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Lesson 13
ROCKS
ROCKS
are found everywhere on Earth.
© Jamaica Olazo
ROCKS
• come in many colors.
• come in different sizes.
BOULDERS
• Rocks that are gigantic in size.
© Jamaica Olazo
Earth’s crust
is made up of different kinds of rocks. They differ in
appearance because of their different physical properties.
Physical properties depend on:
1. The kind of mineral
present in the rock;
2. The amount of
different minerals
contained in the rock;
3. How the grains of
these minerals are
arranged and held
together.
© Jamaica Olazo
TYPES OF ROCKS
• IGNEOUS
ROCKS
• SEDIMENTARY
ROCKS
• METAMORPHIC
ROCKS
© Jamaica Olazo
The Rock Cycle
The different
processes
involved in the
formation of the
three types of
rocks, namely
igneous,
sedimentary and
metamorphic.
It also shows how
rocks change
from one form to
another.
© Jamaica Olazo
IGNEOUS
ROCKS
Covers about
65%
of the Earth’s crust
Igneous means “fire”
Formed from the
hardening
of molten rocks.
Magma –
molten rock
Lava –
extruded rock
Intrusive igneous rocks – rocks that
are formed from magma but are not
extruded into the Earth’s surface.
Extrusive igneous rocks –
rocks that have been spewed
out into the surface of the
Earth.
GRANITE
BASALT
© Jamaica Olazo
Are the oldest
types of rocks.
Considered the
mother of all
rocks.
Also called
primary rocks.
© Jamaica Olazo
SEDIMENTARY
ROCKS
Covers about
8%
of the Earth’s crust
Sedimentary means “settling”
Composed of layers of sand, gravel, mud and other
sediments that have settled at the bottom of the oceans.
These materials are cemented and hardened into rocks by mean of great
pressure exerted on them below the Earth’s surface.
Mudstone – formed from clay and mud.
They are basically hardened mud.
Sandstone – cemented sand formed
through accumulation of sand deposits or silica
or calcium carbonate.
Conglomerate – made up of coarse-
grained material like round pebbles or gravel
which are tightly packed or cemented together.
Shales – that are fine-grained are almost
waterproof and are good underground basins for
water or oil because they are less permeable.
Mechanical means…
© Jamaica Olazo
Rock salt or halite – composed of
sodium chloride when a chloride solution is
deposited when water evaporates.
Rocks that are formed from the remains of
plants and animal that have been cemented
together. Examples:
Limestone, Chalk and Corals
Chemical means…
Organic means…
© Jamaica Olazo
METAMORPHIC
ROCKS
Covers about
27%
of the Earth’s crust
Metamorphic means “has been changed”
Once an igneous or sedimentary rock.
Metamorphism –
The process by which a rock is changed
into metamorphic form.
Metamorphism of Limestone into Marble
© Jamaica Olazo
Metamorphism of Quartzite
© Jamaica Olazo
Thank you 

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Lesson 13: Rocks

  • 2. ROCKS are found everywhere on Earth. © Jamaica Olazo
  • 3. ROCKS • come in many colors. • come in different sizes. BOULDERS • Rocks that are gigantic in size. © Jamaica Olazo
  • 4. Earth’s crust is made up of different kinds of rocks. They differ in appearance because of their different physical properties. Physical properties depend on: 1. The kind of mineral present in the rock; 2. The amount of different minerals contained in the rock; 3. How the grains of these minerals are arranged and held together. © Jamaica Olazo
  • 5. TYPES OF ROCKS • IGNEOUS ROCKS • SEDIMENTARY ROCKS • METAMORPHIC ROCKS © Jamaica Olazo
  • 6. The Rock Cycle The different processes involved in the formation of the three types of rocks, namely igneous, sedimentary and metamorphic. It also shows how rocks change from one form to another. © Jamaica Olazo
  • 8. Covers about 65% of the Earth’s crust Igneous means “fire” Formed from the hardening of molten rocks. Magma – molten rock Lava – extruded rock Intrusive igneous rocks – rocks that are formed from magma but are not extruded into the Earth’s surface. Extrusive igneous rocks – rocks that have been spewed out into the surface of the Earth. GRANITE BASALT © Jamaica Olazo
  • 9. Are the oldest types of rocks. Considered the mother of all rocks. Also called primary rocks.
  • 12. Covers about 8% of the Earth’s crust Sedimentary means “settling” Composed of layers of sand, gravel, mud and other sediments that have settled at the bottom of the oceans. These materials are cemented and hardened into rocks by mean of great pressure exerted on them below the Earth’s surface.
  • 13. Mudstone – formed from clay and mud. They are basically hardened mud. Sandstone – cemented sand formed through accumulation of sand deposits or silica or calcium carbonate. Conglomerate – made up of coarse- grained material like round pebbles or gravel which are tightly packed or cemented together. Shales – that are fine-grained are almost waterproof and are good underground basins for water or oil because they are less permeable. Mechanical means… © Jamaica Olazo
  • 14. Rock salt or halite – composed of sodium chloride when a chloride solution is deposited when water evaporates. Rocks that are formed from the remains of plants and animal that have been cemented together. Examples: Limestone, Chalk and Corals Chemical means… Organic means… © Jamaica Olazo
  • 16. Covers about 27% of the Earth’s crust Metamorphic means “has been changed” Once an igneous or sedimentary rock. Metamorphism – The process by which a rock is changed into metamorphic form.
  • 17. Metamorphism of Limestone into Marble © Jamaica Olazo