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DATA
INTERPRETATION
UGC NET PAPER 1
Unit 7
Sources, acquisition and
classification of Data.
Quantitative and Qualitative Data.
Graphical representation (Bar-chart,
Histograms, Pie-chart, Table-chart
and Line-chart) and mapping of
Data.
Data Interpretation.
Data and Governance.
Data Sources & acquisition
Data can be defined as the
quantitative or qualitative values
of a variable. Data is plural of
datum which literally means to
give or something given. Data is
thought to be the lowest unit of
information from which other
measurements and analysis can
be done.
Data can be numbers, images,
words, figures, facts or ideas.
Data in itself cannot be
understood and to get
information from the data one
must interpret it into
meaningful information. There
are various methods of
interpreting data.
Sources of Data
Primary
secondary
Data Acquisition
Survey
Questionaire
Interview
Observation
Published Sources
Books
Magazines
Journal
Electronic Journal/Magazines
Websites/Blogs etc.
Content-based
classification
Context-based
classification
User-based classification
There are three different
approaches are the
industry standard for
data classification:
Classification
of data
Quantitative data are anything that can be
expressed as a number, or quantified. Examples of
quantitative data are scores on achievement tests,
the number of hours of study, or weight of a
subject. These data may be represented by ordinal,
interval or ratio scales and lend themselves to
most statistical manipulation.
Qualitative data cannot be expressed as a number.
Data that represent nominal scales such as gender,
social economic status, religious preference are
usually considered to be qualitative data.
Graphical Representation
Bar Chart
Histograms
Circle
Graphs or
Pie Charts
Table Chart
A table is a systematic arrangement of data
into vertical columns and horizontal rows.
The process of arranging data into rows and
columns is called tabulation
Essentials
of a Table
1. Title of the table
2. Captione
3. Box head
4. Stub head
5. Body of the table
6. Prefatory notes or head notes
7. Footnote:
8. Source not
Line Chart
Data
Mapping
Data mapping is the process
of mapping data fields from a
source file to their related
target fields. The accessibility
to required data can make
some organization more
successful. Somehow, data is
easier to use when it can be
visualized as well.
Questions on
Data
Interpretation
Study the following
graph carefully and
answer questions. It
depicts profits earned
by a company during
various years.
Profit earned in lakhs.
Q.1. What is the average profit earned by the
company over the years?
(a) 26 lakhs (b) 28 lakhs
(c) 30 lakhs (d) 32 lakhs
Ans: (c) Total profit earned over 5 years = (25
+ 35 +22.5 + 30 + 37.5) = 150 lakhs
Average profit = 150/5 = 30 lakhs
Q.2. If the expenditure of the company in 2009
was 28 lakhs, then what was the revenue of the
company in that year?
(a) 65.5 lakhs (b) 72.5 lakhs
(c) 75 lakhs (d) None of the above
Ans: (a) Revenue in 2009 = Profit + Expenditure
= 65.5 lakhs
Q.3. What is the ratio of profit earned by
the company in 2005 to the profit earned
in 2009?
(a) 1 : 3 (b) 2 : 3
(c) 3 : 5 (d) 1 : 2
Ans: (b)
The required ratio = 25 : 37.5 = 2 : 3
Q.4. What is the approximate per cent
increase in the profit of the company
in 2008 in comparison to the previous
year?
(a) 28 (b) 30
(c) 36 (d) 40
Ans (b) Percentage increase = (30 -
23)/23 × 100 = 30.43 ~ 30%
Q.5. If the revenue of the company in 2007 was
45 lakhs, then what was the expenditure of the
company in that year?
(a) 20.5 lakhs (b) 22.5 lakhs
(c) 24.5 lakhs (d) 25.5 lakhs
Ans: (b)
Expenditure in 2007 = 45 - 22.5 = 22.5 lakhs
Study the following pie charts carefully and answer
questions. It consists of data on admission in graduate
and postgraduate courses in different institutions.
What are the total admissions in College B for both graduate and
postgraduate courses?
1.
(a) 9600 (b) 9800 (c) 10,200 (d) 10,500
2. What is the difference between graduate and postgraduate courses in College
A?
(a) 1400 (b) 1600 (c) 1800 (d) 2000
3. By what percent are admissions in graduate courses higher than
postgraduate courses in the case of College F?
(a) 31.25 (b) 25.50 (c) 33.33 (d) 35.50
4. What is the difference between the highest admissions in graduate and the
highest admissions in postgraduate courses in any combination of the colleges?
(a) 1200 (b) 1500 (c) 1600 (d) 2000
5. By what percent are postgraduate admissions lower than graduate
admissions in case of College D?
(a) 45 (b) 55 (c) 70 (d) 80
Study the following bar graph carefully and answer question.
It consists of data on students’ enrolment in different
vocational courses in A, B, C, D and E institutes.
1. What is the respective ratio of the total number of
girls enrolled in painting in Institutes A and C
together to those enrolled in stitching in Institutes D
and E together?
(a) 14 : 23 (b) 16 : 23 (c) 18 : 23 (d) 8 : 12
2. The number of girls enrolled in stitching in
Institute B forms approximately what percent of the
total number of girls enrolled in stitching in all the
institutes put together?
(a) 19 (b) 21 (c) 23 (d) 25
3. What is the respective ratio of the total number of
girls enrolled in painting and stitching from all the
institutes put together?
(a) 11 : 12 (b) 12 : 11 (c) 11 : 14 (d) 12 : 17
4. The number of girls enrolled in dancing in Institute A
forms what per cent of the total number of girls
enrolled in all the vocational courses together in that
institute?
(a) 20.7 (b) 25.5 (c) 28.2 (d) 29.5
5. What is the total number of girls enrolled in painting
from all the institutes together?
(a) 1050 (b) 1100 (c) 1150 (d) 1200
Thank
You

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UGC NET Paper 1 Unit 7 DATA INTERPRETATION.pdf

  • 2. Sources, acquisition and classification of Data. Quantitative and Qualitative Data. Graphical representation (Bar-chart, Histograms, Pie-chart, Table-chart and Line-chart) and mapping of Data. Data Interpretation. Data and Governance.
  • 3. Data Sources & acquisition Data can be defined as the quantitative or qualitative values of a variable. Data is plural of datum which literally means to give or something given. Data is thought to be the lowest unit of information from which other measurements and analysis can be done. Data can be numbers, images, words, figures, facts or ideas. Data in itself cannot be understood and to get information from the data one must interpret it into meaningful information. There are various methods of interpreting data.
  • 6. Content-based classification Context-based classification User-based classification There are three different approaches are the industry standard for data classification: Classification of data
  • 7. Quantitative data are anything that can be expressed as a number, or quantified. Examples of quantitative data are scores on achievement tests, the number of hours of study, or weight of a subject. These data may be represented by ordinal, interval or ratio scales and lend themselves to most statistical manipulation. Qualitative data cannot be expressed as a number. Data that represent nominal scales such as gender, social economic status, religious preference are usually considered to be qualitative data.
  • 9.
  • 13. Table Chart A table is a systematic arrangement of data into vertical columns and horizontal rows. The process of arranging data into rows and columns is called tabulation
  • 14. Essentials of a Table 1. Title of the table 2. Captione 3. Box head 4. Stub head 5. Body of the table 6. Prefatory notes or head notes 7. Footnote: 8. Source not
  • 16. Data Mapping Data mapping is the process of mapping data fields from a source file to their related target fields. The accessibility to required data can make some organization more successful. Somehow, data is easier to use when it can be visualized as well.
  • 18. Study the following graph carefully and answer questions. It depicts profits earned by a company during various years. Profit earned in lakhs.
  • 19. Q.1. What is the average profit earned by the company over the years? (a) 26 lakhs (b) 28 lakhs (c) 30 lakhs (d) 32 lakhs Ans: (c) Total profit earned over 5 years = (25 + 35 +22.5 + 30 + 37.5) = 150 lakhs Average profit = 150/5 = 30 lakhs
  • 20. Q.2. If the expenditure of the company in 2009 was 28 lakhs, then what was the revenue of the company in that year? (a) 65.5 lakhs (b) 72.5 lakhs (c) 75 lakhs (d) None of the above Ans: (a) Revenue in 2009 = Profit + Expenditure = 65.5 lakhs
  • 21. Q.3. What is the ratio of profit earned by the company in 2005 to the profit earned in 2009? (a) 1 : 3 (b) 2 : 3 (c) 3 : 5 (d) 1 : 2 Ans: (b) The required ratio = 25 : 37.5 = 2 : 3
  • 22. Q.4. What is the approximate per cent increase in the profit of the company in 2008 in comparison to the previous year? (a) 28 (b) 30 (c) 36 (d) 40 Ans (b) Percentage increase = (30 - 23)/23 × 100 = 30.43 ~ 30%
  • 23. Q.5. If the revenue of the company in 2007 was 45 lakhs, then what was the expenditure of the company in that year? (a) 20.5 lakhs (b) 22.5 lakhs (c) 24.5 lakhs (d) 25.5 lakhs Ans: (b) Expenditure in 2007 = 45 - 22.5 = 22.5 lakhs
  • 24. Study the following pie charts carefully and answer questions. It consists of data on admission in graduate and postgraduate courses in different institutions.
  • 25. What are the total admissions in College B for both graduate and postgraduate courses? 1. (a) 9600 (b) 9800 (c) 10,200 (d) 10,500 2. What is the difference between graduate and postgraduate courses in College A? (a) 1400 (b) 1600 (c) 1800 (d) 2000 3. By what percent are admissions in graduate courses higher than postgraduate courses in the case of College F? (a) 31.25 (b) 25.50 (c) 33.33 (d) 35.50 4. What is the difference between the highest admissions in graduate and the highest admissions in postgraduate courses in any combination of the colleges? (a) 1200 (b) 1500 (c) 1600 (d) 2000 5. By what percent are postgraduate admissions lower than graduate admissions in case of College D? (a) 45 (b) 55 (c) 70 (d) 80
  • 26. Study the following bar graph carefully and answer question. It consists of data on students’ enrolment in different vocational courses in A, B, C, D and E institutes.
  • 27. 1. What is the respective ratio of the total number of girls enrolled in painting in Institutes A and C together to those enrolled in stitching in Institutes D and E together? (a) 14 : 23 (b) 16 : 23 (c) 18 : 23 (d) 8 : 12 2. The number of girls enrolled in stitching in Institute B forms approximately what percent of the total number of girls enrolled in stitching in all the institutes put together? (a) 19 (b) 21 (c) 23 (d) 25
  • 28. 3. What is the respective ratio of the total number of girls enrolled in painting and stitching from all the institutes put together? (a) 11 : 12 (b) 12 : 11 (c) 11 : 14 (d) 12 : 17 4. The number of girls enrolled in dancing in Institute A forms what per cent of the total number of girls enrolled in all the vocational courses together in that institute? (a) 20.7 (b) 25.5 (c) 28.2 (d) 29.5 5. What is the total number of girls enrolled in painting from all the institutes together? (a) 1050 (b) 1100 (c) 1150 (d) 1200