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Characteristics of a good measuring instrument
By
Dr.Neha Deo
Characteristics of a good measuring instrument
6.Usability
5.Adequacy
4.Discriminating
Power
3.Objectivity
2.Validity
1.Reliability
Good
Measuring
Instrument
1. Reliability
Reliability-The reliability of the test refers to the
consistency of scores obtained by the same
individual at different occasions.
1st day scores obtained -47
After 7 days scores obtained for the same test
-47
1. Reliability
• Methods to find out reliability
Test Retest method
Parallel tests method
Split half method
Kuder Richardson method
R
E
L
I
B
I
L
I
T
Y
1. Reliability
• Factors affecting The reliability
• Length of the test –If length is more Reliability is high.
• Range of respondents ability –if it is greater, reliability is
high.
• Span of age group of respondents- If It is large,
reliability is high.
• Method of determining the reliability.
• Time span between two tests- If it is greater, then the
reliability is less.
• Way of evaluating the answers sheet-If it is objective,
then the reliability is high.
1. Reliability
• Factors affecting The reliability
• Difficulty level high –Reliability is less.
• Language of the questions-If the language is
difficult, reliability is less.
• The way of answering –If it is done by guessing,
then the reliability is less.
• Environment –It also affects the validity.
• Optional questions-If optional questions are given,
reliability reduces.
1. Reliability-effect of the time span in test retest
method.
Time Span R. coefficient
1 1 week 0.74
2 1 month 0.69
3 2 months 0.57
4 6 months 0.25
2. Validity
• Validity is the authenticity of the test.
• The test should measure what it supposed to be
measured.
• If any test is fulfilling its objective then that is called as
the valid test.
• The concept of validity was formulated by Kelly (1927, p.
14) who stated that a test is valid if it measures what it
claims to measure.
• For example a test of intelligence should measure
intelligence and not memory.
2. Validity
Factors affecting Validity-
Culture,
Ambiguous instructions.
Low level questions.
Medium of the Test (Language-whether mother tongue or
not) )
Questions based on the objective or not.
Improper variables.
2. Validity
Factors affecting Validity-
Bias.
Time given
Way of answering.(By making guess or not)
Language of the test.(Easy , understandable of
not)
Difficulty level.
Evaluation method –objective/subjective.
2. Validity
• Types of validity
Content Validity
Criterion related Validity
Concurrent validity
Construct validity
Absence o subjectivity is nothing but
objectivity.
There should not be any change in the scores
when the test is evaluated by different
supervisors.
To find out objectivity, the test is checked by
two different supervisors & coefficient of
correlation is found out.
3. Objectivity
4. Discriminating Power
• The test should measure the small
differences in the respondents ability.
Index of item discriminating power
Ru+RL
D=------------------* 100
½ T
Ru= Number of the students in the upper group who answered
correctly.
RL=Number of the students in the lower group who answered
correctly.
T==total number of the students who tried the item
D= discriminating index.
5. Adequacy
Adequacy also called as the
comprehensiveness of the test.
The test should measure the
variable comprehensively.
6. Usability/Feasibility/Utility
The test prepared with taking efforts should be easy for
use.(user friendly).A usable test is
 Easy to use
 Scoring is easy.
 Economic
 Can be solved in a limited time.
 Interpretation is easy.
 Availability of parallel test.
 Easy to store.
 Should not require some special training.
Characteristics of a good measuring instrument

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Characteristics of a good measuring instrument

  • 1. Characteristics of a good measuring instrument By Dr.Neha Deo
  • 2. Characteristics of a good measuring instrument 6.Usability 5.Adequacy 4.Discriminating Power 3.Objectivity 2.Validity 1.Reliability Good Measuring Instrument
  • 3. 1. Reliability Reliability-The reliability of the test refers to the consistency of scores obtained by the same individual at different occasions. 1st day scores obtained -47 After 7 days scores obtained for the same test -47
  • 4. 1. Reliability • Methods to find out reliability Test Retest method Parallel tests method Split half method Kuder Richardson method R E L I B I L I T Y
  • 5. 1. Reliability • Factors affecting The reliability • Length of the test –If length is more Reliability is high. • Range of respondents ability –if it is greater, reliability is high. • Span of age group of respondents- If It is large, reliability is high. • Method of determining the reliability. • Time span between two tests- If it is greater, then the reliability is less. • Way of evaluating the answers sheet-If it is objective, then the reliability is high.
  • 6. 1. Reliability • Factors affecting The reliability • Difficulty level high –Reliability is less. • Language of the questions-If the language is difficult, reliability is less. • The way of answering –If it is done by guessing, then the reliability is less. • Environment –It also affects the validity. • Optional questions-If optional questions are given, reliability reduces.
  • 7. 1. Reliability-effect of the time span in test retest method. Time Span R. coefficient 1 1 week 0.74 2 1 month 0.69 3 2 months 0.57 4 6 months 0.25
  • 8. 2. Validity • Validity is the authenticity of the test. • The test should measure what it supposed to be measured. • If any test is fulfilling its objective then that is called as the valid test. • The concept of validity was formulated by Kelly (1927, p. 14) who stated that a test is valid if it measures what it claims to measure. • For example a test of intelligence should measure intelligence and not memory.
  • 9. 2. Validity Factors affecting Validity- Culture, Ambiguous instructions. Low level questions. Medium of the Test (Language-whether mother tongue or not) ) Questions based on the objective or not. Improper variables.
  • 10. 2. Validity Factors affecting Validity- Bias. Time given Way of answering.(By making guess or not) Language of the test.(Easy , understandable of not) Difficulty level. Evaluation method –objective/subjective.
  • 11. 2. Validity • Types of validity Content Validity Criterion related Validity Concurrent validity Construct validity
  • 12. Absence o subjectivity is nothing but objectivity. There should not be any change in the scores when the test is evaluated by different supervisors. To find out objectivity, the test is checked by two different supervisors & coefficient of correlation is found out. 3. Objectivity
  • 13. 4. Discriminating Power • The test should measure the small differences in the respondents ability. Index of item discriminating power Ru+RL D=------------------* 100 ½ T Ru= Number of the students in the upper group who answered correctly. RL=Number of the students in the lower group who answered correctly. T==total number of the students who tried the item D= discriminating index.
  • 14. 5. Adequacy Adequacy also called as the comprehensiveness of the test. The test should measure the variable comprehensively.
  • 15. 6. Usability/Feasibility/Utility The test prepared with taking efforts should be easy for use.(user friendly).A usable test is  Easy to use  Scoring is easy.  Economic  Can be solved in a limited time.  Interpretation is easy.  Availability of parallel test.  Easy to store.  Should not require some special training.