The origins of the Crusades lie in developments in Western Europe earlier in the Middle Ages, as well as the deteriorating situation of the Byzantine Empire in the east caused by a new wave of Turkish Muslim attacks.
Many believed their successful journey to a chosen shrine would secure them a place in heaven. Others, like some modern-day pilgrims, sought a cure from illness or, failing that, personal peace and solace. And some went to a shrine as an act of thanksgiving or atonement, or to make a special request of the saint associated with the site. A pilgrimage could also be imposed by a member of the clergy, in order to punish a penitent.Here, people would swap stories with other travellers, finding out about places they had visited. They could also gain valuable information from people who had visited the pilgrimage sites and were on their way back home, picking up information about places to eat and stay.
The Papal Basilica of St Paul Outside the Walls (Italian: Basilica Papaledi San Paolo fuori le Mura), commonly known as St Paul's Outside the Walls, is one of Rome's four ancient major basilicas or papal basilicas[Notes 2]: the basilicas of St. John Lateran, St. Mary Major, and St. Peter's and Saint Paul Outside the Walls.
(History of Architecture 2) Sept 2012 romanesque architecture
Romanesque Architecture The Architectural style of Medieval Europe
Outline Introduction CharacteristicsTime and Place Building types and History and Society Examples Religion The Church The Monastery The Fortified Town Why Romanesque? The Castle Materials
Time and PlacePeriod: 1000-1200 ADPlace: Western Europe
The Decline of Rome and the beginning of the Dark AgesRome was occupied by „barbarians‟ in 476. The Roman Empire in the West had already come to an end in A.D. 475. Franks – France Burgundians-Burgundy Lombards-Lombardy Goths/Visigoths-Gothic Vandals-”vandalism”Because of these invasions, Romanesque architecture was obsessed with security, each building was a fortress. Constant warfare rendered the condition of the people unsettled and craftsmanship was consequently at a low ebb.
The Romanesque World Period: 1000-1200 ADRomanesque building types Churches Castles Monasteries Fortified TownsNorman – Romanesque in BritainOttonian – Romanesque in GermanyMedieval society: Landowning lords and knights Peasants and laborers Monks and priests
HISTORY AND SOCIETY Charlemagne Feudalism The Pilgrimage The Crusades
The election of the first Frankish King Charlemagne (A.D. 799) as Holy Roman Emperor marks the beginning of a new era. Between the time of Charlemagne (about 800 AD) and the beginning of Romanesque two hundred years later, people had built practically no big new buildings. Charlemagne was crowned Holy Roman Emperor on Xmas Day 800. He encouraged the building of churches and monasteries using masonry.Charlemagne (Reign: 768- 814) Carolingian – from Carolus, latin for Charles
The Politics of FeudalismThe Romanesque period saw the introduction of the system of feudal tenure,or the holding of land on condition of military service
The Crusades 1095–1270 The Crusades were a series of religiously sanctioned military campaigns waged by much of Western Christian Europe, particularly the Franks of France and the Holy Roman Empire. The specific crusades to restore Christian control of the Holy Land were fought over a period of nearly 200 years, between 1095 and 1291. The Crusades brought about a very large movement of people and, with them, ideas and trade skills, particularly those involved in the building of fortifications and the metal working needed for the provision of arms, which was also applied to the fitting and decoration of buildings. The continual movement of people, rulers, nobles, bishops, abbots, craftsmen and peasants, was an important factor in creating a homogeneity in building methods and a recognizable Romanesque style, despite regional differences.
The Crusades originally had the goal of recapturing Jerusalem The Crusades Godefroy de Bouillon a French and the Holy Land from Muslim knight, leader of the First Crusade rule and their campaigns were and founder of the Kingdom of launched in response to a call Jerusalem. from the Christian Byzantine Empire for help against the expansion of the Muslim Seljuk Turks into Anatolia. Crusaders took vows and were granted penance for past sins, often called an indulgence. There was a total of nine crusades in the Middle Ages. Although Europe had been exposed to Islamic culture for centuries through contacts in Iberian Peninsula and Sicily, much knowledge in areas such as science, medicine, and architecture was transferred from the Islamic to the western world during the crusade era.
RELIGION Across Europe, the late 11th and 12thcenturies saw an unprecedented growth in the number of churches. A great number of these buildings, both large and small, remain.
Religion in the Middle AgesChristianity was the chief source of education and culture. The erection of a church often resulted in the foundation of a city.The Monastic system – the religious become members of an order with common ties and a common rule, living in a mutually dependent community. Promoted new methods in agriculture Exercised influence on Angoulême Cathedral, France architecture 1128 AD
In medieval times, people made long trips to visit the relics or resting The Pilgrimage places of revered saints.However, as the number of pilgrims increased, there were simply too many people to be housed in monastic buildings and so inns and boarding houses offered an alternative.The pilgrimages allowed for the exchange of ideas including those of architecture and construction. The pilgrim‟s way was filled with Romanesque churches, monasteries, inns and castles. Head reliquary Medieval society was often divided sharply of St Martin of into rich and poor. But, on a pilgrimage, Tours people from all walks of life could meet and travel together.
Santiago de Compostela, 1078Many pilgrims who were unable to take on the huge prospect of a visit to the HolyLand would instead travel to Rome, home of the worldwide Roman CatholicChurch, or Santiago de Compostella in Spain, where the shrine of St James washoused.
ROMANESQUE ARCHITECTURE Romanesque architecture was the first distinctive style to spread across Europe since the Roman Empire. It is used to describe the style which was identifiably Medieval and prefigured the Gothic.
WHY ROMANESQUE ARCHITECTURE?On the decline of the Roman Empire in 478AD, the Romanesque style grew up in those countries of Western Europe which had been under the rule of Rome. Romanesque style is called that because it is a little like Roman architecture with similarities between the barrel vault and Roman arch, but it is made around 1000-1200 AD instead of during the Roman Empire. Apart from its Roman origin, from which it took its name, the Romanesque style owed something to Byzantine art, which was carried westwards along the great trade routes, by way of such centers as Venice, Ravenna, and Marseilles. With the church as the unifying force, this period was devoted to the glorification of Christianity and the church was the predominant building type.
Climate and Materials Geographical position determined many of the peculiarities of the style in each country. Use of local materials (stone or brick, marble or terra-cotta, ready-made columns) depended on the region. The use of local materials, whether stone or brick, marble or terra-cotta, as well as of ready-made columns and other features from old Roman buildings, accounts for many of the varying characteristics in each country over this wide area, with its different geological formations. Climatic conditions contributed to differences of treatment north and south of the Alps & Pyrenees. North → window openings were enlarged → high-pitched roofs South → small window openings → flat roofs
The building material differs greatly across Europe, depending upon thelocal stone and building traditions. In Italy, Poland, much of Germany and parts of the Netherlands, brick is generally used. Other areas saw extensive use of limestone, granite and flint. San Vittore alle Chiuse, Genga, Italy, of undressed stone, has SantAmbrogio, Milan is a typically fortress-likeconstructed of bricks, 1099AD. appearance. 1011AD
CHARACTERISTICSDistinctive features of Romanesque walls, openings, roofs, columns, mouldings and ornaments.
Characteristics of Romanesque: thick walls which support stone roofs round arches sturdy piers groin and barrel vaults large towers decorative arcading small windows to keep the strength of the walls strong Right: Abbaye-aux-Hommes, Caen, France 11th C
Characteristics of Romanesque: stone was cut with precision a blocky, earthbound appearance large, simple geometric masses the exterior reflects the interior structure and organization interiors tend to be dark because of the massive walls that dictate small windows growing sophistication in vaulting to span the large spaces system of construction: San Antonino, Piacenza, Italy 1104 AD arcuated
WALLS characterized by OPENINGS corbelleza arches at the a) introduced the wheel window cornice, one series of b) the recessed plane of door jambs also called as the order corbel is called “corbel with quarter shaft. table” or “blind arch” ROOF a) used the dome which is normally found at the intersection of the nave and transept b) use of vaults Left: a corbel table Above: wheel window and recessed arches, San Pedro, Avila, Spain 1100
Columns 1. used variation of the Corinthian and the Ionic capital with a twisted shaft known as the “scallop” 2. developed the cushion or cubiforal type and the scalloped capitalUsed the following shafts: a. fluted c. twisted or scallop e. wreathed columns b. zigzag d. chevron
Moldings 1. usually in vegetable form/animal form 2. elaborately carvedOrnament 1. principal ornamentation were fresco paintings 2. characteristic ornamentations in sculpture, carvings and fresco painting usually : a. vegetables b. animal forms
Other Romanesque features Recessed arch entrance Arches Groin and barrel Vaults Blind arcade Absidioles and Ambulatory Square Towers Columns – paired, attached, decorated Tympanum Historiated capitals Underground vaults Westwork
Arch, barrel vault and the blind arcadeThe half round arch and thebarrel vault. St Sernin,Toulouse, France. A Lombard band is a decorative blind arcade, usually exterior. Below: A Lombard band in the Basilica di Santa Giulia, northern Italy.
The Ambulatory and the Absidiole Ambulatories-The creation of the ambulatory helped to accommodate the growing number of pilgrims. In this arrangement, the aisles flanking the navewere extended alongside the sanctuary and around the apse. Small relic chapels or niche shrines radiated out from this ambulatory facilitating the flow of pilgrims. Absidioles – round chapels around the ambulatory. Below: Cluny Abbey, France 1131 St Martin of Tours, France
Square Towers and Round ArchesFacade of Santa Maria, Cosmedin, with bell tower, 6th C Round arches at the facade of the cathedral of Lisbon
Square Towers and Round ArchesSouth transept of Tournai Facade of Angoulême Cathedral Belgium, 12th Cathedral, France with towers century with buttresses. and rounded arches.
Domes At St. Andrews Church, The Cathedral of Saint-Front,Kraków, the paired towers are Périgueux, France, has five domes octagonal in plan and have like Byzantine churches, but isdomes of the Baroque period. Romanesque in construction.
Columns with attached shafts, internal horizontal divisions The cathedral of Santiago de Compostela, Spain, has large columns constructed of drums, with attached shafts Mainz Cathedral, Germany,possibly the earliest example ofan internal elevation of 3 stages
Paired and decorated columns Paired columns like those at Duratón,near Sepúlveda, Spain, are a feature of Romanesque cloisters in Spain, Italy and southern France Durham Cathedral, England, has decorated masonry columns and the earliest pointed high ribs.
Alternating piers and columns and the blind arcade The "blind arcade" beneath thisSt. Michaels, Hildesheim has window at Canterbury Cathedralalternating piers and columns. has overlapping arches forming points, a common decorative feature of Romanesque architecture in England
Dwarf galleries, stone mouldings On these much-restoredDwarf Galleries encircle Speyer mouldings around the portal Cathedral. of Lincoln Cathedral are formal chevron ornament, tongue- poking monsters, vines and figures, and symmetrical motifs in the Byzantine style.
Tympanum and Historiated Capitals A Capital from Seu Vella, Lleida, Spain, showing spiralThe tympanum of Vézelay and paired motifs.Abbey, Burgundy, France,1130s, has much decorativespiral detail in the draperies
Doorways with a tympanumAlso called Romanesque Portal. They were later decorated and the space between the doorhead and the inner arch was filled by a stone slab called a TYMPANIUM which acted as the focal point of the ornament. St. Trophime
Groin vaults and Underground CryptsBayeux Cathedral, the crypthas groin vaults and simplified The painted crypt of SanCorinthian capitals. Isidoro at León, Spain.
The WestworkA westwork is the monumental, west-facing entrance section of a Carolingian, Ottonian, or Romanesque church. The exterior consists of multiple storiesbetween two towers. The interior includes an entrance vestibule, a chapel and a series of galleries overlooking the nave. St Pantaleon, Cologne (960, 1150- The westwork of Corvey Abbey (873-885) 60)
ORNAMENTS and PATTERNS Some of the ornamentation and patterns of the Romanesque originated from the Northern tribes.
Decorative PatternsChevronA zigzag molding used inRomanesque archsBilletmolding formed by a series of circular,cylinders, disposed alternately with thenotches in single or multiple rows
Lozengestongue-like protrusions. A diamondshape decoration found carved on pillarsand arches.Staralso called chip-carved star,motive star flower, or saltire cross
Nailheadsmoulding featuring a series of smallcontiguous projecting pyramidsCablea convex molding carved inimitation of a rope or cord, and usedto decorate the moldings of theRomanesque style
Frescoes and Stained GlassFresco from Church of St.Clement, now in Museu Stained glass, the ProphetNacional dArt de Catalunya . Daniel from Augsburg Cathedral, late 11th century.
ARCHES AND COLUMNS Some examples of arches and column capitals.
THE ROUND ARCHSemi Circular Arch ~A round arch whose intrados is a full semicircle.Segmented Arch ~a shallow arch; an arch that is less than a semicircle
THE ROUND ARCHStilted Arch ~An arch whose curve begins above the impost line.Horseshoe Arch ~also called the Moorish arch and the Keyhole arch
Romanesque Historiated or figured capital: A capital which is decorated with Capitals figures of animals, birds, or humans, used either alone or combined with foliage. The figures need not have any meaning,Block, cushion, or cubic capital: A although they may be symbolic orsimple cube-like capital with bottom part of a narrative sequence.corners tapered. The block capital is Historiated capitals were mostparticularly characteristic of commonly used in the RomanesqueOttonian and Romanesque from the late eleventh to mid- twelfth centuries.architecture in Germany andEngland.
ROMANESQUE BUILDING TYPES Churches Monasteries Castles Fortified Towns
CHURCHESChristianity, the chief source of education and culture, was graduallyextending throughout northern Europe, and the erection of a church often resulted in the foundation of a city ; for the Papacy had been rising to great power and influence, and rivaled, or even controlled, such civil government as existed.
ITALIAN ROMANESQUE ARCHITECTURE EXAMPLES CENTRAL ITALY NORTH ITALYPisa Cathedral (A.D. 1063–92) S. Antonino, Piacenza (A.D. 1104)San Michele, Lucca(A.D. 1188, facade S. Ambrogio, Milan (A.D. 1140) A.D. 1288) S. Michele, Pavia (A.D. 1188)Pistoia Cathedral (c. A.D. 1150) S. Zeno Maggiore, Verona (A.D. 1139)The Cloisters of S. Giovanni in Laterano, Rome (A.D. 1234) The Baptistery, Cremona (A.D. 1167)San Paolo Fuori le Mura, Rome The Baptistery, Asti (A.D. 1050)(A.D. 1241) The Baptistery, Parma (A.D. 1196)San Miniato, Florence (A.D. 1013)
Romanesque, Central Italy Pisa Cathedral (A.D. 1063–92) with Baptistery, Campanile
Romanesque, Central Italy San Martino, Lucca San Michele, Lucca(A.D. 1060, facade, A.D. 1204) (A.D. 1188, facade A.D. 1288)
Romanesque, Central Italy San Paolo Fuori le Mura, RomePistoia Cathedral (c. A.D. 1150) (A.D. 1241)
Romanesque, Central ItalyThe Cloisters of S. Giovanni,Laterano, Rome (A.D. 1234) San Miniato, Florence (A.D. 1013)
Romanesque, North ItalySan Antonino, Piacenza (A.D. 1104) San Ambrogio, Milan (A.D. 1140)
Romanesque, North ItalySan Zeno Maggiore, Verona (A.D. 1139), San Michele, Pavia (A.D. 1188)
Romanesque, North ItalyThe Baptistery, Parma The Baptistery, Cremona (A.D. 1196) (A.D. 1167)
Romanesque, Southern Italy Monreale Cathedral (A.D. 1174) S. Giovanni degli Eremiti, Palermo (A.D. 1132) La Martorana, Palermo (A.D. 1129-1143) S. Cataldo, Palermo (A.D. 1161) S. Nicolo, Bari (A.D. 1197)Monreale Cathedral (A.D. 1174)
Romanesque, Southern Italy La Martorana, Palermo (A.D. 1129-1143)S. Giovanni degli Eremiti, Palermo (A.D. 1132)
Romanesque, Southern Italy S. Cataldo, Palermo (A.D. 1161) S. Nicolo, Bari (A.D. 1197)
FRENCH ROMANESQUEThe Abbaye-aux-Dames, Caen (A.D. 1083) Notre Dame la Grande, PoitiersS. Nicholas, Caen (A.D. 1084) (A.D. 11th century)Saint Sernin, Toulouse, France Fontevrault Abbey (A.D. 1101–19)(1080 – 1120) Abbey Church of Mont S. MichelS. Madeleine, Vezelay (A.D. 1100) (A.D. 1023)Autun Cathedral (A.D. 1090-1132) The Church at S. Gilles (c. A.D. 1150)The Abbey of S. Denis (A.D. 1132)S. Trophime, Arles (A.D. 1150) S. Philibert, Tournus, Burgundy
French RomanesqueThe Abbaye-aux-Hommes, Caen Abbeye-aux- Dames, Caen or S. Etienne, 1120AD 1083AD
French RomanesqueS. Nicholas, Caen Saint Sernin, Toulouse, (A.D. 1084) (1080 – 1120)
PLANS USED BY ROMANESQUE CHURCHES 1. adopted the Greek and the Latin cross plan 2. faces the eastSaint Sernin, Toulouse, France,1080 - 1120
PLANS USED BY ROMANESQUE CHURCHESThe Greek Cross Plan,with four equal arms Saint Front, Perigueux, France, 1100
MEDIEVAL MONASTARIES Monasteries were often sited justoutside the city gates and providedwork, medical care, education, and hostels for travellers.
The Mediaeval Science, letters, art, and culture were the monopoly of the Monasteries religious Orders. Schools attached to monasteries trained youths for the service of religion; monks and their pupils were the designers of the cathedrals. architecture → “sacred science” They initiated the agricultural development of the time: grain production sheep-rearing dry-stone walling techniques water wheels drainage. They also trained masons, carvers, joiners and engineers.St Martin Canigou, 1001-26
The Medieval MonasteriesThe Abbey Church, Cluny (A.D. 1089-1131)
Building type-CastlesRochester Castle, Kent, England 1130AD Cardiffe Castle, England 1091AD
La Zisa, Palermo (A.D. 1154-66), is a rectangular, three-storey Norman castle with battlemented parapet, and shows the influence of Saracenic art.
FORTIFIED TOWNS A defensive wall isa fortification used to defend a city or settlement from potential aggressors.
Fortified Town Monterriggioni, 13th C SiennaIn the heart of Tuscany, in the southwest corner of the Chianti region, Monteriggioni castle was built in the second decade of the thirteenth century by the Republic of Siena. Its original purpose was as a defensive outpost against Siena’s rival, Florence.
The Carcassonne, France 1226AD Since the pre-Roman period, a fortified settlement has existed on the hill where Carcassonne now stands. In its present form it is an outstanding example of a medieval fortified town, with its massive defences encircling the castle and the surrounding buildings, its streets and its fine Gothic cathedral.
Avila, Spain, 1090AD Founded in the 11th century to protect the Spanish territories from the Moors, this City of Saints and Stones, the birthplace of St Teresa and the burial place of the Grand Inquisitor Torquemada, has kept its medieval austerity. This purity of form can still be seen in the Gothic cathedral and the fortifications which, with their 82 semicircular towers and nine gates, are the most complete in Spain.
Peniscola, Spain, 1294AD Peniscola, often called the "Gibraltar of Valencia," is a fortified seaport, with a lighthouse, built on a rocky headland about 67 m high, and joined to the mainland by only a narrow strip of land.
The Abbey of Mont Saint-Michel, France, 1017ADA Benedictine Abbey, Normandy, France. It is unquestionably the finest exampleboth of French medieval architecture and of a fortified abbey. The buildings ofthe monastery are piled round a conical mass of rock which rises abruptly out ofthe waters of the Atlantic to the height of 300 feet, on the summit of whichstands the great church.
Romanesque Capitals• Cushion Capital ~ A capital resembling a cushion that is pressed down because of weight on it.• Scalloped Capital ~ a capital when each lunette is developed into several truncated cones.