Gothic Architecture

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Revision on Gothic Architecture. It includes elements, main buildings and geographical differences.

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Gothic Architecture

  1. 1. GOTHIC ARCHITECTURE Revision
  2. 2. Introduction <ul><li>Gothic Art is the expression of the new city life </li></ul><ul><li>It is going to have to different areas: </li></ul>Religious Civilian
  3. 3. Introduction <ul><li>The term was coined with a deceptive sense </li></ul><ul><li>It is deter by a series of elements: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Economic and social transformations of the late Middle Ages </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Consolidation of the new monarchies and modern states </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A new spirituality, with the Cister reform </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Introduction <ul><li>The style had an evolution: </li></ul><ul><li>12th century: origin </li></ul><ul><li>13th century: plenitude </li></ul><ul><li>14th century until mid 15th century: international </li></ul><ul><li>Second half of the 15th century: flamboyant </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
  5. 5. Architectonical elements Lancet arches Tudor Ogee Three-centered
  6. 6. Architectonical elements Windows Gablet Gargoiles Capital
  7. 7. Cathedral <ul><li>Cathedrals are the most representative building </li></ul><ul><li>They are full of accessional spirit </li></ul><ul><li>The technical innovations made possible the construction of these buildings, something ethereal. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Cathedral <ul><li>Plans continue being of Latin cross but it is more difficult to distinguish because the number of naves increases in the transept </li></ul><ul><li>They have three or five nave, normally five after the crossing </li></ul><ul><li>They have ambulatory </li></ul><ul><li>There are radial chapel </li></ul><ul><li>The cover is of ribbed vaults </li></ul><ul><li>There are two towers in the façade. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Cathedral <ul><li>The plans can be: </li></ul>Basilical Saloon
  10. 10. Cathedral In the elevation it can be seen the aisles, over them the triforium and finally, the clerestory.
  11. 11. Cathedral <ul><li>The inside is full of light thanks to the numerous windows </li></ul><ul><li>The cathedral has three levels: low, gallery and clerestory </li></ul><ul><li>The walls are open, allowing a lot of light into the church, with different levels of intensity (more light in the highest parts because light comes directly). </li></ul><ul><li>Windows can be open because there are new supports that are not glued to the wall. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Cathedral <ul><li>The cover evolved from the barrel vault </li></ul><ul><li>The lancet arch permits higher structures </li></ul><ul><li>The most common covers are: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rib vault </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Crossing vault </li></ul></ul><ul><li>All of them stand on slim and delicate pillars </li></ul><ul><li>The nerves cross and there is a decorated boss in the intersection </li></ul>
  13. 13. Cathedral <ul><li>Supports are essential for the new buildings </li></ul><ul><li>The most common in the outside is the flying buttress </li></ul><ul><li>On top of them pinnacles appear in order to transmit the strength to the floor </li></ul>Flying buttress Pinnacle
  14. 14. Cathedral <ul><li>Thanks to the use of flying buttress, the wall is liberated and may be open with windows </li></ul><ul><li>Windows tend to be covered by stained glass </li></ul>
  15. 15. Cathedral Façade Lateral façade Apse Ambulatory Radial chapels Crossing Transept Spires Rose window Flying butresses Nave Clerestory Tribune Gargoiles
  16. 16. Civilian Architecture <ul><li>Its development is consequence of </li></ul><ul><ul><li>trade renaissance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>development of cities government </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Main buildings are </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Palaces </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Town halls </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Markets </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Civilian Architecture <ul><li>Town halls were the residence of the city’s government </li></ul><ul><li>There are two kind of models: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Northern (Netherlands) : very decorated, with ogee and lancet arches </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Southern (Italian): closer, sometimes as a fortress </li></ul></ul>Leuven Siena
  18. 18. Civilian Architecture <ul><li>Palaces were the residences of the nobility </li></ul><ul><li>They lose their defensive character </li></ul>
  19. 19. Civilian Architecture <ul><li>Markets were the places for keeping the products and to sell them </li></ul><ul><li>They have big rooms with this purpose </li></ul><ul><li>The spaces are clear, with high and stylised columns </li></ul>
  20. 20. French Gothic <ul><li>The distinctive characteristic of French cathedrals, and those in Germany and Belgium that were strongly influenced by them, is their height and their impression of verticality. </li></ul><ul><li>They are compact, with slight or no projection of the transepts and subsidiary chapels. </li></ul><ul><li>The west fronts have three portals surmounted by a rose window, and two large towers. </li></ul><ul><li>The east end is polygonal with ambulatory and sometimes a chevette of radiating chapels. </li></ul><ul><li>In the south of France, many of the major churches are without transepts and some are without aisles </li></ul>
  21. 21. British Gothic <ul><li>The distinctive characteristic of English cathedrals is their extreme length and their internal emphasis upon the horizontal . </li></ul><ul><li>It is not unusual for every part of the building to have been built in a different century and in a different style, with no attempt at creating a stylistic unity. </li></ul><ul><li>English cathedrals sprawl across their sites, with double transepts projecting strongly and Lady Chapels tacked on at a later date. </li></ul><ul><li>In the west front the doors are not significant </li></ul><ul><li>The West window is very large and never a rose, which are reserved for the transept gables. </li></ul><ul><li>The west front may have two towers or none. </li></ul><ul><li>There is nearly always a tower at the crossing and it may be very large and surmounted by a spire. </li></ul><ul><li>The distinctive English east end is square . </li></ul>
  22. 22. Italian Gothic <ul><li>It use s polychrome decoration, both externally as marble veneer on the brick facade and also internally where the arches are often made of alternating black and white segments . </li></ul><ul><li>The plan is usually regular and symmetrical and have few and widely spaced columns. </li></ul><ul><li>The proportions are generally mathematically simple, based on the square, the arches are almost always equilateral. </li></ul><ul><li>It may include mosaics in the lunettes over the doors. </li></ul><ul><li>The facades have projecting open porches and occular or wheel windows rather than roses, and do not usually have a tower. </li></ul><ul><li>The crossing is usually surmounted by a dome. </li></ul><ul><li>There is often a free-standing tower and baptistry. </li></ul><ul><li>The windows are not as large as in northern Europe and, although stained glass windows are used , the decoration is fresco or mosaic. </li></ul>
  23. 23. German Gothic <ul><li>It is characterised by huge towers and spires. </li></ul><ul><li>The west front generally follows the French formula, but the towers are taller, and if complete, are surmounted by enormous openwork spires . </li></ul><ul><li>The eastern end follows the French form. </li></ul><ul><li>The distinctive character of the interior of German Gothic cathedrals is their breadth and openness. </li></ul><ul><li>Cathedrals tend not to have strongly projecting transepts. </li></ul><ul><li>There are also many hallenkirke without clerestorey windows . </li></ul>
  24. 24. Spanish Gothic <ul><li>Spanish Gothic cathedrals are of spacial complexity. </li></ul><ul><li>They are comparatively short and wide, and are often completely surrounded by chapels. </li></ul><ul><li>Spanish Cathedrals are stylistically diverse. </li></ul><ul><li>I nfluences on both decoration and form are Islamic architecture, and towards the end of the period, Renaissance details combined with the Gothic in a distinctive manner. </li></ul><ul><li>The West front resembles a French west front, </li></ul><ul><li>T here are spires of German style. </li></ul><ul><li>F ew pinnacles. </li></ul><ul><li>Th ere are often towers and domes of a great variety of shapes and structural invention rising above the roof . </li></ul>

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