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Romanesque Architecture

Revision on Romanesque Architecture. It includes general characteristics, typology and geographical differences.

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Romanesque Architecture

  1. 1. Romanesque Architecture Revision
  2. 2. Introduction <ul><li>This art appeared during the Middle Age </li></ul><ul><li>It is the first style that can be found all over Europe, even when regional differences </li></ul><ul><li>The expansion of the style was linked to the pilgrimages, mainly to Santiago. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Introduction <ul><li>Romanesque art developed thanks to a series of causes: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The end of Barbarian invasions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The decomposition of Cordoba’s caliphate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The establishment of peace in </li></ul></ul><ul><li>the Christian world, with the </li></ul><ul><li>development of the cities, </li></ul><ul><li>commerce and industry. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Expansion <ul><li>The factors of the expansion of Romanesque arte were: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Development of feudal system, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>that demanded works (castles) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The expansion of religious orders (Benedictines), expanded the monasteries </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The pilgrimage routes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The crusades </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Typologies <ul><li>There are three main architectonical typologies: </li></ul>Churches Monasteries Castles
  6. 6. Monastery <ul><li>It was designed as a microcosm, as the city of God </li></ul><ul><li>They had several dependencies: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Church </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cloister </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chapter room </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Abbot’s house </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Monks/ nuns rooms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Refectory </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hospital </li></ul></ul>                                                                             
  7. 7. Church <ul><li>It was the main building </li></ul><ul><li>It symbolized God’s kingdom </li></ul><ul><li>The holiest part was the apse </li></ul><ul><li>It had cross shape </li></ul><ul><li>Symbolism was important: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Circular parts reflect perfection so they were linked to God </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Squared parts are related to the human. </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Church <ul><li>Characteristics: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Monumental, trying to imitate the Roman models in the Pilgrimage churches </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Small in country churches </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>They were designed for advertising Catholic church </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>They were lasting, made of stone </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Plans could be: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Latin cross </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Polygonal </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Basilical </li></ul></ul></ul>Latin cross Polygonal Basilical
  9. 9. Church <ul><li>Parts of the plan </li></ul>
  10. 10. Church <ul><li>Parts from the outside </li></ul>
  11. 11. Church <ul><li>Elevation: </li></ul><ul><li>The church is covered by </li></ul><ul><li>stoned vaults </li></ul><ul><li>Wall are thick </li></ul><ul><li>They need strong </li></ul><ul><li>buttresses </li></ul><ul><li>Foundations are strong </li></ul><ul><li>Few windows </li></ul>
  12. 12. Church <ul><li>Interior elevation: it consists of three levels: </li></ul><ul><li>First floor with columns or cross-shaped pillars </li></ul><ul><li>Second floor with the tribune (corridor over looking the nave, over the aisles) </li></ul><ul><li>Clerestory: area of windows opening to the outside. </li></ul>Column Pillar Tribune Clerestory
  13. 13. Church <ul><li>Type of covers: </li></ul>Barrel vault: it was used mainly to cover the central nave Groin vault was common in aisles and ambulatory Dome: spherical were used in apses. The central could stand on pendentives or squinches
  14. 14. Castle <ul><li>Castles were defensive constructions </li></ul><ul><li>They were fortified for providing shelter </li></ul><ul><li>The wall was one of the essential elements </li></ul><ul><li>They tend to be build in stepped areas, easier to defend. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Romanesque in France <ul><li>It was the original region of Romanesque art </li></ul><ul><li>It appeared in Cluny’s abbey </li></ul><ul><li>From there it expanded thanks to the pilgrimage routes, specially to Santiago in Spain. </li></ul>
  16. 16. Romanesque in France <ul><li>It is characterized by various vaulted styles </li></ul><ul><li>Provence: pointed domes and façades decorated with arches </li></ul><ul><li>Auvergne with long choir, side aisles around the semicircular sanctuary forming the ambulatory in which radiating chapels open </li></ul>Saint Trophime, Arles Saint Sernin Toulouse
  17. 17. Romanesque in France <ul><li>Burgundy: barrel-vaulted, three-aisled basilica </li></ul><ul><li>Normandy: Lombard influences with groined vaults supported by flying buttresses and façades with two flanking towers. </li></ul>Sainte Magdalene, Vezelay Cluny
  18. 18. Romanesque in Italy <ul><li>Italian provinces developed a great diversity of architectural styles </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lombardy with groined vaults of heavy proportions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Central Italy classical decorative elements: Corinthian capitals, coloured marble, open arches, colonnades and galleries and façades with sculptures </li></ul></ul>Saint Ambroggio, Milan Saint Miniato, Florence
  19. 19. Romanesque in Italy <ul><ul><li>South with Byzantine and Arabic influences, using mosaics, interlaced pointed-arches. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Three separate buildings: church, baptistery and bell tower. </li></ul>Cefalu, Sicily Pisa Cathedral, in Tuscany, presents three separate buildings.
  20. 20. Romanesque in Germany <ul><li>Churches were planned on a large scale </li></ul><ul><li>They used to be very high </li></ul><ul><li>They had an apse or sanctuary at each end. </li></ul><ul><li>Numerous round or octagonal towers that conferred them a picturesque silhouette. </li></ul>Laach Worms
  21. 21. Romanesque in England <ul><li>Before the 10 th century were made of wood </li></ul><ul><li>Stone buildings were small and roughly constructed </li></ul><ul><li>The Norman Romanesque style replace the Saxon in 11 th century </li></ul>
  22. 22. Romanesque in England <ul><li>Long, narrow buildings were constructed with heavy walls and piers, rectangular apses, double transepts and deeply recessed portals </li></ul><ul><li>Naves were covered with flat roofs, later replaces by vaults, and side aisles were covered with groined vaults. </li></ul>
  23. 23. Romanesque in Spain <ul><li>First Romanesque: Catalonia </li></ul><ul><li>In the 11th century the region was almost assimilated to France </li></ul><ul><li>Due to this they receive the art early </li></ul><ul><li>The rest of the Spain would receive it with the pilgrimage </li></ul>
  24. 24. Romanesque in Spain <ul><li>Catalan churches present, in the outside, ordered volumes </li></ul><ul><li>Wall are decorated with Lombard bands, and blind arches and galleries </li></ul><ul><li>The plan has three naves, with a small narthex </li></ul><ul><li>The head has triple apse </li></ul>
  25. 25. Romanesque in Spain <ul><li>Pilgrims route to Santiago was an important route for Romanesque Art expansion. </li></ul>
  26. 26. Romanesque in Spain <ul><li>Characteristics of pilgrimage churches: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Plan with three to five aisles and a transept </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In the transept there are radial chapels </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Inside there is a tribune </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The head has ambulatory and radial chapels </li></ul></ul>
  27. 27. Romanesque in Spain <ul><li>There are polygonal buildings too </li></ul><ul><li>They are related to the Temple </li></ul><ul><li>They are inspired in Jerusalem’s Holy Sepulchre </li></ul><ul><li>Examples are Eunate, Torres del Rio (both in Navarre) and Veracruz (Segovia). </li></ul>
  28. 28. Romanesque in Spain <ul><li>Castile and Leon: </li></ul><ul><li>It is deeply influenced by the pilgrimage routes </li></ul><ul><li>The churches are identified with the spirit of the Reconquist </li></ul>
  29. 29. Romanesque in Spain <ul><li>Buildings are simple and small </li></ul><ul><li>It created a contrast in relation to the refined Hispano Muslin architecture. </li></ul><ul><li>They frequently have a covered area in the outside for the meetings of the councils. </li></ul>
  30. 30. Romanesque in Spain <ul><li>The best examples are: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Santiago’s cathedral </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fromista </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sant Climent de Tahull </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>San Pere de Roda </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>San Juan de la Peña </li></ul></ul><ul><li>There are other buildings such as castles (Loarre, in Huesca) or bridges, essential for pilgrims (Puentelarreina, Navarre) </li></ul>