deliver a specific dose of medication
through the skin and into the bloodstream.
-An advantage of a transdermal drug delivery
route over other types such as oral, topical, etc is
that it provides a controlled release of the
medicament into the patient.
- The first commercially available patch was
scopolamine for motion sickness.
Topical dosage forms (Cont.)
8-PLASTERS:
- Plasters are solid or semisolid masses
adhere to the skin when spread upon cotton
felt line or muslin as a backing material and
they are mainly used to:
A- Afford protection and mechanical support.
B- Furnish an occlusive and macerating
action.
C- Bring medication into close contact with
the surface of the skin.
Topical dosage forms (Cont.)
9- LINIMENTS:
- Liniments are fluid, semi-fluid or,
occasionally, semi-solid preparations
intended for application to the skin.
- They may be alcoholic or oily solutions or
emulsions.
- Most are massaged into the skin (e.g.
counter-irritant).
- Liniments should not be applied to broken
skin.
Topical dosage forms (Cont.)
10-LOTIONS:
- These are fluid preparations (aqueous) for
external application without friction.
- They are either dabbed on the skin or
applied on a suitable dressing and covered
with a waterproof dressing to reduce
evaporation.
Topical dosage forms (Cont.)
11- COLLODION:
Collodion is a solution of nitrocellulose in ether or acetone,
sometimes with the addition of alcohols.
-Its generic name is pyroxylin solution.
-It is highly flammable.
- As the solvent evaporates, it dries to a celluloid-like film.
- Compound Wart Remover consists of acetic acid and
salicylic acid in an acetone collodion base used in Treatment
of warts by keratolysis.
Topical dosage forms (Cont.)
12- PAINTS:
- Paints are liquids for application to the skin or
mucous membranes.
- Skin paints contain volatile solvent that evaporates
quickly to leave a dry resinous film of medicament.
- Throat paints are more viscous due to a high
content of glycerol, designed to prolong contact of
the medicament with the affected site.
Topical dosage forms (Cont.)
13- PRESSURIZED DISPENSERS (AEROSOL SPRAYS):
- Several different types of pharmaceutical product may be
packaged in pressurized dispensers, known as aerosols.
- Surface sprays produce droplets of 100 um diameter or
greater.
- May be used as surface disinfectants, wound or burn
dressing, relieve irritation of bites.
- Spray-on dusting powders are also available from
pressurized containers.
III. Rectal dosage forms
1- SUPPOSITORY:
It is a small solid medicated mass, usually
cone-shaped ,that is inserted either into the
rectum (rectal suppository), vagina (vaginal
suppository or pessaries) where it melts at
body temperature .
Rectal dosage forms (Cont.)
2- ENEMA:
An enema is the procedure of introducing liquids
into the rectum and colon via the anus.
Types of enema:
1- Evacuant enema: used as a bowel stimulant to
treat constipation. E.g. soft soap enema & Mgso4
enema.
-The volume of evacuant enemas may reach up to
2 liters.
- They should be warmed to body temperature
before administration.
Rectal dosage forms (Cont.)
2- Retention enema:
- Their volume does not exceed 100 ml.
- No warming needed.
- May exert:
A- Local effect: e.g. a barium enema is used as a
contrast substance in the radiological imaging of
the bowel.
B- Systemic effect:
e.g. the administration of substances into the
bloodstream. This may be done in situations
where it is impossible to deliver a medication by
mouth, such as antiemetics.
e.g. nutrient enema which contains carbohydrates,
IV. Vaginal dosage forms
1- PESSARY:
- Pessaries are solid medicated preparations
designed for insertion into the vagina where they
melt or dissolve.
- There are three types:
A- Moulded pessaries: they are cone shaped and
prepared in a similar way to moulded
suppositories.
B- Compressed pessaries: made in a variety of
shapes and are prepared by compression in a
similar manner to oral tablets.
C- Vaginal capsules: are similar to soft gelatin oral
Vaginal dosage forms (Cont.)
2- VAGINAL RING:
Vaginal rings are 'doughnut-shaped' polymeric drug
delivery devices
designed to provide controlled release of drugs to the
vagina over extended periods of time.
Several vaginal ring products are currently available,
including:
Femring :
A low-dose estradiol-acetate releasing ring, manufactured
from silicone elastomer, for the relief of hot flashes and
vaginal atrophy associated with menopause.
NuvaRing:
A low-dose contraceptive vaginal ring, releasing
progesterone and estrogen.
Vaginal dosage forms (Cont.)
3- DOUCHE:
A douche is a device used to introduce a
stream of water into the body for medical or
hygienic reasons.
Vaginal dosage forms (Cont.)
4- INTRAUTERINE DEVICE:
-It is a birth control device placed in the uterus, also known as
an IUD or a coil.
-The IUD is the world's most widely used method of reversible
birth control.
-The device has to be fitted inside or removed from the uterus
by a doctor .
-It remains in place the entire time pregnancy is not desired.
Depending on
the type, a single IUD is approved for 5 to 10 years use.
-There are two broad categories of intrauterine contraceptive
devices:
A- inert and copper-based devices.
V. Parenteral dosage forms
An injection is an infusion method of putting liquid into the
body, usually with a hollow needle and a syringe which is
pierced through the skin to a sufficient depth for the
material to be forced into the body.
There are several methods of injection, including:
1- INTRAVENOUS INJECTION:
 It is a liquid administered directly into the bloodstream via a
vein.
 It is advantageous when a rapid onset of action is needed.
Parenteral dosage forms (Cont.):
2- INTRAMUSCULAR INJECTION:
-It is the injection of a substance directly into a muscle.
- Many vaccines are administered intramuscularly.
-Depending on the chemical properties of the drug, the
medication may either be absorbed fairly quickly or more
gradually.
- Intramuscular injections are often given in the deltoid,
vastus lateralis, ventrogluteal and dorsogluteal muscles.
- Injection fibrosis is a complication that may occur if the
injections are delivered with great frequency or with improper
technique.
Parenteral dosage forms (Cont.)
3- SUBCUTANEOUS INJECTION:
Subcutaneous injections are given by
injecting a fluid into the subcutis, the layer
of skin directly below the dermis and
epidermis.
Subcutaneous injections are highly effective
in administering vaccines and such
medications as insulin.
VI. Inhaled dosage forms
1- INHALER :
 Inhalers are solutions, suspensions or emulsion of drugs in
a mixture of inert propellants held under pressure in an
aerosol dispenser.
 Release of a dose of the medicament in the form of
droplets of 50 um diameter or less from the container
through a spring-loaded valve incorporating a metering
device. The patient then inhales the released drug through
a mouthpiece.
 In some types, the valve is actuated by finger pressure, in
other types the valve is actuated by the patient breathing in
through the mouthpiece.
 It is commonly used to treat asthma and other respiratory
Inhaled dosage forms (Cont.)
2- NEBULIZER OR (ATOMIZER):
A nebulizer is a device used to administer medication to
people in forms of a liquid mist to the airways.
 It is commonly used in treating asthma, and other
respiratory diseases.
 It pumps air or oxygen through a liquid medicine to turn it
into a vapor, which is then inhaled by the patient.
As a general rule, doctors generally prefer to prescribe
inhalers for their patients, because:
1-These are cheaper
2- more portable
3- carry less risk of side effects.
VII. Ophthalmic dosage forms
1- EYE DROPS:
Eye drops are saline-containing drops used as a vehicle to
administer medication in the eye.
Depending on the condition being treated, they may contain
steroids, antihistamines or topical anesthetics.
Eye drops sometimes do not have medications in them and
are only lubricating and tear-replacing solutions.
2- OPHTHALMIC OINTMENT & GEL:
These are sterile semi-solid
Preparations intended for application to the conjunctiva or
eyelid margin.
VIII. Otic dosage forms
1- EAR DROPS:
Ear drops are solutions, suspensions or
emulsions of drugs that are instilled into
the ear with a dropper.
It is used to treat or prevent ear infections,
especially infections of the outer ear and
ear canal.
X. Nasal dosage forms
1- NASAL DROPS AND SPRAYS:
 Drugs in solution may be instilled into the nose
from a dropper or from a plastic squeeze bottle.
 The drug may have a local effect, e.g.
antihistamine, decongestant.
 Alternatively the drug may be absorbed through
the nasal mucosa to exert a systemic effect.
 The use of oily nasal drops should be avoided
because of possible damage to the cilia of the

More Related Content

What's hot

Pharmaceutical Dosage Forms - Classification
Pharmaceutical Dosage Forms - ClassificationPharmaceutical Dosage Forms - Classification
Pharmaceutical Dosage Forms - Classification
Md Altamash Ahmad
 
Pharmaceuticals Solutions dosage form
Pharmaceuticals Solutions dosage formPharmaceuticals Solutions dosage form
Pharmaceuticals Solutions dosage form
Umair hanif
 
Solid dosage forms (capsules)
Solid dosage forms (capsules)Solid dosage forms (capsules)
Solid dosage forms (capsules)
Prof. Dr. Basavaraj Nanjwade
 
Types of Dosage Forms
Types of Dosage FormsTypes of Dosage Forms
Types of Dosage Forms
Eneutron
 
Types of tablets
Types of tabletsTypes of tablets
Types of tablets
Tooba Rehman
 
Tablet
TabletTablet
Pharmaceutical Suspensions
Pharmaceutical SuspensionsPharmaceutical Suspensions
Pharmaceutical Suspensions
Muhammad Adeel
 
Tablets - Pharmaceutics
Tablets - PharmaceuticsTablets - Pharmaceutics
Tablets - Pharmaceutics
Areej Abu Hanieh
 
Liquid dosage forms ppt
Liquid dosage forms pptLiquid dosage forms ppt
Liquid dosage forms ppt
PranatiChavan
 
Solid dosage forms ppt
Solid dosage forms pptSolid dosage forms ppt
Solid dosage forms ppt
PranatiChavan
 
Pharmaceutics - semi solid dosage forms
Pharmaceutics -  semi solid dosage formsPharmaceutics -  semi solid dosage forms
Pharmaceutics - semi solid dosage forms
Areej Abu Hanieh
 
Syrups and elixirs
Syrups and elixirsSyrups and elixirs
Syrups and elixirs
M ArsaLan ChisHti
 
Semi solid dosage form
Semi solid dosage formSemi solid dosage form
Semi solid dosage form
Laith Alasadi
 
Tablet types and Excipients
Tablet  types and ExcipientsTablet  types and Excipients
Tablet types and Excipients
Komal Haleem
 
Labels Sample. Part 1
Labels Sample. Part 1Labels Sample. Part 1
Labels Sample. Part 1
Javeria Fateh
 
Capsules
CapsulesCapsules
Capsules
PRABU12345678
 
Liquid dosage forms
Liquid dosage formsLiquid dosage forms
Liquid dosage forms
Mj Aspa
 
Pharmaceutical Syrup
Pharmaceutical SyrupPharmaceutical Syrup
Pharmaceutical Syrup
Ahsanul Haque Chowdhury Pulok
 
The prescription
The prescriptionThe prescription
The prescription
vishvajitsinh Bhati
 
Solid Dosage Forms
Solid Dosage FormsSolid Dosage Forms
Solid Dosage Forms
Eneutron
 

What's hot (20)

Pharmaceutical Dosage Forms - Classification
Pharmaceutical Dosage Forms - ClassificationPharmaceutical Dosage Forms - Classification
Pharmaceutical Dosage Forms - Classification
 
Pharmaceuticals Solutions dosage form
Pharmaceuticals Solutions dosage formPharmaceuticals Solutions dosage form
Pharmaceuticals Solutions dosage form
 
Solid dosage forms (capsules)
Solid dosage forms (capsules)Solid dosage forms (capsules)
Solid dosage forms (capsules)
 
Types of Dosage Forms
Types of Dosage FormsTypes of Dosage Forms
Types of Dosage Forms
 
Types of tablets
Types of tabletsTypes of tablets
Types of tablets
 
Tablet
TabletTablet
Tablet
 
Pharmaceutical Suspensions
Pharmaceutical SuspensionsPharmaceutical Suspensions
Pharmaceutical Suspensions
 
Tablets - Pharmaceutics
Tablets - PharmaceuticsTablets - Pharmaceutics
Tablets - Pharmaceutics
 
Liquid dosage forms ppt
Liquid dosage forms pptLiquid dosage forms ppt
Liquid dosage forms ppt
 
Solid dosage forms ppt
Solid dosage forms pptSolid dosage forms ppt
Solid dosage forms ppt
 
Pharmaceutics - semi solid dosage forms
Pharmaceutics -  semi solid dosage formsPharmaceutics -  semi solid dosage forms
Pharmaceutics - semi solid dosage forms
 
Syrups and elixirs
Syrups and elixirsSyrups and elixirs
Syrups and elixirs
 
Semi solid dosage form
Semi solid dosage formSemi solid dosage form
Semi solid dosage form
 
Tablet types and Excipients
Tablet  types and ExcipientsTablet  types and Excipients
Tablet types and Excipients
 
Labels Sample. Part 1
Labels Sample. Part 1Labels Sample. Part 1
Labels Sample. Part 1
 
Capsules
CapsulesCapsules
Capsules
 
Liquid dosage forms
Liquid dosage formsLiquid dosage forms
Liquid dosage forms
 
Pharmaceutical Syrup
Pharmaceutical SyrupPharmaceutical Syrup
Pharmaceutical Syrup
 
The prescription
The prescriptionThe prescription
The prescription
 
Solid Dosage Forms
Solid Dosage FormsSolid Dosage Forms
Solid Dosage Forms
 

Viewers also liked

Evaluation of topical dosage forms
Evaluation of topical dosage formsEvaluation of topical dosage forms
Evaluation of topical dosage forms
Zohre Jelodarian
 
Ch.13 part 4 liniment, collodion, glycerite
Ch.13  part 4 liniment, collodion, glyceriteCh.13  part 4 liniment, collodion, glycerite
Ch.13 part 4 liniment, collodion, glycerite
Malou Mojares
 
Ointments, creams, and gels dds ppt pjt
Ointments, creams, and gels dds ppt pjtOintments, creams, and gels dds ppt pjt
Ointments, creams, and gels dds ppt pjt
Starette Rabara
 
Semi solid dosage forms
Semi solid dosage formsSemi solid dosage forms
Semi solid dosage forms
Iqra Zulfiqar Ali Rajput
 
tab new
tab newtab new
tab new
rina parveen
 
semi solid and liquid dosage form
 semi solid and liquid dosage form semi solid and liquid dosage form
semi solid and liquid dosage form
Abubakar Fago
 
Emergencies in pediatric dental practice
Emergencies in pediatric dental practiceEmergencies in pediatric dental practice
Emergencies in pediatric dental practice
Fatima Gilani
 
Performance criteria, evaluation criteria of topical preparation
Performance criteria, evaluation criteria of topical preparationPerformance criteria, evaluation criteria of topical preparation
Performance criteria, evaluation criteria of topical preparation
Saravanan subramaniyam
 
Topical route_Dr. Mansij Biswas
Topical route_Dr. Mansij BiswasTopical route_Dr. Mansij Biswas
Topical route_Dr. Mansij Biswas
Mansij Biswas
 
Cephalosporin
CephalosporinCephalosporin
Cephalosporin
diorage
 
Pharmaceutical gel
Pharmaceutical gelPharmaceutical gel
Pharmaceutical gel
Madiha Ahmed
 
Cephalosporin
CephalosporinCephalosporin
Cephalosporin
Thiru Vinoth
 
Classical dosage form
Classical dosage formClassical dosage form
Classical dosage form
Sadiya Iftikhar
 
Administering enema
Administering enemaAdministering enema
Administering enema
Nursing Path
 
Medically compromised
Medically compromisedMedically compromised
Medically compromised
Alper Kaya
 
Pharmaceutical suppositories
Pharmaceutical suppositoriesPharmaceutical suppositories
Pharmaceutical suppositories
Jabir Jabir
 
Enema
EnemaEnema
Suppository
SuppositorySuppository
Dental phrmacology
Dental phrmacologyDental phrmacology
Dental phrmacology
matru seva dental hospital
 
Pharmaceutical dosage forms
Pharmaceutical dosage formsPharmaceutical dosage forms
Pharmaceutical dosage forms
Harishankar Sahu
 

Viewers also liked (20)

Evaluation of topical dosage forms
Evaluation of topical dosage formsEvaluation of topical dosage forms
Evaluation of topical dosage forms
 
Ch.13 part 4 liniment, collodion, glycerite
Ch.13  part 4 liniment, collodion, glyceriteCh.13  part 4 liniment, collodion, glycerite
Ch.13 part 4 liniment, collodion, glycerite
 
Ointments, creams, and gels dds ppt pjt
Ointments, creams, and gels dds ppt pjtOintments, creams, and gels dds ppt pjt
Ointments, creams, and gels dds ppt pjt
 
Semi solid dosage forms
Semi solid dosage formsSemi solid dosage forms
Semi solid dosage forms
 
tab new
tab newtab new
tab new
 
semi solid and liquid dosage form
 semi solid and liquid dosage form semi solid and liquid dosage form
semi solid and liquid dosage form
 
Emergencies in pediatric dental practice
Emergencies in pediatric dental practiceEmergencies in pediatric dental practice
Emergencies in pediatric dental practice
 
Performance criteria, evaluation criteria of topical preparation
Performance criteria, evaluation criteria of topical preparationPerformance criteria, evaluation criteria of topical preparation
Performance criteria, evaluation criteria of topical preparation
 
Topical route_Dr. Mansij Biswas
Topical route_Dr. Mansij BiswasTopical route_Dr. Mansij Biswas
Topical route_Dr. Mansij Biswas
 
Cephalosporin
CephalosporinCephalosporin
Cephalosporin
 
Pharmaceutical gel
Pharmaceutical gelPharmaceutical gel
Pharmaceutical gel
 
Cephalosporin
CephalosporinCephalosporin
Cephalosporin
 
Classical dosage form
Classical dosage formClassical dosage form
Classical dosage form
 
Administering enema
Administering enemaAdministering enema
Administering enema
 
Medically compromised
Medically compromisedMedically compromised
Medically compromised
 
Pharmaceutical suppositories
Pharmaceutical suppositoriesPharmaceutical suppositories
Pharmaceutical suppositories
 
Enema
EnemaEnema
Enema
 
Suppository
SuppositorySuppository
Suppository
 
Dental phrmacology
Dental phrmacologyDental phrmacology
Dental phrmacology
 
Pharmaceutical dosage forms
Pharmaceutical dosage formsPharmaceutical dosage forms
Pharmaceutical dosage forms
 

Similar to Dosage Forms

1 3-types of dosage forms
1 3-types of dosage forms1 3-types of dosage forms
Types of dosage forms lecture2,2
Types of dosage forms lecture2,2Types of dosage forms lecture2,2
Types of dosage forms lecture2,2
sterile india pvt. ltd kundli haryana
 
Dosage Forms.pptx
Dosage Forms.pptxDosage Forms.pptx
Dosage Forms.pptx
parmindernain2
 
Dosage forms
Dosage formsDosage forms
Dosage forms
Mithilesh Patel
 
Dosage forms
Dosage formsDosage forms
Dosage forms
bvocmithilesh
 
Types of dosage form
Types of dosage formTypes of dosage form
Types of dosage form
FayyajAhmad
 
Dosage forms
Dosage formsDosage forms
Dosage forms
Faizan Afzal
 
Introduction Second Year Solid Dosage Form.ppt
Introduction Second Year Solid Dosage Form.pptIntroduction Second Year Solid Dosage Form.ppt
Introduction Second Year Solid Dosage Form.ppt
josephskamara1
 
DOSAGE FORM.pptx
DOSAGE FORM.pptxDOSAGE FORM.pptx
DOSAGE FORM.pptx
someshchandra11
 
PHARMACEUTICAL DOSAGE FORMS : an overall introduction .pptx
PHARMACEUTICAL DOSAGE FORMS : an overall introduction .pptxPHARMACEUTICAL DOSAGE FORMS : an overall introduction .pptx
PHARMACEUTICAL DOSAGE FORMS : an overall introduction .pptx
AdinathSangale2
 
Dosage Forms and Drug Delivery Systems
Dosage Forms and Drug Delivery SystemsDosage Forms and Drug Delivery Systems
Dosage Forms and Drug Delivery Systems
SANI SINGH
 
Pharmaceutical drug and dosage forms
Pharmaceutical drug and dosage formsPharmaceutical drug and dosage forms
Pharmaceutical drug and dosage forms
OmBagade1
 
umesh ppt.pptx
umesh ppt.pptxumesh ppt.pptx
umesh ppt.pptx
umeshbargal03
 
Drug Dosage Forms
Drug Dosage FormsDrug Dosage Forms
Drug Dosage Forms
Osama Zahid
 
introduction to dosages form
introduction to dosages formintroduction to dosages form
introduction to dosages form
PRiyanka Kkumari
 
Dosage forms
Dosage formsDosage forms
Dosage forms
Monali waykar
 
Dosage forms
Dosage formsDosage forms
Dosage forms
Monali waykar
 
Introduction to dosage forms
Introduction to dosage formsIntroduction to dosage forms
Introduction to dosage forms
Bhagyashri Gawade
 
Pharmaceutics-I-DOSAGE-FORM.ppt
Pharmaceutics-I-DOSAGE-FORM.pptPharmaceutics-I-DOSAGE-FORM.ppt
Pharmaceutics-I-DOSAGE-FORM.ppt
HebaYassin10
 
Pharmaceutics-I-DOSAGE-FORM.ppt
Pharmaceutics-I-DOSAGE-FORM.pptPharmaceutics-I-DOSAGE-FORM.ppt
Pharmaceutics-I-DOSAGE-FORM.ppt
MohanShastri1
 

Similar to Dosage Forms (20)

1 3-types of dosage forms
1 3-types of dosage forms1 3-types of dosage forms
1 3-types of dosage forms
 
Types of dosage forms lecture2,2
Types of dosage forms lecture2,2Types of dosage forms lecture2,2
Types of dosage forms lecture2,2
 
Dosage Forms.pptx
Dosage Forms.pptxDosage Forms.pptx
Dosage Forms.pptx
 
Dosage forms
Dosage formsDosage forms
Dosage forms
 
Dosage forms
Dosage formsDosage forms
Dosage forms
 
Types of dosage form
Types of dosage formTypes of dosage form
Types of dosage form
 
Dosage forms
Dosage formsDosage forms
Dosage forms
 
Introduction Second Year Solid Dosage Form.ppt
Introduction Second Year Solid Dosage Form.pptIntroduction Second Year Solid Dosage Form.ppt
Introduction Second Year Solid Dosage Form.ppt
 
DOSAGE FORM.pptx
DOSAGE FORM.pptxDOSAGE FORM.pptx
DOSAGE FORM.pptx
 
PHARMACEUTICAL DOSAGE FORMS : an overall introduction .pptx
PHARMACEUTICAL DOSAGE FORMS : an overall introduction .pptxPHARMACEUTICAL DOSAGE FORMS : an overall introduction .pptx
PHARMACEUTICAL DOSAGE FORMS : an overall introduction .pptx
 
Dosage Forms and Drug Delivery Systems
Dosage Forms and Drug Delivery SystemsDosage Forms and Drug Delivery Systems
Dosage Forms and Drug Delivery Systems
 
Pharmaceutical drug and dosage forms
Pharmaceutical drug and dosage formsPharmaceutical drug and dosage forms
Pharmaceutical drug and dosage forms
 
umesh ppt.pptx
umesh ppt.pptxumesh ppt.pptx
umesh ppt.pptx
 
Drug Dosage Forms
Drug Dosage FormsDrug Dosage Forms
Drug Dosage Forms
 
introduction to dosages form
introduction to dosages formintroduction to dosages form
introduction to dosages form
 
Dosage forms
Dosage formsDosage forms
Dosage forms
 
Dosage forms
Dosage formsDosage forms
Dosage forms
 
Introduction to dosage forms
Introduction to dosage formsIntroduction to dosage forms
Introduction to dosage forms
 
Pharmaceutics-I-DOSAGE-FORM.ppt
Pharmaceutics-I-DOSAGE-FORM.pptPharmaceutics-I-DOSAGE-FORM.ppt
Pharmaceutics-I-DOSAGE-FORM.ppt
 
Pharmaceutics-I-DOSAGE-FORM.ppt
Pharmaceutics-I-DOSAGE-FORM.pptPharmaceutics-I-DOSAGE-FORM.ppt
Pharmaceutics-I-DOSAGE-FORM.ppt
 

More from Naveen Kumar Sharma

Hot & Cold Application
Hot & Cold ApplicationHot & Cold Application
Hot & Cold Application
Naveen Kumar Sharma
 
Nursing Process for Drug Administration
Nursing Process for Drug AdministrationNursing Process for Drug Administration
Nursing Process for Drug Administration
Naveen Kumar Sharma
 
Drug Calculation for Patient
Drug Calculation for PatientDrug Calculation for Patient
Drug Calculation for Patient
Naveen Kumar Sharma
 
Drug Storage & Maintenance
Drug Storage & MaintenanceDrug Storage & Maintenance
Drug Storage & Maintenance
Naveen Kumar Sharma
 
Drug Administration
Drug AdministrationDrug Administration
Drug Administration
Naveen Kumar Sharma
 
Routes of Drug Administration
Routes of Drug AdministrationRoutes of Drug Administration
Routes of Drug Administration
Naveen Kumar Sharma
 
Classification of drugs
Classification of drugs Classification of drugs
Classification of drugs
Naveen Kumar Sharma
 
Prescription of Drugs to Patient
Prescription of Drugs to PatientPrescription of Drugs to Patient
Prescription of Drugs to Patient
Naveen Kumar Sharma
 
Introduction Medication Administration
Introduction Medication AdministrationIntroduction Medication Administration
Introduction Medication Administration
Naveen Kumar Sharma
 
[1] documentation and reporting
[1] documentation and reporting[1] documentation and reporting
[1] documentation and reporting
Naveen Kumar Sharma
 
Documentation and Reporting
Documentation and ReportingDocumentation and Reporting
Documentation and Reporting
Naveen Kumar Sharma
 
Bed making
Bed makingBed making
Comfort Devices
Comfort DevicesComfort Devices
Comfort Devices
Naveen Kumar Sharma
 

More from Naveen Kumar Sharma (13)

Hot & Cold Application
Hot & Cold ApplicationHot & Cold Application
Hot & Cold Application
 
Nursing Process for Drug Administration
Nursing Process for Drug AdministrationNursing Process for Drug Administration
Nursing Process for Drug Administration
 
Drug Calculation for Patient
Drug Calculation for PatientDrug Calculation for Patient
Drug Calculation for Patient
 
Drug Storage & Maintenance
Drug Storage & MaintenanceDrug Storage & Maintenance
Drug Storage & Maintenance
 
Drug Administration
Drug AdministrationDrug Administration
Drug Administration
 
Routes of Drug Administration
Routes of Drug AdministrationRoutes of Drug Administration
Routes of Drug Administration
 
Classification of drugs
Classification of drugs Classification of drugs
Classification of drugs
 
Prescription of Drugs to Patient
Prescription of Drugs to PatientPrescription of Drugs to Patient
Prescription of Drugs to Patient
 
Introduction Medication Administration
Introduction Medication AdministrationIntroduction Medication Administration
Introduction Medication Administration
 
[1] documentation and reporting
[1] documentation and reporting[1] documentation and reporting
[1] documentation and reporting
 
Documentation and Reporting
Documentation and ReportingDocumentation and Reporting
Documentation and Reporting
 
Bed making
Bed makingBed making
Bed making
 
Comfort Devices
Comfort DevicesComfort Devices
Comfort Devices
 

Recently uploaded

1比1制作(uofm毕业证书)美国密歇根大学毕业证学位证书原版一模一样
1比1制作(uofm毕业证书)美国密歇根大学毕业证学位证书原版一模一样1比1制作(uofm毕业证书)美国密歇根大学毕业证学位证书原版一模一样
1比1制作(uofm毕业证书)美国密歇根大学毕业证学位证书原版一模一样
5sj7jxf7
 
Luxury Massage Experience at Affordable Rate - Malayali Kerala Spa Ajman
Luxury Massage Experience at Affordable Rate - Malayali Kerala Spa AjmanLuxury Massage Experience at Affordable Rate - Malayali Kerala Spa Ajman
Luxury Massage Experience at Affordable Rate - Malayali Kerala Spa Ajman
Malayali Kerala Spa Ajman
 
Hyderabad Call Girls 7023059433 High Profile Escorts Service Hyderabad
Hyderabad Call Girls 7023059433 High Profile Escorts Service HyderabadHyderabad Call Girls 7023059433 High Profile Escorts Service Hyderabad
Hyderabad Call Girls 7023059433 High Profile Escorts Service Hyderabad
garge6804
 
THE SPECIAL SENCES- Unlocking the Wonders of the Special Senses: Sight, Sound...
THE SPECIAL SENCES- Unlocking the Wonders of the Special Senses: Sight, Sound...THE SPECIAL SENCES- Unlocking the Wonders of the Special Senses: Sight, Sound...
THE SPECIAL SENCES- Unlocking the Wonders of the Special Senses: Sight, Sound...
Nursing Mastery
 
一比一原版(UoA毕业证)昆士兰科技大学毕业证如何办理
一比一原版(UoA毕业证)昆士兰科技大学毕业证如何办理一比一原版(UoA毕业证)昆士兰科技大学毕业证如何办理
一比一原版(UoA毕业证)昆士兰科技大学毕业证如何办理
xkute
 
GORDON'S 11 FUNCTIONAL PATTERN-Health Assessment.pptx
GORDON'S 11 FUNCTIONAL PATTERN-Health Assessment.pptxGORDON'S 11 FUNCTIONAL PATTERN-Health Assessment.pptx
GORDON'S 11 FUNCTIONAL PATTERN-Health Assessment.pptx
Rommel Luis III Israel
 
PRESSURE INJURY CARE AND MANAGEMENT FOR HCW
PRESSURE INJURY CARE AND MANAGEMENT FOR HCWPRESSURE INJURY CARE AND MANAGEMENT FOR HCW
PRESSURE INJURY CARE AND MANAGEMENT FOR HCW
dnee1
 
VEDANTA AIR AMBULANCE SERVICES IN REWA AT A COST-EFFECTIVE PRICE.pdf
VEDANTA AIR AMBULANCE SERVICES IN REWA AT A COST-EFFECTIVE PRICE.pdfVEDANTA AIR AMBULANCE SERVICES IN REWA AT A COST-EFFECTIVE PRICE.pdf
VEDANTA AIR AMBULANCE SERVICES IN REWA AT A COST-EFFECTIVE PRICE.pdf
Vedanta A
 
PPT on Embryological and fetal development
PPT on Embryological and fetal developmentPPT on Embryological and fetal development
PPT on Embryological and fetal development
smileysharma63
 
Simple Steps to Make Her Choose You Every Day
Simple Steps to Make Her Choose You Every DaySimple Steps to Make Her Choose You Every Day
Simple Steps to Make Her Choose You Every Day
Lucas Smith
 
ASSESSMENT OF THE SKIN, HAIR, AND NAILS.pptx
ASSESSMENT OF THE SKIN, HAIR, AND NAILS.pptxASSESSMENT OF THE SKIN, HAIR, AND NAILS.pptx
ASSESSMENT OF THE SKIN, HAIR, AND NAILS.pptx
Rommel Luis III Israel
 
National Rural Health Mission(NRHM).pptx
National Rural Health Mission(NRHM).pptxNational Rural Health Mission(NRHM).pptx
National Rural Health Mission(NRHM).pptx
Jyoti Chand
 
EXAMINATION OF HUMAN URINE AND FAECES.pdf
EXAMINATION OF HUMAN URINE AND FAECES.pdfEXAMINATION OF HUMAN URINE AND FAECES.pdf
EXAMINATION OF HUMAN URINE AND FAECES.pdf
Madhusmita Sahoo
 
Discover the Perfect Way to Relax - Malayali Kerala Spa Ajman
Discover the Perfect Way to Relax - Malayali Kerala Spa AjmanDiscover the Perfect Way to Relax - Malayali Kerala Spa Ajman
Discover the Perfect Way to Relax - Malayali Kerala Spa Ajman
Malayali Kerala Spa Ajman
 
Emotional and Behavioural Problems in Children - Counselling and Family Thera...
Emotional and Behavioural Problems in Children - Counselling and Family Thera...Emotional and Behavioural Problems in Children - Counselling and Family Thera...
Emotional and Behavioural Problems in Children - Counselling and Family Thera...
PsychoTech Services
 
一比一原版布里斯托大学毕业证(Bristol毕业证书)学历如何办理
一比一原版布里斯托大学毕业证(Bristol毕业证书)学历如何办理一比一原版布里斯托大学毕业证(Bristol毕业证书)学历如何办理
一比一原版布里斯托大学毕业证(Bristol毕业证书)学历如何办理
obowu
 
Sunscreens, IP-I, Dr. M.N.CHISHTI, Asst Prof. Dept of Pharmaceutics, YBCCPA
Sunscreens, IP-I, Dr. M.N.CHISHTI, Asst Prof. Dept of Pharmaceutics, YBCCPASunscreens, IP-I, Dr. M.N.CHISHTI, Asst Prof. Dept of Pharmaceutics, YBCCPA
Sunscreens, IP-I, Dr. M.N.CHISHTI, Asst Prof. Dept of Pharmaceutics, YBCCPA
ssuser555edf
 
The Ultimate Guide in Setting Up Market Research System in Health-Tech
The Ultimate Guide in Setting Up Market Research System in Health-TechThe Ultimate Guide in Setting Up Market Research System in Health-Tech
The Ultimate Guide in Setting Up Market Research System in Health-Tech
Gokul Rangarajan
 
Columbia毕业证书退学办理
Columbia毕业证书退学办理Columbia毕业证书退学办理
Columbia毕业证书退学办理
ozcot
 
Exploring Stem Cell Solutions for Parkinson's Disease with Dr. David Greene A...
Exploring Stem Cell Solutions for Parkinson's Disease with Dr. David Greene A...Exploring Stem Cell Solutions for Parkinson's Disease with Dr. David Greene A...
Exploring Stem Cell Solutions for Parkinson's Disease with Dr. David Greene A...
Dr. David Greene Arizona
 

Recently uploaded (20)

1比1制作(uofm毕业证书)美国密歇根大学毕业证学位证书原版一模一样
1比1制作(uofm毕业证书)美国密歇根大学毕业证学位证书原版一模一样1比1制作(uofm毕业证书)美国密歇根大学毕业证学位证书原版一模一样
1比1制作(uofm毕业证书)美国密歇根大学毕业证学位证书原版一模一样
 
Luxury Massage Experience at Affordable Rate - Malayali Kerala Spa Ajman
Luxury Massage Experience at Affordable Rate - Malayali Kerala Spa AjmanLuxury Massage Experience at Affordable Rate - Malayali Kerala Spa Ajman
Luxury Massage Experience at Affordable Rate - Malayali Kerala Spa Ajman
 
Hyderabad Call Girls 7023059433 High Profile Escorts Service Hyderabad
Hyderabad Call Girls 7023059433 High Profile Escorts Service HyderabadHyderabad Call Girls 7023059433 High Profile Escorts Service Hyderabad
Hyderabad Call Girls 7023059433 High Profile Escorts Service Hyderabad
 
THE SPECIAL SENCES- Unlocking the Wonders of the Special Senses: Sight, Sound...
THE SPECIAL SENCES- Unlocking the Wonders of the Special Senses: Sight, Sound...THE SPECIAL SENCES- Unlocking the Wonders of the Special Senses: Sight, Sound...
THE SPECIAL SENCES- Unlocking the Wonders of the Special Senses: Sight, Sound...
 
一比一原版(UoA毕业证)昆士兰科技大学毕业证如何办理
一比一原版(UoA毕业证)昆士兰科技大学毕业证如何办理一比一原版(UoA毕业证)昆士兰科技大学毕业证如何办理
一比一原版(UoA毕业证)昆士兰科技大学毕业证如何办理
 
GORDON'S 11 FUNCTIONAL PATTERN-Health Assessment.pptx
GORDON'S 11 FUNCTIONAL PATTERN-Health Assessment.pptxGORDON'S 11 FUNCTIONAL PATTERN-Health Assessment.pptx
GORDON'S 11 FUNCTIONAL PATTERN-Health Assessment.pptx
 
PRESSURE INJURY CARE AND MANAGEMENT FOR HCW
PRESSURE INJURY CARE AND MANAGEMENT FOR HCWPRESSURE INJURY CARE AND MANAGEMENT FOR HCW
PRESSURE INJURY CARE AND MANAGEMENT FOR HCW
 
VEDANTA AIR AMBULANCE SERVICES IN REWA AT A COST-EFFECTIVE PRICE.pdf
VEDANTA AIR AMBULANCE SERVICES IN REWA AT A COST-EFFECTIVE PRICE.pdfVEDANTA AIR AMBULANCE SERVICES IN REWA AT A COST-EFFECTIVE PRICE.pdf
VEDANTA AIR AMBULANCE SERVICES IN REWA AT A COST-EFFECTIVE PRICE.pdf
 
PPT on Embryological and fetal development
PPT on Embryological and fetal developmentPPT on Embryological and fetal development
PPT on Embryological and fetal development
 
Simple Steps to Make Her Choose You Every Day
Simple Steps to Make Her Choose You Every DaySimple Steps to Make Her Choose You Every Day
Simple Steps to Make Her Choose You Every Day
 
ASSESSMENT OF THE SKIN, HAIR, AND NAILS.pptx
ASSESSMENT OF THE SKIN, HAIR, AND NAILS.pptxASSESSMENT OF THE SKIN, HAIR, AND NAILS.pptx
ASSESSMENT OF THE SKIN, HAIR, AND NAILS.pptx
 
National Rural Health Mission(NRHM).pptx
National Rural Health Mission(NRHM).pptxNational Rural Health Mission(NRHM).pptx
National Rural Health Mission(NRHM).pptx
 
EXAMINATION OF HUMAN URINE AND FAECES.pdf
EXAMINATION OF HUMAN URINE AND FAECES.pdfEXAMINATION OF HUMAN URINE AND FAECES.pdf
EXAMINATION OF HUMAN URINE AND FAECES.pdf
 
Discover the Perfect Way to Relax - Malayali Kerala Spa Ajman
Discover the Perfect Way to Relax - Malayali Kerala Spa AjmanDiscover the Perfect Way to Relax - Malayali Kerala Spa Ajman
Discover the Perfect Way to Relax - Malayali Kerala Spa Ajman
 
Emotional and Behavioural Problems in Children - Counselling and Family Thera...
Emotional and Behavioural Problems in Children - Counselling and Family Thera...Emotional and Behavioural Problems in Children - Counselling and Family Thera...
Emotional and Behavioural Problems in Children - Counselling and Family Thera...
 
一比一原版布里斯托大学毕业证(Bristol毕业证书)学历如何办理
一比一原版布里斯托大学毕业证(Bristol毕业证书)学历如何办理一比一原版布里斯托大学毕业证(Bristol毕业证书)学历如何办理
一比一原版布里斯托大学毕业证(Bristol毕业证书)学历如何办理
 
Sunscreens, IP-I, Dr. M.N.CHISHTI, Asst Prof. Dept of Pharmaceutics, YBCCPA
Sunscreens, IP-I, Dr. M.N.CHISHTI, Asst Prof. Dept of Pharmaceutics, YBCCPASunscreens, IP-I, Dr. M.N.CHISHTI, Asst Prof. Dept of Pharmaceutics, YBCCPA
Sunscreens, IP-I, Dr. M.N.CHISHTI, Asst Prof. Dept of Pharmaceutics, YBCCPA
 
The Ultimate Guide in Setting Up Market Research System in Health-Tech
The Ultimate Guide in Setting Up Market Research System in Health-TechThe Ultimate Guide in Setting Up Market Research System in Health-Tech
The Ultimate Guide in Setting Up Market Research System in Health-Tech
 
Columbia毕业证书退学办理
Columbia毕业证书退学办理Columbia毕业证书退学办理
Columbia毕业证书退学办理
 
Exploring Stem Cell Solutions for Parkinson's Disease with Dr. David Greene A...
Exploring Stem Cell Solutions for Parkinson's Disease with Dr. David Greene A...Exploring Stem Cell Solutions for Parkinson's Disease with Dr. David Greene A...
Exploring Stem Cell Solutions for Parkinson's Disease with Dr. David Greene A...
 

Dosage Forms

  • 2. DOSAGE FORMS Definition: Dosage forms are the means by which drug molecules are delivered to sites of action within the body. The need for dosage forms: 1- Accurate dose. 2- Protection e.g. coated tablets, sealed ampules. 3- Protection from gastric juice. 4- Masking taste and odour. 5- Placement of drugs within body tissues. 6- Sustained release medication. 7- Controlled release medication. 8- Optimal drug action. 9- Insertion of drugs into body cavities (rectal, vaginal) 10- Use of desired vehicle for insoluble drugs.
  • 3. They are classified according to: I. Oral 1. Solid II. Topical 2. Semisolid III. Rectal 3. liquid IV. Parenteral V. Vaginal VI. Inhaled VII. Ophthalmic VIII. Otic
  • 4. I. ORAL DOSAGE FORMS 1-Tablet: A tablet is a hard, compressed medication in round, oval or square shape. The excipients include: -Binders, glidants (flow aids) and lubricants to ensure efficient tabletting. -Disintegrants to ensure that the tablet breaks up in the digestive tract. -Sweeteners or flavours to mask the taste of bad-tasting active ingredients. -Pigments to make uncoated tablets visually attractive.
  • 5. 1-Tablet (Cont.) A coating may be applied to: 1- Hide the taste of the tablet's components. 2- Make the tablet smoother and easier to swallow. 3- Make it more resistant to the environment. 4- Extending its shelf life.
  • 6. 2-Buccal and sublingual tablet: - Sublingual and buccal medications are administered by placing them in the mouth, either under the tongue (sublingual) or between the gum and the cheek (buccal). - The medications dissolve rapidly and are absorbed through the mucous membranes of the mouth, where they enter into the bloodstream. - Avoid the acid and enzymatic environment of the stomach and the drug metabolizing enzymes of the liver. - Examples of drugs administered by this route: e.g.
  • 7. 3-Effervescent tablet Effervescent tablets are uncoated tablets that generally contain acid substances (citric and tartaric acids) and carbonates or bicarbonates and which react rapidly in the presence of water by releasing carbon dioxide. -They are intended to be dissolved or dispersed in water before use providing: 1. Very rapid tablet dispersion and dissolution. 2. Pleasant tasting carbonated drink.
  • 8. 4- Chewable tablet: - They are tablets that chewed prior to swallowing. - They are designed for administration to children e.g. vitamin products.
  • 9. 5- Capsule A capsule is a medication in a gelatin container. - Advantage: mask the unpleasant taste of its contents. The two main types of capsules are: 1- Hard-shelled capsules, which are normally used for dry, powdered ingredients, 2- Soft-shelled capsules, primarily used for oils and for active ingredients that are dissolved or suspended in oil.
  • 10. 6- Lozenge - It is a solid preparation consisting of sugar and gum, the latter giving strength and cohesiveness to the lozenge and facilitating slow release of the medicament. - It is used to medicate the mouth and throat for the slow administration of indigestion or cough remedies.
  • 11. 7- Pastilles They are solid medicated preparations designed to dissolve slowly in the mouth. They are softer than lozenges and their bases are either glycerol and gelatin, or sugar.
  • 12. 8- Dental Cones - A tablet form intended to be placed in the empty socket following a tooth extraction, for preventing the local multiplication of pathogenic bacteria associated with tooth extractions. - The cones may contain an antibiotic or antiseptic.
  • 13. 9- Granules - They are consisting of solid, dry aggregates of powder particles often supplied in single- dose sachets. - Some granules are placed on the tongue and swallowed with water, others are intended to be dissolved in water before taking. - Effervescent granules evolve carbon dioxide when added to water.
  • 14. 10- Powder (Oral) There are two kinds of powder intended for internal use. 1-Bulk Powders are multidose preparations consisting of solid, loose, dry particles of varying degrees of fineness. They contain one or more active ingredients, with or without excipients and, if necessary, coloring matter and flavoring substances. - Usually contain non-potent medicaments such as antacids since the patient measures a dose by volume using a 5ml medicine spoon. The powder is then usually dispersed in water or, in the case of effervescent powders, dissolved before taking.
  • 15. 11- Powders for mixtures - The mixed powders may be stored in dry form and mixture prepared by the pharmacist when required for dispensing , by suspending the powders in the appropriate vehicle.
  • 16. 12-Liquid preparations A- ORAL SOLUTION: Oral solutions are clear Liquid preparations for oral use containing one or more active ingredients dissolved in a suitable vehicle. B- ORAL EMULSION: Oral emulsions are stabilized oil-in-water dispersions, either or both phases of which may contain dissolved solids. C-ORAL SUSPENSION: - Oral suspensions are Liquid preparations for oral use containing one or more active ingredients suspended in a suitable vehicle. - Oral suspensions may show a sediment which is readily dispersed on shaking to give a uniform suspension which remains sufficiently stable to enable the correct dose to
  • 17. 12-Liquid preparations (Cont.) D- SYRUP: - It is a concentrated aqueous solution of a sugar, usually sucrose. - Flavored syrups are a convenient form of masking disagreeable tastes. E- ELIXIR: -It is pleasantly flavored clear liquid oral preparation of potent or nauseous drugs. - The vehicle may contain a high proportion of ethanol or sucrose together with antimicrobial preservatives which confers the stability of the
  • 18. 12-Liquid preparations (Cont.) F- LINCTUSES: - Linctuses are viscous, liquid oral preparations that are usually prescribed for the relief of cough. - They usually contain a high proportion of syrup and glycerol which have a demulcent effect on the membranes of the throat. - The dose volume is small (5ml) and, to prolong the demulcent action, they should be taken undiluted. G- ORAL DROPS: - Oral drops are Liquid preparations for oral use that are intended to be administered in small volumes with the aid of a suitable measuring device. They may be solutions, suspensions or emulsions.
  • 19. 12-Liquid preparations (Cont.) H- GARGLES: - They are aqueous solutions used in the prevention or treatment of throat infections. - Usually they are prepared in a concentrated solution with directions for the patient to dilute with warm water before use. I- MOUTHWASHES: These are similar to gargles but are used for oral hygiene and to treat infections of the mouth.
  • 20. II. Topical dosage forms 1- OINTMENTS - Ointments are semi-solid, greasy preparations for application to the skin, rectum or nasal mucosa. - Ointments may be used as emollients or to apply suspended or dissolved medicaments to the skin.
  • 21. Topical dosage forms (Cont.) 2- CREAMS: - Creams are semi-solid emulsions, that is mixtures of oil and water. - They are divided into two types: A- OIL-IN-WATER (O/W) CREAMS: which are composed of small droplets of oil dispersed in a continuous aqueous phase. Oil-in-water creams are more comfortable and cosmetically acceptable as they are less greasy and more easily washed off using water. B- WATER-IN-OIL (W/O) CREAMS: which are composed of small droplets of water dispersed in a continuous oily phase. Water-in-oil creams are more difficult to handle but many drugs which are incorporated into creams are hydrophobic
  • 22. Topical dosage forms (Cont.) 3- GELS (JELLIES):  Gels are semisolid system in which a liquid phase is constrained within a 3-D polymeric matrix (consisting of natural or synthetic gum) having a high degree of physical or chemical cross-linking.  They are used for medication, lubrication and some miscellaneous applications like carrier for spermicidal agents to be used intra vaginally . 4- POULTICE:  It is soft, viscous, pasty preparation for external use. They are applied to skin while they are hot. Poultice must retain heat for a considerable time because they are intended to supply warmth to inflamed parts of body.
  • 23. Topical dosage forms (Cont.) 5- PASTES :  Pastes are basically ointments into which a high percentage of insoluble solid has been added.  Pastes are less penetrating and less macerating and less heating than ointment.  Pastes make particularly good protective barrier when placed on the skin.  Like ointments, paste forms an unbroken relatively water – impermeable film unlike ointments the film is opaque and therefore can be used as an effective sun block accordingly.  Pastes are less greasy because of the absorption of the
  • 24. Topical dosage forms (Cont.) There are two types of paste: a) Fatty pastes (e.g: leaser's paste) . b) Non greasy pastes (e g: - bassorin paste).
  • 25. Topical dosage forms (Cont.) 6- DUSTING POWDERS: - These are free flowing very fine powders for external use. - Not for use on open wounds unless the powders are sterilized.
  • 26. Topical dosage forms (Cont.)7- TRANSDERMAL PATCH: -A transdermal patch or skin patch is a medicated adhesive patch that is placed on the skin to deliver a specific dose of medication through the skin and into the bloodstream. -An advantage of a transdermal drug delivery route over other types such as oral, topical, etc is that it provides a controlled release of the medicament into the patient. - The first commercially available patch was scopolamine for motion sickness.
  • 27. Topical dosage forms (Cont.) 8-PLASTERS: - Plasters are solid or semisolid masses adhere to the skin when spread upon cotton felt line or muslin as a backing material and they are mainly used to: A- Afford protection and mechanical support. B- Furnish an occlusive and macerating action. C- Bring medication into close contact with the surface of the skin.
  • 28. Topical dosage forms (Cont.) 9- LINIMENTS: - Liniments are fluid, semi-fluid or, occasionally, semi-solid preparations intended for application to the skin. - They may be alcoholic or oily solutions or emulsions. - Most are massaged into the skin (e.g. counter-irritant). - Liniments should not be applied to broken skin.
  • 29. Topical dosage forms (Cont.) 10-LOTIONS: - These are fluid preparations (aqueous) for external application without friction. - They are either dabbed on the skin or applied on a suitable dressing and covered with a waterproof dressing to reduce evaporation.
  • 30. Topical dosage forms (Cont.) 11- COLLODION: Collodion is a solution of nitrocellulose in ether or acetone, sometimes with the addition of alcohols. -Its generic name is pyroxylin solution. -It is highly flammable. - As the solvent evaporates, it dries to a celluloid-like film. - Compound Wart Remover consists of acetic acid and salicylic acid in an acetone collodion base used in Treatment of warts by keratolysis.
  • 31. Topical dosage forms (Cont.) 12- PAINTS: - Paints are liquids for application to the skin or mucous membranes. - Skin paints contain volatile solvent that evaporates quickly to leave a dry resinous film of medicament. - Throat paints are more viscous due to a high content of glycerol, designed to prolong contact of the medicament with the affected site.
  • 32. Topical dosage forms (Cont.) 13- PRESSURIZED DISPENSERS (AEROSOL SPRAYS): - Several different types of pharmaceutical product may be packaged in pressurized dispensers, known as aerosols. - Surface sprays produce droplets of 100 um diameter or greater. - May be used as surface disinfectants, wound or burn dressing, relieve irritation of bites. - Spray-on dusting powders are also available from pressurized containers.
  • 33. III. Rectal dosage forms 1- SUPPOSITORY: It is a small solid medicated mass, usually cone-shaped ,that is inserted either into the rectum (rectal suppository), vagina (vaginal suppository or pessaries) where it melts at body temperature .
  • 34. Rectal dosage forms (Cont.) 2- ENEMA: An enema is the procedure of introducing liquids into the rectum and colon via the anus. Types of enema: 1- Evacuant enema: used as a bowel stimulant to treat constipation. E.g. soft soap enema & Mgso4 enema. -The volume of evacuant enemas may reach up to 2 liters. - They should be warmed to body temperature before administration.
  • 35. Rectal dosage forms (Cont.) 2- Retention enema: - Their volume does not exceed 100 ml. - No warming needed. - May exert: A- Local effect: e.g. a barium enema is used as a contrast substance in the radiological imaging of the bowel. B- Systemic effect: e.g. the administration of substances into the bloodstream. This may be done in situations where it is impossible to deliver a medication by mouth, such as antiemetics. e.g. nutrient enema which contains carbohydrates,
  • 36. IV. Vaginal dosage forms 1- PESSARY: - Pessaries are solid medicated preparations designed for insertion into the vagina where they melt or dissolve. - There are three types: A- Moulded pessaries: they are cone shaped and prepared in a similar way to moulded suppositories. B- Compressed pessaries: made in a variety of shapes and are prepared by compression in a similar manner to oral tablets. C- Vaginal capsules: are similar to soft gelatin oral
  • 37. Vaginal dosage forms (Cont.) 2- VAGINAL RING: Vaginal rings are 'doughnut-shaped' polymeric drug delivery devices designed to provide controlled release of drugs to the vagina over extended periods of time. Several vaginal ring products are currently available, including: Femring : A low-dose estradiol-acetate releasing ring, manufactured from silicone elastomer, for the relief of hot flashes and vaginal atrophy associated with menopause. NuvaRing: A low-dose contraceptive vaginal ring, releasing progesterone and estrogen.
  • 38. Vaginal dosage forms (Cont.) 3- DOUCHE: A douche is a device used to introduce a stream of water into the body for medical or hygienic reasons.
  • 39. Vaginal dosage forms (Cont.) 4- INTRAUTERINE DEVICE: -It is a birth control device placed in the uterus, also known as an IUD or a coil. -The IUD is the world's most widely used method of reversible birth control. -The device has to be fitted inside or removed from the uterus by a doctor . -It remains in place the entire time pregnancy is not desired. Depending on the type, a single IUD is approved for 5 to 10 years use. -There are two broad categories of intrauterine contraceptive devices: A- inert and copper-based devices.
  • 40. V. Parenteral dosage forms An injection is an infusion method of putting liquid into the body, usually with a hollow needle and a syringe which is pierced through the skin to a sufficient depth for the material to be forced into the body. There are several methods of injection, including: 1- INTRAVENOUS INJECTION:  It is a liquid administered directly into the bloodstream via a vein.  It is advantageous when a rapid onset of action is needed.
  • 41. Parenteral dosage forms (Cont.): 2- INTRAMUSCULAR INJECTION: -It is the injection of a substance directly into a muscle. - Many vaccines are administered intramuscularly. -Depending on the chemical properties of the drug, the medication may either be absorbed fairly quickly or more gradually. - Intramuscular injections are often given in the deltoid, vastus lateralis, ventrogluteal and dorsogluteal muscles. - Injection fibrosis is a complication that may occur if the injections are delivered with great frequency or with improper technique.
  • 42. Parenteral dosage forms (Cont.) 3- SUBCUTANEOUS INJECTION: Subcutaneous injections are given by injecting a fluid into the subcutis, the layer of skin directly below the dermis and epidermis. Subcutaneous injections are highly effective in administering vaccines and such medications as insulin.
  • 43. VI. Inhaled dosage forms 1- INHALER :  Inhalers are solutions, suspensions or emulsion of drugs in a mixture of inert propellants held under pressure in an aerosol dispenser.  Release of a dose of the medicament in the form of droplets of 50 um diameter or less from the container through a spring-loaded valve incorporating a metering device. The patient then inhales the released drug through a mouthpiece.  In some types, the valve is actuated by finger pressure, in other types the valve is actuated by the patient breathing in through the mouthpiece.  It is commonly used to treat asthma and other respiratory
  • 44. Inhaled dosage forms (Cont.) 2- NEBULIZER OR (ATOMIZER): A nebulizer is a device used to administer medication to people in forms of a liquid mist to the airways.  It is commonly used in treating asthma, and other respiratory diseases.  It pumps air or oxygen through a liquid medicine to turn it into a vapor, which is then inhaled by the patient. As a general rule, doctors generally prefer to prescribe inhalers for their patients, because: 1-These are cheaper 2- more portable 3- carry less risk of side effects.
  • 45. VII. Ophthalmic dosage forms 1- EYE DROPS: Eye drops are saline-containing drops used as a vehicle to administer medication in the eye. Depending on the condition being treated, they may contain steroids, antihistamines or topical anesthetics. Eye drops sometimes do not have medications in them and are only lubricating and tear-replacing solutions. 2- OPHTHALMIC OINTMENT & GEL: These are sterile semi-solid Preparations intended for application to the conjunctiva or eyelid margin.
  • 46. VIII. Otic dosage forms 1- EAR DROPS: Ear drops are solutions, suspensions or emulsions of drugs that are instilled into the ear with a dropper. It is used to treat or prevent ear infections, especially infections of the outer ear and ear canal.
  • 47. X. Nasal dosage forms 1- NASAL DROPS AND SPRAYS:  Drugs in solution may be instilled into the nose from a dropper or from a plastic squeeze bottle.  The drug may have a local effect, e.g. antihistamine, decongestant.  Alternatively the drug may be absorbed through the nasal mucosa to exert a systemic effect.  The use of oily nasal drops should be avoided because of possible damage to the cilia of the