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Diseases of Poultry II.


    DR. NAGY EÖRSNÉ
 Central Veterinary Institute, Budapest
   Department of Poultry Pathology
ANTE MORTEM INSPECTION

   At the farm before transportation to the slaughterhouse the poultry
    flock must be examined by veterinarian.
   A certificate must be composed on the results of this inspection and
    the pre-life of the flock

   If the certificate is available – and it is negative – and it does not
    indicate the necessity of special measures, the ante mortem inspection
    at the slaughterhouse will include the identification of transported
    flock and control of injuries took place during transportation,
    furthermore the examination of dead birds.

   Based on these data and examinations the veterinarian decides whether
    the flock will be submitted to normal or special slaughter or further
    special examination.
HUNGARIAN ZOO SANITARY CODE
              41/1997.(V. 28.) FM. r.
                Notifiable Diseases



   O.I.E. list A
    –   Newcastle disease (Paramyxovirus)
    –   Avian influenza (Orthomyxovirus)
    –   Duck plaque (Herpesvirus)
Viral Diseases
 Newcastle disease
 Avian influenza
 Fowl pox
 Infectious bronchitis
 Infectious laryngotracheitis
 Infectious bursitis
 Marek's disease
Newcastle disease
 Notifiable disease !
 Avian paramyxovirus (serotype 1, 8
  genotypes)
 different pathogenity (v, m, l, a)
 chicken, pheasant, turkey, pigeon, wild
  birds
    (water fowl)
   Sensitivity: 56 °C - 3 min
               pH 3 - 3 min      disinfectant
   Clinical signs:
    respiratory disease
    enteritidis
    nervous signs
    marked drop in egg production
   Pathology:
    – haemorrhages on seromembranes,
                      on mucosal membranes
                      (proventriculi, small intestine,
                      ceca, -lymphoid tonsils -,
                      trachea, pharynx)
    – enteritidis
    – diphtheriod inflammation on lymphoid tonsils
                                 on pharynx
   Isolation of virus (pathogenicity)

   Prevention / Vaccination

   Differential diagnosis
    (septicaemia, CRD, IBD, ILT, IB, Fowl pox,
    pneumovirus, coccidiosis, mycotoxicosis)
if NDV is observed on the farm:

In compliance with EU directive 93/119/EC,
   depopulation of infected flocks may take place
   using the following methods/drugs/systems:
 Electronarcosis by water dipping
 Decapitation and dislocation of the neck
 Gassing with carbon dioxide
 Vacuum tank


if NDV is observed in the slaughter-house
   everything is condemned, and everything has to be
   desinfected
Fowl pox
   Poxviridae, Avipox

   Sensitivity: 50°C heating 30 min
                 60°C           8 min
                 in dry scabs for months/years
                 pH 5-9 resistant
   cutaneous form
    nodular (proliferative) lesions on the comb, wattle,
    eyelids, other non feathered areas
   diphtheroid form
    nodules on mucosal membranes of pharynx,
    trachea, oesophagus
   special histopathological changes
    (cytoplasmic inclusion body)
Infectious Laryngotracheitis
   Herpesvirus
   Sensitivity: mild (halogen-detergents + iodophors,
    heating, but (-18° C-25° C !)
   Acute respiratory disease
   Conjunctivitis
    Laryngitis
    Tracheitis
    (Histopathology: intranuclear inclusion body in
    epithelial cells by 3 day PI)
Infectious bronchitis
 Coronavirus
 Sensitivity: 56°C 15 min
                      at room temperature 2-3 days
                      common detergents destroy
   Pathology:
    acute catarrhal tracheitis, bronchitis
                     sinusitis, air sacculitis
                     local pneumonia
   nephritis, salpingitis (eggs !)
Infectious bursal Disease
          (Gumboro Disease)
   Birnavirus
   bursa Fabricii (B lymphoid cells)
    immunsuppression !
   Sensitivity: very stabil virus!
        60-70°C -30 min
        0.5 % chloramines 10 min
        invert soap + 0,05 sodium hydroxide
   Pathology:
    haemorrhages
        in muscles (legs, breast)
        on mucosal membrane of proventriculi
        on lymphoid tonsils of intestine
    oedema and haemorrhageous inflammation of
    bursa Fabricii
   Diff. diagnosis: Newcastle disease
                     mycotoxicosis
   Prevention: vaccination, hygiene
Marek’s Disease
   Herpesvirus (cell associated virus)
   Sensitivity: ↑
   Pathogenity:
    „classical” form (lesions in peripheral nerves)
    tumoral form
         (lymphoid tumors in different organs or
         in skin)
    transient paralysis
   Differential diagnosis:
    Newcastle disease
    leucosis
    tumors
Parasites / Protozoa
               Coccidiosis
   Eimeria tenella
    Eimeria necatrix
    Eimeria acervulina
    Eimeria truncata
   Chicken, turkey
    geese
   Anticoccidial drugs /vaccination

   immunsuppressive diseases (Marek’s disease,
    CAV, Gumboro disease, Reo, mycotoxines…)
 Haemorrhagic enteritidis
  (clotted blood - fibrinous inflammation)
  in caecum
  in small intestines
 renal coccidiosis (enlarged, yellow-greyish
  kidneys)
Fungal infections
                 Aspergillosis
   Aspergillus fumigatus
    Aspergillus flavus
    Penicillium
    Mucor
   Respiratory disease
    pneumonia (granulomes)
    air sacculitis, peritonitis
   Litter, feed (toxins)
   (Antibiotics contraindicated!)
In these cases poultry meat is partial
  condemned for human consumption
(the effected areas are condemned:
- parenchymal orgams
- intestines
- skin + muscles /breast, legs/ )

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Avian disease

  • 1. Diseases of Poultry II. DR. NAGY EÖRSNÉ Central Veterinary Institute, Budapest Department of Poultry Pathology
  • 2. ANTE MORTEM INSPECTION  At the farm before transportation to the slaughterhouse the poultry flock must be examined by veterinarian.  A certificate must be composed on the results of this inspection and the pre-life of the flock  If the certificate is available – and it is negative – and it does not indicate the necessity of special measures, the ante mortem inspection at the slaughterhouse will include the identification of transported flock and control of injuries took place during transportation, furthermore the examination of dead birds.  Based on these data and examinations the veterinarian decides whether the flock will be submitted to normal or special slaughter or further special examination.
  • 3. HUNGARIAN ZOO SANITARY CODE 41/1997.(V. 28.) FM. r. Notifiable Diseases  O.I.E. list A – Newcastle disease (Paramyxovirus) – Avian influenza (Orthomyxovirus) – Duck plaque (Herpesvirus)
  • 4. Viral Diseases  Newcastle disease  Avian influenza  Fowl pox  Infectious bronchitis  Infectious laryngotracheitis  Infectious bursitis  Marek's disease
  • 5. Newcastle disease  Notifiable disease !  Avian paramyxovirus (serotype 1, 8 genotypes)  different pathogenity (v, m, l, a)  chicken, pheasant, turkey, pigeon, wild birds (water fowl)  Sensitivity: 56 °C - 3 min pH 3 - 3 min disinfectant
  • 6. Clinical signs: respiratory disease enteritidis nervous signs marked drop in egg production  Pathology: – haemorrhages on seromembranes, on mucosal membranes (proventriculi, small intestine, ceca, -lymphoid tonsils -, trachea, pharynx) – enteritidis – diphtheriod inflammation on lymphoid tonsils on pharynx
  • 7.
  • 8.
  • 9. Isolation of virus (pathogenicity)  Prevention / Vaccination  Differential diagnosis (septicaemia, CRD, IBD, ILT, IB, Fowl pox, pneumovirus, coccidiosis, mycotoxicosis)
  • 10. if NDV is observed on the farm: In compliance with EU directive 93/119/EC, depopulation of infected flocks may take place using the following methods/drugs/systems:  Electronarcosis by water dipping  Decapitation and dislocation of the neck  Gassing with carbon dioxide  Vacuum tank if NDV is observed in the slaughter-house everything is condemned, and everything has to be desinfected
  • 11. Fowl pox  Poxviridae, Avipox  Sensitivity: 50°C heating 30 min 60°C 8 min in dry scabs for months/years pH 5-9 resistant
  • 12. cutaneous form nodular (proliferative) lesions on the comb, wattle, eyelids, other non feathered areas  diphtheroid form nodules on mucosal membranes of pharynx, trachea, oesophagus  special histopathological changes (cytoplasmic inclusion body)
  • 13.
  • 14.
  • 15. Infectious Laryngotracheitis  Herpesvirus  Sensitivity: mild (halogen-detergents + iodophors, heating, but (-18° C-25° C !)  Acute respiratory disease  Conjunctivitis Laryngitis Tracheitis (Histopathology: intranuclear inclusion body in epithelial cells by 3 day PI)
  • 16.
  • 17.
  • 18. Infectious bronchitis  Coronavirus  Sensitivity: 56°C 15 min at room temperature 2-3 days common detergents destroy  Pathology: acute catarrhal tracheitis, bronchitis sinusitis, air sacculitis local pneumonia  nephritis, salpingitis (eggs !)
  • 19.
  • 20.
  • 21. Infectious bursal Disease (Gumboro Disease)  Birnavirus  bursa Fabricii (B lymphoid cells) immunsuppression !  Sensitivity: very stabil virus! 60-70°C -30 min 0.5 % chloramines 10 min invert soap + 0,05 sodium hydroxide
  • 22. Pathology: haemorrhages in muscles (legs, breast) on mucosal membrane of proventriculi on lymphoid tonsils of intestine oedema and haemorrhageous inflammation of bursa Fabricii  Diff. diagnosis: Newcastle disease mycotoxicosis  Prevention: vaccination, hygiene
  • 23.
  • 24. Marek’s Disease  Herpesvirus (cell associated virus)  Sensitivity: ↑  Pathogenity: „classical” form (lesions in peripheral nerves) tumoral form (lymphoid tumors in different organs or in skin) transient paralysis  Differential diagnosis: Newcastle disease leucosis tumors
  • 25.
  • 26.
  • 27.
  • 28.
  • 29. Parasites / Protozoa Coccidiosis  Eimeria tenella Eimeria necatrix Eimeria acervulina Eimeria truncata  Chicken, turkey geese  Anticoccidial drugs /vaccination  immunsuppressive diseases (Marek’s disease, CAV, Gumboro disease, Reo, mycotoxines…)
  • 30.  Haemorrhagic enteritidis (clotted blood - fibrinous inflammation) in caecum in small intestines  renal coccidiosis (enlarged, yellow-greyish kidneys)
  • 31.
  • 32. Fungal infections Aspergillosis  Aspergillus fumigatus Aspergillus flavus Penicillium Mucor  Respiratory disease pneumonia (granulomes) air sacculitis, peritonitis  Litter, feed (toxins)  (Antibiotics contraindicated!)
  • 33.
  • 34. In these cases poultry meat is partial condemned for human consumption (the effected areas are condemned: - parenchymal orgams - intestines - skin + muscles /breast, legs/ )