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VEGETATIVE (AUTONOMIC)
       SYSTEM
        Amanda Hess Borzacchini
                         Group 20
           2nd year, 1st semester

       Kursk 2012
 The vegetative nervous system controls the
  activity of all organs concerned with the
  vegetative function of the body
  (respiration, fluid
  circulation, reproduction, excretion, nutrition)
  and accomplishes trophic innervation.
 The trophic function of the vegetative nervous
  system is responsible for the nutrition of the
  tissues and organs in conformity to their
  functioning under certain environmental
  conditions (adaptational-trophic function).
 The vegetative nervous system is separated into
  two systems: the sympathetic and
  parasympathetic systems.
 The sympathetic system is mainly concerned
  with trophic functions. It is responsible for
  nutrient consumption, intensification of oxidation
  processes, respiration and increases the rate of
  cardiac activity and supply of oxygen to the
  muscles.
 The parasympathetic system carries a protective
  role, like constriction of the pupil in bright
  light, inhibition of cardiac activity, evacuation of
  the cavitary organs.
 Comparison of the areas of distribution of the
  sympathetic and parasympathetic innervation discloses.
 Firstly some organs have the predominant role of one
  vegetative part over the other; e.g.: the urinary bladder
  receive mostly parasympathetic innervation and the
  sweat glands, the spleen, suprarenals are supplied only
  with the sympathetic innervation.
 Secondly, in organs with double innervation, the
  interaction of the sympathetic and parasympathetic
  nerves are antagonistic; e.g.: the stimulation of
  sympathetic nerves causes dilatation of the
  pupil, constriction of the vessels, increase in the rate of
  the cardiac Contractions; in contrast, the stimulation of
  parasympathetic nerves leads to constriction of the
  pupil, dilatation of the vessels, decrease in the rate of
  cardiac contractions.
 The antagonism of the sympathetic and
  parasympathetic system are reciprocally
  affected, the relations between them alter
  dynamically in the different phases of the
  functioning of this or that organ; they can
  act both as antagonists and as synergists.
 The normal function of our organism is
  ensured by the coordination and regulation
  brought by the cerebral cortex. The
  sympathetic and parasympathetic are
  distinguished in the vegetative system
  according to the physiological and
  pharmacological data.
The sympathetic nervous system
 The central part of the sympathetic
  system is located in the lateral horns of
  the spinal cord between the level of C7
  and Th1-L3 in the intermediolateral
  nucleus.
 It give rise to fibres innervating the
  smooth muscles of the viscera and the
  sensory organs (eyes), and the glands.
  Vasomotor, pilomotor and respiration
  centres are also located here.
 The peripheral part of
 the sympathetic system
 is formed by two
 symmetrical right and
 left sympathetic trunks
 stretching on either
 side of the spinal from
 the base of the skull to
 the coccyx where the
 caudal ends of both
 trunks meet to form a
 single common
 ganglion.
 Each sympathetic trunk is composed of a
  series of nerve ganglia of the first order
  connected by longitudinal interganglionic
  branches that consist of nerve fibres.
 The processes of cells located in the
  lateral horns of the thoracolumbar part of
  the spinal cord emerge from it through the
  anterior roots and pass in the white
  communicating branches to the
  sympathetic trunk.
 From the white communicating branches the
  processes of the cells join by means of synapsis
  with the cells of the sympathetic trunk ganglia or
  pass through the ganglia without interruption and
  reach one of intermediate ganglia. This is the
  preganglionic pathway.
 From the ganglia of the sympathetic trunk or
  from the intermediate ganglia arise non-
  medullated fibres of the postganglionic
  pathways and pass to the blood vessels and
  viscera.
 The sympathetic system has a somatic part, it is
  connected with the spinal nerves providing
  innervation of the soma. This connection is
  brought about by the grey communicating
  branches which are segment of postganglionic
  fibres stretching from the sympathetic trunk
  ganglia to a spinal nerve.
 As components of the grey communicating
  branches and spinal nerves the postganglionic
  fibres spread in the vessels, glands, and smooth
  muscles of the skin of the trunk and limbs, as
  well as in the striated muscles for whose nutrition
  and tonus they are responsible.
 Thus, the SNS is connected with the
  somatic system by two types of
  communicating branches, white and grey.
 The white communicating branch
  (medullated) are the preganglionic fibres;
  they stretch from the centres of the
  sympathetic nervous system through the
  anterior roots of the ganglia of the
  sympathetic trunk.
 The centres are situated at the level of the
  thoracic and upper lumbar segments.
 The grey communicating branch, the
  postganglionic fibres, provide the
  vasomotor and trophic processes in the
  soma.
 They connect the sympathetic trunk with
  the spinal nerves for its entire length. The
  cervical part of the sympathetic trunk is
  also connected with the cranial nerves.
 All the plexuses of the somatic nervous
  system contain therefore fibres of the
  sympathetic system in their bundles and
  nerve trunks.
The sympathetic trunk
 Sympathetic trunk is a      r (or abdominal) and
  pair formation, situated    sacral (or pelvic).
  at flanks of the spinal
  cord, consists of 20-25
  ganglions connected
  with interganglionic
  branches.
 Each of the two
  sympathetic trunk is
  subdivided into four
  parts:
  cervical, thoracic, lumba
 The cervical part stretches from the base of the skull to
  the neck of the first rib, lies behind the carotid arteries on
  the deep muscles of the neck. It has three cervical
  sympathetic ganglia: superior, middle and inferior.
 Superior cervical ganglion is the largest ganglion of the
  sympathetic trunk, lies on the level of the 2nd and part of
  the 3rd cervical vertebrae behind the internal carotid
  artery and medial to the vagus nerve.
 Middle cervical ganglion is small and usually located at
  the intersection of the inferior thyroid artery with the
  carotid artery.
 Inferior cervical ganglion is situated behind the initial part
  of the vertebral artery, it is often fused with the 1st and
  sometimes with the 2nd thoracic ganglion to form a
  common inferior cervical ganglion.
 The cervical ganglia
 send nerves to the
 head, neck and chest;
 can be divided into an
 ascending group
 passing to the head, a
 descending group
 stretching to the
 heart, and a group
 running to the organs
 of the neck almost
 immediately from the
 site of origin.
 Ascending group: the nerves of
  the head arise from the superior
  and inferior cervical ganglia and
  separate into a group of nerves
  that penetrate the cranial cavity
  and a group of nerves that reach
  the head from outer surface.
 1st group is represented by the
  internal carotid nerve, from the
  superior cervical ganglion and
  the vertebral branch of the
  inferior cervical ganglion.
 Both nerves form plexuses
  around them, internal carotid
  plexus and the vertebral plexus.
 Together with the arteries       passing through the
  the nerves enter the cranial     cavernous sinus.
  cavity where they
  anastomose with one
  another and send branches
  to the cerebral vessels, the
  meninges, the
  hypophysis, the trunk of the
  3rd, 4th, 5th and 6th pairs of
  cranial nerves and to the
  tympanic nerve.
 The internal carotid plexus
  is continuous with the
  cavernous plexus which
  surrounds the internal
  carotid artery in the part
 2nd group, external, consists of     salivary), and to the muscle
  two branches of the superior         which dilates the pupil (m.
  cervical ganglion, the external      dilatator pupillae).
  carotid nerves, which form
  plexuses around the external
  carotid artery and then pass in
  attendance to its ramifications on
  the head. The plexus sends a
  small ramus to the optic
  ganglion, the facial plexus gives
  off a branch accompanying the
  facial artery and passing to the
  submandibular ganglion.
 The superior cervical plexus
  sends fibres to the vessels
  (vasoconstrictors) and the glands
  of the head
  (sweat, lacrimal, mucous and
 Descending group: is
 formed by the cardiac
 branches of the
 superior, middle and
 inferior cervical ganglia;
 and together with the
 cardiac branches of the
 sympathetic thoracic
 ganglia and branches
 of the vagus nerve
 contribute to the
 formation of the cardiac
 plexuses.
 The thoracic part lies in       ganglia and participates in
  front of the neck of the ribs   the formation of the cardiac
  and is covered by pleura. It    plexus.
  consists of 10 to 12
  ganglia. The thoracic part is
  characterized by the
  presence of white
  communicating branches
  which connect the anterior
  roots of the spinal nerves
  with the sympathetic trunk
  ganglia. The five branches
  are:
 1.Cardiac branch arises
  from the superior thoracic
 2.Grey communicating branches are non-
  medullated fibres supplied to the intercostal nerves.
 3.Pulmonary branches pass to the lungs to form the
  pulmonary plexus.
 4.Aortic branches form a thoracic aortic
  plexus, partly on the oesophagus, oesophageal
  plexus, and on the thoracic duct.
 5.Greater and lesser splanchnic nerves:
 The greater splanchnic nerve originates as several roots
  from the 5th to 9th thoracic ganglia, which pass medially to
  the level of the 9th thoracic vertebra where they fuse into
  one common trunk which is transmitted through the
  space between the muscular bundles of the
  diaphragmatic crura into the abdominal cavity in which
  becomes a component of the coeliac plexus.
 The lesser splanchnic nerve arises from the 10th and 11th
  thoracic ganglia, penetrates the diaphragm together with
  the greater splanchnic nerve or is separated from it by a
  few muscular bundles, and also becomes a component
  of the coeliac plexus.
 The lumbar (or abdominal) part consists of four
  ganglia. Both sympathetic trunks come closer to each
  other in the lumbar part, as a result of which the ganglia
  lie on the anterolateral surface of the lumbar vertebrae on
  the medial border of the psoas major muscle.
 Along its entire distance the lumbar part sends off a great
  number of branches which, together with the greater and
  lesser splanchnic nerves and the abdominal segments of
  the vagus nerve, form the largest unpaired coeliac
  plexus.
 The coeliac plexus lies on the anterior semicircunference
  of the abdominal aorta behind the pancreas and
  surrounds the initial parts of the coeliac trunk and the
  superior mesenteric artery.
Coeliac trunk occupies an
area between the renal
arteries, the suprarenal
glands, and the aortic
opening of the diaphragm
and includes the paired
ganglion of the coeliac
artery – coeliac
ganglion, and sometimes
the unpaired ganglion of
the superior mesenteric
artery- superior
mesenteric ganglion lying
under the root of this
artery.
 The 2nd main source of            ganglion whose
  innervation of the abdominal      postganglionic fibres pass to
  organs is the aortic              the pelvis as components of
  plexus, formed by two trunks      the hypogastric nerves.
  arising from the coeliac
  plexus and branches running
  from the lumbar ganglia of the
  sympathetic trunk.
 Aortic plexus gives rise to the
  inferior mesenteric plexus for
  the
  transverse, descending, and
  sigmoid colon, and upper part
  of the rectum. At the origin of
  the inferior mesenteric plexus
  lies the inferior mesenteric
 Aortic plexus is           relation to the penis and
  continuous with the        motor in relation to the
  unpaired hypogastric       uterus and the sphincter
  plexus which bifurcates    urethrae muscle.
  at the promontory of the
  sacrum and is in turn
  continuous with the
  pelvic plexus.
 Fibres derived from the
  superior lumbar
  segments are
  functionally vasomotor
  (vasoconstrictor) in
 The sacral (or pelvic)
 part, part usually has four
 ganglia. Lying on the
 anterior surface of the
 sacrum along the medial
 margin of the anterior
 sacral foramen, both trunks
 converge to terminate as
 one common unpaired
 ganglion impar on the
 anterior surface of the
 coccyx. The ganglia of the
 pelvic part are connected
 both by small longitudinal
 and transverse trunks.
The parasympathetic system
 The central part of the parasympathetic system
  consists of the cranial nerves ( III, VII, IX and X);
  III, VII and IX carry parasympathetic fibers to
  structures within the head and neck only, whereas X
  (the vagus nerve) also innervates thoracic and most
  abdominal viscera; and spinal (or sacral) nerves S2
  to S4, sacral parasympathetic fibers innervates
  inferior abdominal viscera, pelvic viscera and the
  arteries associated with erectile tissues of the
  perineum.
 The centres give rise to the efferent fibres of the
  posterior horns which cause dilation of the vessels
  and inhibition of contraction of the smooth muscles
  of the hair on the trunk and limbs.
 The cranial part consists   ciliaris)
  of centres lodged in the
  mesencephalic part and in
  the bulbar part (pons and
  medulla oblongata).
 1.Mesencephalic part is
  represented by the
  accessory nucleus of the
  oculomotor nerve and by
  the median unpaired
  nucleus which are
  responsible for the
  innervation of the smooth
  muscles of the eye (m.
  sphincter pupillae and m.
 2.Bulbar part is
  represented by the
  superior salivary nucleus
  of the facial nerve, the
  inferior salivary nucleus
  of the glossopharyngeal
  nerve, and the dorsal
  nucleus of the vagus
  nerve.
 The nucleus of the
 sacral part lie in the
 spinal cord, in the
 intermediolateral
 nucleus of the lateral
 horn at the level of
 the 2nd to 4th sacral
 segments.
 The peripheral part of
  the cranial
  parasympathetic
  system consist of:
 1.Preganglionic fibres
  passing in the
  III, VII, IX and X pairs
  of cranial nerves.
 2.Terminal ganglia lying
  close to the organs, the
  ciliary, sphenopalatine,
  submandibular, and
  optic ganglia.
 3. Postganglionic fibres
  which either stretch
  independently, e.g. the
  short ciliary nerves
  arising from the ciliary
  ganglion, or pass in some
  other nerves, e.g.
  postganglionic fibres
  originating from the optic
  ganglion and running in
  the auriculotemporal
  nerve.
 The peripheral part of the sacral parasympathetic
 system consists of fibres which run in the anterior
 roots of the 2nd, 3rd and 4th sacral nerves, in their
 anterior branches forming the sacral plexus (somatic
 plexus) and finally enter the true pelvis.
 In the pelvis they leave the sacral plexus and as the
  pelvic splanchnic nerves pass to the pelvis plexus
  together with which they innervate the pelvic organs
  (the rectum with the sigmoid colon, the urinary
  bladder, and the external and internal genitalia).
 Stimulation of the pelvic splanchnic nerves causes
  contraction of the rectum and bladder with relaxation
  of their sphincter muscles.
 The fibres of the sympathetic hypogastric plexus, in
  contrast, delay the evacuation of these organs; they
  stimulate uterine contractions, while the pelvic
  splanchnic nerves inhibit it.
 The pelvic splanchnic nerves also contain vasodilator
  fibres for the cavernous bodies of the penis and clitoris
  which are responsible for the erection.
 The parasympathetic fibres arising from the sacral
  segment of the spinal cord extend to the pelvic plexuses
  not only in the erigentes and pelvic splanchnic nerves but
  also in the pudental nerve (the preganglionic fibers).
 The pudental nerve is a complex nerve containing in
  addition to somatic fibres; vegetative (sympathetic and
  parasympathetic) fibres that form part of the inferior
  hypogastric plexus.
 The intramural nervous system also belongs to the PNS.
  (intramural system are the walls of some hollow organs
  that contain nerve plexuses of small ganglia with
  ganglionic cells and non-medullated fibres).
Autonomic nervous system disorder
 Dysautonomia (autonomic dysfunction) is a broad
  term that describes any disease or malfunction of the
  autonomic nervous system.
 This includes: postural orthostatic tachycardia
  syndrome (POTS), inappropriate sinus tachycardia
  (IST), vasovagal syncope, pure autonomic
  failure, neurocardiogenic syncope (NCS), neurally
  mediated hypotension (NMH), orthostatic
  hypertension, autonomic instability.
 And a number of lesser-known disorders such as
  cerebral salt-wasting syndrome. Dysautonomia is
  associated with multiple system atrophy (Shy-Drager
  syndrome), Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS), and
  Marfan syndrome for reasons that are not fully

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Vegetative (autonomic) system

  • 1. VEGETATIVE (AUTONOMIC) SYSTEM Amanda Hess Borzacchini Group 20 2nd year, 1st semester Kursk 2012
  • 2.  The vegetative nervous system controls the activity of all organs concerned with the vegetative function of the body (respiration, fluid circulation, reproduction, excretion, nutrition) and accomplishes trophic innervation.  The trophic function of the vegetative nervous system is responsible for the nutrition of the tissues and organs in conformity to their functioning under certain environmental conditions (adaptational-trophic function).
  • 3.  The vegetative nervous system is separated into two systems: the sympathetic and parasympathetic systems.  The sympathetic system is mainly concerned with trophic functions. It is responsible for nutrient consumption, intensification of oxidation processes, respiration and increases the rate of cardiac activity and supply of oxygen to the muscles.  The parasympathetic system carries a protective role, like constriction of the pupil in bright light, inhibition of cardiac activity, evacuation of the cavitary organs.
  • 4.  Comparison of the areas of distribution of the sympathetic and parasympathetic innervation discloses.  Firstly some organs have the predominant role of one vegetative part over the other; e.g.: the urinary bladder receive mostly parasympathetic innervation and the sweat glands, the spleen, suprarenals are supplied only with the sympathetic innervation.  Secondly, in organs with double innervation, the interaction of the sympathetic and parasympathetic nerves are antagonistic; e.g.: the stimulation of sympathetic nerves causes dilatation of the pupil, constriction of the vessels, increase in the rate of the cardiac Contractions; in contrast, the stimulation of parasympathetic nerves leads to constriction of the pupil, dilatation of the vessels, decrease in the rate of cardiac contractions.
  • 5.  The antagonism of the sympathetic and parasympathetic system are reciprocally affected, the relations between them alter dynamically in the different phases of the functioning of this or that organ; they can act both as antagonists and as synergists.  The normal function of our organism is ensured by the coordination and regulation brought by the cerebral cortex. The sympathetic and parasympathetic are distinguished in the vegetative system according to the physiological and pharmacological data.
  • 6. The sympathetic nervous system  The central part of the sympathetic system is located in the lateral horns of the spinal cord between the level of C7 and Th1-L3 in the intermediolateral nucleus.  It give rise to fibres innervating the smooth muscles of the viscera and the sensory organs (eyes), and the glands. Vasomotor, pilomotor and respiration centres are also located here.
  • 7.
  • 8.  The peripheral part of the sympathetic system is formed by two symmetrical right and left sympathetic trunks stretching on either side of the spinal from the base of the skull to the coccyx where the caudal ends of both trunks meet to form a single common ganglion.
  • 9.  Each sympathetic trunk is composed of a series of nerve ganglia of the first order connected by longitudinal interganglionic branches that consist of nerve fibres.  The processes of cells located in the lateral horns of the thoracolumbar part of the spinal cord emerge from it through the anterior roots and pass in the white communicating branches to the sympathetic trunk.
  • 10.
  • 11.  From the white communicating branches the processes of the cells join by means of synapsis with the cells of the sympathetic trunk ganglia or pass through the ganglia without interruption and reach one of intermediate ganglia. This is the preganglionic pathway.  From the ganglia of the sympathetic trunk or from the intermediate ganglia arise non- medullated fibres of the postganglionic pathways and pass to the blood vessels and viscera.
  • 12.
  • 13.  The sympathetic system has a somatic part, it is connected with the spinal nerves providing innervation of the soma. This connection is brought about by the grey communicating branches which are segment of postganglionic fibres stretching from the sympathetic trunk ganglia to a spinal nerve.  As components of the grey communicating branches and spinal nerves the postganglionic fibres spread in the vessels, glands, and smooth muscles of the skin of the trunk and limbs, as well as in the striated muscles for whose nutrition and tonus they are responsible.
  • 14.
  • 15.  Thus, the SNS is connected with the somatic system by two types of communicating branches, white and grey.  The white communicating branch (medullated) are the preganglionic fibres; they stretch from the centres of the sympathetic nervous system through the anterior roots of the ganglia of the sympathetic trunk.  The centres are situated at the level of the thoracic and upper lumbar segments.
  • 16.  The grey communicating branch, the postganglionic fibres, provide the vasomotor and trophic processes in the soma.  They connect the sympathetic trunk with the spinal nerves for its entire length. The cervical part of the sympathetic trunk is also connected with the cranial nerves.  All the plexuses of the somatic nervous system contain therefore fibres of the sympathetic system in their bundles and nerve trunks.
  • 17. The sympathetic trunk  Sympathetic trunk is a r (or abdominal) and pair formation, situated sacral (or pelvic). at flanks of the spinal cord, consists of 20-25 ganglions connected with interganglionic branches.  Each of the two sympathetic trunk is subdivided into four parts: cervical, thoracic, lumba
  • 18.
  • 19.  The cervical part stretches from the base of the skull to the neck of the first rib, lies behind the carotid arteries on the deep muscles of the neck. It has three cervical sympathetic ganglia: superior, middle and inferior.  Superior cervical ganglion is the largest ganglion of the sympathetic trunk, lies on the level of the 2nd and part of the 3rd cervical vertebrae behind the internal carotid artery and medial to the vagus nerve.  Middle cervical ganglion is small and usually located at the intersection of the inferior thyroid artery with the carotid artery.  Inferior cervical ganglion is situated behind the initial part of the vertebral artery, it is often fused with the 1st and sometimes with the 2nd thoracic ganglion to form a common inferior cervical ganglion.
  • 20.  The cervical ganglia send nerves to the head, neck and chest; can be divided into an ascending group passing to the head, a descending group stretching to the heart, and a group running to the organs of the neck almost immediately from the site of origin.
  • 21.  Ascending group: the nerves of the head arise from the superior and inferior cervical ganglia and separate into a group of nerves that penetrate the cranial cavity and a group of nerves that reach the head from outer surface.  1st group is represented by the internal carotid nerve, from the superior cervical ganglion and the vertebral branch of the inferior cervical ganglion.  Both nerves form plexuses around them, internal carotid plexus and the vertebral plexus.
  • 22.  Together with the arteries passing through the the nerves enter the cranial cavernous sinus. cavity where they anastomose with one another and send branches to the cerebral vessels, the meninges, the hypophysis, the trunk of the 3rd, 4th, 5th and 6th pairs of cranial nerves and to the tympanic nerve.  The internal carotid plexus is continuous with the cavernous plexus which surrounds the internal carotid artery in the part
  • 23.  2nd group, external, consists of salivary), and to the muscle two branches of the superior which dilates the pupil (m. cervical ganglion, the external dilatator pupillae). carotid nerves, which form plexuses around the external carotid artery and then pass in attendance to its ramifications on the head. The plexus sends a small ramus to the optic ganglion, the facial plexus gives off a branch accompanying the facial artery and passing to the submandibular ganglion.  The superior cervical plexus sends fibres to the vessels (vasoconstrictors) and the glands of the head (sweat, lacrimal, mucous and
  • 24.  Descending group: is formed by the cardiac branches of the superior, middle and inferior cervical ganglia; and together with the cardiac branches of the sympathetic thoracic ganglia and branches of the vagus nerve contribute to the formation of the cardiac plexuses.
  • 25.  The thoracic part lies in ganglia and participates in front of the neck of the ribs the formation of the cardiac and is covered by pleura. It plexus. consists of 10 to 12 ganglia. The thoracic part is characterized by the presence of white communicating branches which connect the anterior roots of the spinal nerves with the sympathetic trunk ganglia. The five branches are:  1.Cardiac branch arises from the superior thoracic
  • 26.  2.Grey communicating branches are non- medullated fibres supplied to the intercostal nerves.  3.Pulmonary branches pass to the lungs to form the pulmonary plexus.  4.Aortic branches form a thoracic aortic plexus, partly on the oesophagus, oesophageal plexus, and on the thoracic duct.
  • 27.  5.Greater and lesser splanchnic nerves:  The greater splanchnic nerve originates as several roots from the 5th to 9th thoracic ganglia, which pass medially to the level of the 9th thoracic vertebra where they fuse into one common trunk which is transmitted through the space between the muscular bundles of the diaphragmatic crura into the abdominal cavity in which becomes a component of the coeliac plexus.  The lesser splanchnic nerve arises from the 10th and 11th thoracic ganglia, penetrates the diaphragm together with the greater splanchnic nerve or is separated from it by a few muscular bundles, and also becomes a component of the coeliac plexus.
  • 28.
  • 29.  The lumbar (or abdominal) part consists of four ganglia. Both sympathetic trunks come closer to each other in the lumbar part, as a result of which the ganglia lie on the anterolateral surface of the lumbar vertebrae on the medial border of the psoas major muscle.  Along its entire distance the lumbar part sends off a great number of branches which, together with the greater and lesser splanchnic nerves and the abdominal segments of the vagus nerve, form the largest unpaired coeliac plexus.  The coeliac plexus lies on the anterior semicircunference of the abdominal aorta behind the pancreas and surrounds the initial parts of the coeliac trunk and the superior mesenteric artery.
  • 30. Coeliac trunk occupies an area between the renal arteries, the suprarenal glands, and the aortic opening of the diaphragm and includes the paired ganglion of the coeliac artery – coeliac ganglion, and sometimes the unpaired ganglion of the superior mesenteric artery- superior mesenteric ganglion lying under the root of this artery.
  • 31.  The 2nd main source of ganglion whose innervation of the abdominal postganglionic fibres pass to organs is the aortic the pelvis as components of plexus, formed by two trunks the hypogastric nerves. arising from the coeliac plexus and branches running from the lumbar ganglia of the sympathetic trunk.  Aortic plexus gives rise to the inferior mesenteric plexus for the transverse, descending, and sigmoid colon, and upper part of the rectum. At the origin of the inferior mesenteric plexus lies the inferior mesenteric
  • 32.  Aortic plexus is relation to the penis and continuous with the motor in relation to the unpaired hypogastric uterus and the sphincter plexus which bifurcates urethrae muscle. at the promontory of the sacrum and is in turn continuous with the pelvic plexus.  Fibres derived from the superior lumbar segments are functionally vasomotor (vasoconstrictor) in
  • 33.
  • 34.  The sacral (or pelvic) part, part usually has four ganglia. Lying on the anterior surface of the sacrum along the medial margin of the anterior sacral foramen, both trunks converge to terminate as one common unpaired ganglion impar on the anterior surface of the coccyx. The ganglia of the pelvic part are connected both by small longitudinal and transverse trunks.
  • 35. The parasympathetic system  The central part of the parasympathetic system consists of the cranial nerves ( III, VII, IX and X); III, VII and IX carry parasympathetic fibers to structures within the head and neck only, whereas X (the vagus nerve) also innervates thoracic and most abdominal viscera; and spinal (or sacral) nerves S2 to S4, sacral parasympathetic fibers innervates inferior abdominal viscera, pelvic viscera and the arteries associated with erectile tissues of the perineum.  The centres give rise to the efferent fibres of the posterior horns which cause dilation of the vessels and inhibition of contraction of the smooth muscles of the hair on the trunk and limbs.
  • 36.
  • 37.  The cranial part consists ciliaris) of centres lodged in the mesencephalic part and in the bulbar part (pons and medulla oblongata).  1.Mesencephalic part is represented by the accessory nucleus of the oculomotor nerve and by the median unpaired nucleus which are responsible for the innervation of the smooth muscles of the eye (m. sphincter pupillae and m.
  • 38.  2.Bulbar part is represented by the superior salivary nucleus of the facial nerve, the inferior salivary nucleus of the glossopharyngeal nerve, and the dorsal nucleus of the vagus nerve.
  • 39.  The nucleus of the sacral part lie in the spinal cord, in the intermediolateral nucleus of the lateral horn at the level of the 2nd to 4th sacral segments.
  • 40.  The peripheral part of the cranial parasympathetic system consist of:  1.Preganglionic fibres passing in the III, VII, IX and X pairs of cranial nerves.  2.Terminal ganglia lying close to the organs, the ciliary, sphenopalatine, submandibular, and optic ganglia.
  • 41.  3. Postganglionic fibres which either stretch independently, e.g. the short ciliary nerves arising from the ciliary ganglion, or pass in some other nerves, e.g. postganglionic fibres originating from the optic ganglion and running in the auriculotemporal nerve.
  • 42.  The peripheral part of the sacral parasympathetic system consists of fibres which run in the anterior roots of the 2nd, 3rd and 4th sacral nerves, in their anterior branches forming the sacral plexus (somatic plexus) and finally enter the true pelvis.
  • 43.  In the pelvis they leave the sacral plexus and as the pelvic splanchnic nerves pass to the pelvis plexus together with which they innervate the pelvic organs (the rectum with the sigmoid colon, the urinary bladder, and the external and internal genitalia).  Stimulation of the pelvic splanchnic nerves causes contraction of the rectum and bladder with relaxation of their sphincter muscles.  The fibres of the sympathetic hypogastric plexus, in contrast, delay the evacuation of these organs; they stimulate uterine contractions, while the pelvic splanchnic nerves inhibit it.
  • 44.
  • 45.  The pelvic splanchnic nerves also contain vasodilator fibres for the cavernous bodies of the penis and clitoris which are responsible for the erection.  The parasympathetic fibres arising from the sacral segment of the spinal cord extend to the pelvic plexuses not only in the erigentes and pelvic splanchnic nerves but also in the pudental nerve (the preganglionic fibers).  The pudental nerve is a complex nerve containing in addition to somatic fibres; vegetative (sympathetic and parasympathetic) fibres that form part of the inferior hypogastric plexus.  The intramural nervous system also belongs to the PNS. (intramural system are the walls of some hollow organs that contain nerve plexuses of small ganglia with ganglionic cells and non-medullated fibres).
  • 46.
  • 47. Autonomic nervous system disorder  Dysautonomia (autonomic dysfunction) is a broad term that describes any disease or malfunction of the autonomic nervous system.  This includes: postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome (POTS), inappropriate sinus tachycardia (IST), vasovagal syncope, pure autonomic failure, neurocardiogenic syncope (NCS), neurally mediated hypotension (NMH), orthostatic hypertension, autonomic instability.  And a number of lesser-known disorders such as cerebral salt-wasting syndrome. Dysautonomia is associated with multiple system atrophy (Shy-Drager syndrome), Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS), and Marfan syndrome for reasons that are not fully