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The Middle Ages Romanesque & GothicChurch and State….
Europe in the Romanesque PeriodRomanesque: 1000-1150/1200. Overlap w/Byzantine… 500 - 1400 (late Byzantine)William the Conqueror invades England and conquers it in 1066; ties w/Normandy
Early Medieval = 500 yrs of Illiteracy, Invaders & Instability• Did NOT promote major architectural innovation, except brief periods w/Charlemagne & Ottonian rulers• Many expected the world to end in flames & the Second Coming in 1033 (2012 ??)• Hey! We’re still here… Europe got back its VERVE and JOIE DE VIVRE.• Still war threatened… and they’d forgotten about civilized amenities like sanitation, concrete, roads…• But fragments of Rome leftover inspired Romanesque architects
Europe Settles Down…• Vikings were Christianized; Islamic invaders neutralized• Trade & the arts flourished in cities, that finally began to expand• Strong bonds between Kings & feudal leaders and the Church brought stability, kind of like the old Roman Empire…
Feudal LifeLand was main source of wealth and power for aristocracy (hereditary)Feudalism: land for services, Lord gave property & protection to vassal,who worked for the lord & gave military service. Peasants worked the land.Worcester ChronicleIllustrates the 3 classesChurch was closely alignedWith Kings & Feudal LordsAristocracy gave churchLand for monasteriesChurch gave educationUnified communities
Church as Center of Medieval Life• Towns outdoing each other building churches: civic pride• Record keeping, birth, wedding, death, worship, trade in town center• “Shortly after the year 1000, all Christian peoples were seized with a great desire to outdo one another in magnificence. It was as if the very world had shaken itself, and casting off her old garments, was clothing herself everywhere in a white robe of churches.”- Ralph Glaber, monk, 1050• Medieval masons: master builders, architects, artists, who learned through experience & apprenticeship, vs. formal study.
Reconstruction drawing of Abbey at Cluny, Burgundy, France, 1088-1130
A Pilgrim’s Progress…“ a hank of hair, and a piece of bone…from every shire’ s end.. .Of England to Canterbury they went…the blessed martyr for to seek.” -Chaucer, Canterbury Tales• Mass phenomenon that sent 1000s of religious pilgrims across Europe and Holy Lands, wending from 1 church to next, seeing holy relics such as?????• Crusades in 11th and 12th centuries…Europe previously playing defense against Islamic invaders, now became aggressor (WHY??)
The Pilgrim’s Journey•Tomb of St. Peter &Constantian churches inRome•Cathedral of St. Jamesin Santiago deCompostela Spain•Journeys 1 year +•Monasteries providedfood & lodging•Visit relics on way•TOURISM for townsand $$-build churches•Ex: Chartres had pieceof tunic of St. Mary•Injured/sick looking formiracles with holy relics
Romanesque : Pilgrim’s Progress•Sculpture shows Jesus as a pilgrim..Pilgrim’s hat, satchel with seashell…on road to Emmaus with disciples.•Great religious fervor, increasingprosperity of monasteries, & cult ofpilgrimages inspired construction oftens of thousands of churches!•Between 1050-1350, in Francealone, 80 cathedrals, 500 largechurches, and 10,000’s of churcheswere constructed.•Where else have we seen religiouspilgrimages?????Christ and Disciples on Road to Emmau,Pier relief, 1100, Cloister of the Abbey ofSanto Domingo, Castile, Spain.
Romanesque Architecture: A Mighty Fortress Roman revival, sort of ... Really a combination of styles! Watch video…http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rSiD5Jinpuw&playnext= 1&list=PL7F02240CB490E6C3&index=15
ROMANESQUE: A KIND OF ROMANREVIVALRomanesque builders added apses,variety of ambulatories, and chapels toaccommodate pilgrims & worshippers.Use of cut stone masonry.. Enhancedacoustics for Gregorian chants…•Gregorian Monks Medieval ChantInterior, Church of Saint Vincenc,Cardona SpainOne of the first Romanesque churchesbuilt in Spain, built in 1020sUsed strip buttresses and arched corbeltables for decoration as well as support.Needed thick walls and small windowsfor security (threat of war)
Norman RomanesqueMont St. Michel, France • Largely intact Romanesque with rare wooden roof • Gothic spires later addition • Completely cut off at high tide • 3 layer: ground floor, tribune gallery, clerestory windows • Nave divided into regular bays
View of Mt. St Michel at low tide
Nave, Church of St.Etienne,Caen1060-77Normandy, FranceFLASHCARD
St. Etienne, CaenTimber roof laterreplaced by stone in12th century
Battle of 1066• William the Conqueror• Invaded Britain with the Norman knights, British had no cavalry• http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=oLy1Lsk T6Y8&feature=related
Bayeux Tapestry (flashcard) Messengers Signal the Appearance of a Comet
Bishop Odo Blessing the Feast, Bayeux TapestryNorman-Anglo Saxon embroidery300” long, 20” high, 1066-1082, Romanesque PeriodCommemorated the conquest of England and defeat of King Harold by William theConquerorflashcard
Detail of BayeuxTapestry
Cathedral of St. James, Santiagode Compostela1078-1122, Gallica, Spain•MAJOR pilgrimage destination•Model of functional planning &traffic control of PILGRIMS•Continuous aisles & ambulatorieslet pilgrims move around thechurch, visiting chapels andsaying prayers, w/o disruptingmain services @ high altar•Solidity and geometric forms:mighty fortress of Romanesquestyle!•Church was open 24/7 towelcome pilgrims•Held body of St. James, patronsaint of Iberian peninsula•Flashcard
Reconstruction drawing & floor plan of Cathedral of St James, Santiago de Compostela, Spain, 1078-1122
Cross section of Cathedralof St. JamesNote: pointed arches,possibly inspired by whatkind of architecture thatwould have been seen inSpain????????????Pointed arches would laterbe adopted in Gothicchurches…can bear moreweight and give highereffect, let in more light.
Reliquary Statue of SainteFoyGilt over wood core, addedgems and cameos33” high, Conques, France9th or 10th centuryHoused skull of child martyrSainte Foy (Saint Faith)Romanesque pilgrims &Christians wanted tovenerate & worship actualrelics of saints & holypeople…how was thisdifferent than the ByzantineChristian traditions????
flashcardPalace Chapel of Charlemagne, 9th century, Aachen, GermanyPreceded or laid groundwork for Romanesque style architecture…Remember this???
Last Judgment atAutun, Tympamum onWest Portal, Cathedralof Saint-Lazara, AutunGiselbertusflashcard1120-1130(Romanesque)Stylized figures,terrifying urgency oflast judgmentThin, tall figuresswarming aroundChrist2 pilgrims in bottomregister
Christ in Majesty, Church ofSan Clement, SpainFlashcardMural painting in RomanesquechurchByzantine influence inelongated figuresClassical influence in drapery
Virgin & Child (aka Mary as Throneof Wisdom)Late 12th century (Romanesque)Oak w/polychromy, 21” high
Some variations inRomanesque style…For example, Cistercianmonks believed in simplicityrather than ornate decorationAbbey Church of Notre-Dame,Fontenay, 1139-47, BurgundyPointed rib barrelvaults..churches such as thisone influenced theInternational Gothic Style thatbecame popular in the1300s…Romanesque churches hadmany regional variations…
Cathedral Complex, Pisa; 1063-13th century, Tuscany, ItalyEarly Christian & Roman influence seen in columns & arcadesOOOPS>>. What’s happening with the CAMPANILE (Bell Tower?)Rich marble facades, cruciform basilica, (tons of lead added to base, reinforcedso the leaning tower doesn’t fall!!) Jon Mora assigned (FAIL)
Church of Sant’Ambrogio, Milan, Italy; Begun 1080….
S p 1st Romanesque church e in Germany - 10th y century - flashcard e r 80 years to build c Engaged columns semi- a circular, stone roof unlike t other churches h e Typical arches & bays d Built by Emperor Conrad r a 1st buliding constructed l entirely from stone in Europe Largest crypt in GermanySpeyer Cathedral
Exterior of Speyer Cathedral1080-1106 (Romanesque)Largest Romanesquearchitecture known
ENGLISHINNOVATION: THERIB VAULTDurham Cathedral, England,1087-1133FlashcardNorman Conquest of England in 1066,legacy of William the ConquerorPart of a Benedictine monastery &complexLong narrow naveHuge composite piers alternate withcarved & decorated columnsStone ribs strengthened groin vaults sothey could carry more weightStrong vertical emphasis, laidgroundwork for Gothic architecture
Dover CastleEnglandNote GreatTower, walleddefenses.Invaders triedto scale walls,very difficultdue to locationon cliffRound towersmore resistantto tunnelingunder and tobattering rams