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- 1. Quantum Numbers
- 2. The Three Physicists Louie de Broglie Erwin Schrodinger Werner Karl Heisenberg Quantum Mechanical Model
- 3. Quantum mechanics • examines the wave motion of objects Atomic orbital • Specified by three quantum numbers
- 4. Quantum Numbers According to Heisenberg’s Uncertainty Principle, it is not possible to give the exact position of an electron and its energy at the same time. But the probability of finding an electron in an orbital of given energy can be determined.
- 5. The 3 Quantum Numbers Principal Quantum Number, n Azimuthal Quantum Number, l Magnetic Quantum Number, ml
- 6. Principal Quantum Number main energy level of an orbital. Indicates the relative size of the orbital an increase in n also means increase in the energy of the electron in the orbital. n= 1, 2, 3….
- 7. Azimuthal Quantum Number also called Angular Momentum Number defines the shape of the orbital. values range from 0 to n-1. l = n - 1
- 8. Azimuthal Quantum Number l Sublevel Orbital Shape 0 sharp - s spherical 1 principal - p dumbbell- shaped 2 diffused - d cloverleaf 3 fundamental - f too complex
- 9. S- orbital • Spherical shape with the nucleus at its center
- 10. P-orbital • “dumb-bell shape”
- 11. D-orbital • With 5 different orientations
- 12. Azimuthal Quantum Number A sublevel in a particular main energy level is defined by its n and its l values. n l Kind of Sublevel 1 0 1s 3 1 3p
- 13. Magnetic Quantum Number, ml describes the orientation of the orbital in space. values are –l to +l values per sublevel = 2l +1.
- 14. Magnetic Quantum Number, ml Sublevel l ml s 0 0 p 1 -1,0,+1 d 2 -2,-1,0,1,+2 f 3 -3,-2,-1,0,+1,+2,+3
- 15. Sublevel and Capacity of Each Main Energy Level Main Energy Level No. of Sublevel Identity of Sublevels No. of Orbitals (n2) Max. No. of Electrons (2n2) 1 1 1s 1 2 2 2 2s 2p 1 3 2 6 3 3 3s 3p 3d 1 3 5 2 6 10 4 4 4s 4p 4d 4f 1 3 5 7 2 6 10 14
- 16. Orbital Diagram
- 17. Exercise No. 1 Quantum Numbers Give all the possible quantum numbers for electrons in the 2nd energy level. Give all the possible quantum numbers for electrons in: a. 3s orbital b. 4d orbital Give the quantum numbers in: a. 4f3 b. 3p5
- 18. Exercise No. 2 Quantum Numbers Which of the following sets of QN is NOT possible? Write possible or impossible and justify your answer. a. n=2, l=1 c. n=1, ml=+1 d. l=4, ml=-3

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