Review for AP Art History exam with this brief slidecast comparing NeoClassical painter David with the Romantic painters that follow. For educational purposes ONLY... all images courtesy of Wikipedia Commons.
(Clarinet Concerto in A Major-Mozart for 15 seconds, then fades out quietly) Hello again. It’s me, Andrea Fuentes, with a quick look back at 19th century European Art. You remember the NeoClassic revival in architecture during the late 1700s. The Age of Reason urged a scientific perspective on government, the world, and humankind, leading to revolutions. Neoclassicism continues into the 1800s, but. we begin to see competing art movements. Just as Neoclassicism rejects the excess of the Rococo, Romanticism rejects the calm classic style in favor of emotion, nature, and spirituality. Some scholars even call Romanticism the beginning of modern art. (swelling of Dies Illa Mozart)
(Dies ira quiets down a bit) Before the revolution, The French RoyalAcademy sponsored artists such as Jacques-Louis David wto create history paintings. David was the most famous NeoClassical painter, who turned against his royal patrons to become an active revolutionary. Ironically, he later became painter to the Emperor Napoleon.Talk about a political animal… (cue Mozart requiem mass)
Thousands of French citizens were executed during the Reign of Terror. TheDeath of Marat clearly makes this Jacobin master of the guillotine lists into a saintly hero… with influences from Caravaggio and Michelangelo. (LacrimosasIrae-Mozart).. (Cross fade into Pagannini String Quartet)
(Chopin Scherzo playing, then gets quiet as voice over begins) Romantic artists and authors rebelled against Rationalism…Edgar Allan Poe, Bram Stoker, and Mary Shelley wrote macabre tales about monsters and vampires. Lord Byron wrote about the force and beauty of nature. Architecture revived the Gothic style, as seen in the Houses of Parliament.
Romantic painters celebrated the sublime. The sublime means any cathartic experience from the catastrophic to the intellectual that causes the viewer to marvel in awe, wonder, or passion. In Germany, Caspar David Friedrich showed the power of nature over humans, with a spiritual flavor. (Chopin resumes)
Neoclassicism & Romanticism Reason vs. Emotion mid 1700s to late 1800s Early 1800s - early 1900s
Neoclassical History Paintings: Academy Approved Most famous Neo- Classic painter from Royal Academy; later painter to Napoleon & the RevolutionThe Oath of the Horatii, Jacques-Louis David, 1785
Oath of the Horatii, Jacques-Louis David, oil on canvas, 11‟ x 14„, 1785
Cornelia Pointing to her Children as Treasures, Angelica Kauffman, 1785
Death of Marat, J. Louis David1793, oil on canvas 5‟5” x 4‟2”
Ingres v. Delacroix – Classical v. Romantic Classical calm Drama and emotion Capturing reality Essence of reality Painting as tint over line Painting: color & movement Two portraits of the violinist Pagannini (background his Quartet #5)
Romanticism: Interest in Exotic Culture– Music, Fashion, ArtLe Gran Odalisque, Jean-Auguste Dominique Ingres, 1814 - ingres turns to Romantic style.
Romanticism in the Arts: The Power of Passion • Gothic revival; horror stories • Spirituality over science • Sublime force of nature
The Nightmare, John Henry Fuseli, 1783 Elohim and Adam, William Blake, 1805 Blake‟s Tyger Tyger asks “What Immortal Poet Goethe wrote: “Feeling is all!” hand or eye can frame thy fearful symmetry?”
The Raft of the Medusa, Theodore Gericault, 1819Hope vs. Despair; Sublime force of nature; Passionate social criticism
Social criticism Individual suffering over good of the State Exotic localeMassacre atChios, Delacroix, 1822:Painter of PassionSpectators wept at thispainting, depicting an actualhorrible war event, seeingthe baby clutching its deadmother‟s breast
Romanticism: Celebration of Sublime Nature “The artist should paint not only what he sees before him, but also what he sees within himself.” Wanderer above a Sea of Fog, Caspar David Friedrich, 1918
Burning of the House of Lords, JMW Turner, 1834
American Romanticism: Paradise Found The Oxbow, Thomas Cole, 1836
Lady LibertyLeading thePeople, 1830, Delacroix
Beyond the Barricade, Is there a world you long to see? Depicts July Rebellion memorialized in Victor Hugo’s Les Miserables.
All images used from Wikipedia Commons under Creative Commons license. For educational purposes only. Special thanks to Peter C. Mowrey, Ph.D., for his assistance with the soundtrack. Musical credits: 1. Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, Clarinet Concerto in A major, K. 622 * 2. Adagio 2. Mozart/Süssmayr, Requiem Mass in D minor, K. 626 (excerpts from Dies irae and Lacrimosa dies illa) 3. Niccolò Paganini, Quartet No. 5 in C major, Op. 5, No. 2 * 4. Polacca 4. Peter Ilyich Tchaikovsky, The Nutcracker * Danse arabe 5. Frédéric Chopin, Scherzo No. 2 in B-flat minor, Op. 31 6. Modest Mussorgsky, Night on Bald Mountain 7. Gustav Mahler, Symphony No. 5 * 1. Trauermarsch 8. Tchaikovsky, Symphony No. 6 in B minor, Op. 74 * 4. Finale 9. Johannes Brahms, Rhapsody in G minor, Op. 79, No. 2 10. Claude-Michel Schönberg, Les Misérables (excerpts)