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Gothic architecture

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gothic architecture

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Gothic architecture

  1. 1. Gothic ArchitectureGothic Architecture Gothic ArchitectureGothic Architecture
  2. 2. Tree of ArchitectureTree of Architecture
  3. 3. Gothic ArchitectureGothic Architecture
  4. 4. Gothic Architecture 12 Century – 16 Century When? Gothic Architecture began towards the end of Romanesque architecture. It heralded many changes in design and appearance of churches, both inside and out. Why? There was a need to progress in the development of building design. There was a desire to reach perfection in the buildings and this perfection was to resemble Gods relationship with the universe. Where? It began in France. By the end of the 12 Century it reached England and later on the rest of Europe.
  5. 5. Gothic Architecture 1150 – 1500 What did it look like outside? Gothic architecture outside 1. Pointed arches 2. very linear 3. Tall and slender in appearance 4. Very decorative The overall pointed look was for the church to appear that it pointing towards God and the Heavens. 1 2 4
  6. 6. Gothic Architecture 1150 – 1500 What are its characteristics outside? A. Pointed arches Unlike the Romanesque style, these arches are pointed. They point up towards the Heavens, as does the whole appearance of Gothic architecture. B. Flying buttresses These were attached to the outside walls of the church. They gave extra support to the roof and the thinner walls. They took the weight of the roof away from the walls.
  7. 7. Gothic Architecture 1150 – 1500 What did it look like inside? Gothic architecture inside Bright and airy High ceilings Very decorative Lots of windows Stained glassed windows. Pointed arches. Vertical and slender in appearance. What are its characteristics inside? Ribbed vaults Pointed arches
  8. 8. Gothic Architecture 1150 – 1500 What are ribbed vaults? “Ribs” were the extra support in the vaults. The roof and support system consisted of ribbed vaults. What were the results and effects of ribbed vaults? a) They discovered that if they used ribs in their vaults the ribs would support much of the weight of the roof. The areas in between the ribs could be filled with much lighter stone than that had been used in the Romanesque barrel vaults. b) If the ribs were capable of taking the weight of the roof there was no need for thicker walls, therefore the walls became thinner, another difference from the Romanesque churches.
  9. 9. Gothic Architecture 1150 – 1500 c) As there is not as much pressure on the walls to support the roof (ribbed vaults and the flying buttresses support the weight), there is an opportunity of adding more windows. Therefore the churches became brighter and airier. d) Due to the support of the ribs and the buttresses builders could afford to make the roof higher. Less weight – less likely to collapse. Another difference from Romanesque architecture.
  10. 10. The south transept facade at York Minster The Devil tempting the Foolish Virgins at Strasbourg. Windows in the Chapter House at York Minster The longitudinal emphasis in the nave of Walls
  11. 11. The spacious interior of Regensburg Cathedral Barcelona Cathedral has a wide nave with the clerestorey windows nestled under the vault. The clear proportions of Florence Cathedral are defined by dark stone against the colour-washed plastered brick. A Gothic Revival library from Newburgh,
  12. 12. Gothic architecture is characterized by tall minarets pointed arches, large windows and stained glass painted with Bible stories. And the pointed arch, flying buttress and the long beam- column create a sense of flying. The majestic appearance the vast space in the church and the long windows with stained glass produce a strong religious atmosphere. The plane of the church is based on the Latin cross, but there is a pair of towers added on both sides of the doors at west. Characteristics of Gothic Architecture
  13. 13. Pointed ArchPointed Arch It is simply known asIt is simply known as the Gothic Arch andthe Gothic Arch and was reconstructed fromwas reconstructed from cylindrical vault ofcylindrical vault of Roman architecture.Roman architecture. There are four stones atThere are four stones at the end of the archthe end of the arch supporting the powersupporting the power from the top so that thefrom the top so that the height and the span ofheight and the span of the arch are no longerthe arch are no longer restricted and the archrestricted and the arch can be made as largecan be made as large and high as possible.and high as possible.
  14. 14. Flying ButtressFlying Buttress Buttress, also known as kongfuduo, is aButtress, also known as kongfuduo, is a supporting facility to share the pressure fromsupporting facility to share the pressure from the main walls. It has been largely used inthe main walls. It has been largely used in Roman Architecture. The original buttressRoman Architecture. The original buttress was solid and covered by the roof. However,was solid and covered by the roof. However, the buttress with Gothic style is exposed outthe buttress with Gothic style is exposed out to be known as flying buttress. Due to theto be known as flying buttress. Due to the further requirements of the height, the rolefurther requirements of the height, the role and appearance of buttress have been greatlyand appearance of buttress have been greatly enhanced. It is coved with complicatedenhanced. It is coved with complicated decorates and elaborate carvings.decorates and elaborate carvings.
  15. 15. Stained GlassStained Glass Gothic architecture gradually abolishesGothic architecture gradually abolishes the gallery and aisle and increases thethe gallery and aisle and increases the size of the window. These windowssize of the window. These windows are high enough, almost to be used asare high enough, almost to be used as the walls. The stained glass, coveredthe walls. The stained glass, covered with religious stories which help towith religious stories which help to illustrate the doctrines to illiterateillustrate the doctrines to illiterate people is of high artistic achievement.people is of high artistic achievement. There are two main colors, blue andThere are two main colors, blue and red. Blue symbolizes the heaven andred. Blue symbolizes the heaven and red symbolizes the blood of Christ.red symbolizes the blood of Christ. The stained glass creates a mysteriousThe stained glass creates a mysterious but brilliant scene, which expressbut brilliant scene, which express people’s longing for the kingdom ofpeople’s longing for the kingdom of heaven.heaven.
  16. 16. Beam-ColumnBeam-Column  Many columns, no longer simple round, come together andMany columns, no longer simple round, come together and emphasize the vertical lines, which makes the wholeemphasize the vertical lines, which makes the whole architecture to form an organic whole with simple lines andarchitecture to form an organic whole with simple lines and grand appearance.grand appearance.
  17. 17.  French Gothic architectureFrench Gothic architecture  English Gothic architectureEnglish Gothic architecture  Germany architectureGermany architecture  Spanish architectureSpanish architecture  Italian architectureItalian architecture Regional DifferencesRegional Differences
  18. 18.  HeightHeight  Impression ofImpression of verticalityverticality  Two large towersTwo large towers
  19. 19. Gothic Architecture
  20. 20.  Extreme lengthExtreme length  External emphasis upon the horizontalExternal emphasis upon the horizontal  Double transeptsDouble transepts
  21. 21.  Huge sizeHuge size  Modular natureModular nature  OpennessOpenness
  22. 22. Stoned Architecture
  23. 23.  Special complexitySpecial complexity  Tall arcadesTall arcades  Low clerestoriesLow clerestories
  24. 24.  PolychromePolychrome decorationdecoration  Few and widelyFew and widely spaced columnsspaced columns  Simple proportionsSimple proportions
  25. 25. Early Gothic – Laon Cathedral, 1160-1205 • 4 story elevation • sexpartite (6 part) vaults spanning 2 bays • alternate support system • division into horizontal and vertical bands • recessed triple portals • towers at crossings and transepts
  26. 26. High Gothic – Amiens Cathedral, 1220-1236 • 3 story elevation • quadripartite (4 part) vaults spanning 1 rectangular bay • no alternate support system (unified space) • equal height of arcade & clerestory • deeply recessed portals • more tracery, sculpture & piercing of walls • play of light & dark
  27. 27. Nave elevations of four French Gothic cathedrals at the same scale (a) Laon, (b) Paris, (c) Chartres, (d) Amiens. 80' 107' 118' 144' Early Gothic High Gothic
  28. 28. Late/Flamboyant Gothic – St.-Maclou, Rouen, 1434-1514 • named for flame-like pointed tracery attached to every surface • ornamental surface treatment emphasized over structural clarity • cavernous portals and open tracery • five-part facade • crossing towers not façade towers • much smaller than High Gothic structures.

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