SlideShare a Scribd company logo
1 of 52
Chemical Bonding II: Molecular Geometry and Hybridization of Atomic Orbitals
10.1
Valence shell electron pair repulsion  (VSEPR) model: Predict the geometry of the molecule from the electrostatic repulsions between the electron (bonding and nonbonding) pairs. AB 2 2 0 10.1 Class # of atoms bonded to   central atom  # lone pairs on central atom Arrangement of   electron pairs Molecular Geometry linear linear B B
10.1 Cl Cl Be 2 atoms bonded to central atom 0 lone pairs on central atom
AB 2 2 0 linear linear VSEPR AB 3 3 0 10.1 Class # of atoms bonded to   central atom  # lone pairs on central atom Arrangement of   electron pairs Molecular Geometry trigonal planar trigonal planar
10.1
AB 2 2 0 linear linear VSEPR 10.1 AB 4 4 0 Class # of atoms bonded to   central atom  # lone pairs on central atom Arrangement of   electron pairs Molecular Geometry AB 3 3 0 trigonal planar trigonal planar tetrahedral tetrahedral
10.1
AB 2 2 0 linear linear VSEPR 10.1 AB 4 4 0 tetrahedral tetrahedral AB 5 5 0 Class # of atoms bonded to   central atom  # lone pairs on central atom Arrangement of   electron pairs Molecular Geometry AB 3 3 0 trigonal planar trigonal planar trigonal bipyramidal trigonal bipyramidal
10.1
AB 2 2 0 linear linear VSEPR 10.1 AB 4 4 0 tetrahedral tetrahedral AB 6 6 0 Class # of atoms bonded to   central atom  # lone pairs on central atom Arrangement of   electron pairs Molecular Geometry AB 3 3 0 trigonal planar trigonal planar AB 5 5 0 trigonal bipyramidal trigonal bipyramidal octahedral octahedral
10.1
10.1
bonding-pair vs. bonding pair repulsion lone-pair vs. lone pair repulsion lone-pair vs. bonding pair repulsion > >
VSEPR AB 3 3 0 trigonal planar trigonal planar AB 2 E 2 1 10.1 Class # of atoms bonded to   central atom  # lone pairs on central atom Arrangement of   electron pairs Molecular Geometry trigonal planar bent
VSEPR AB 3 E 3 1 AB 4 4 0 tetrahedral tetrahedral 10.1 Class # of atoms bonded to   central atom  # lone pairs on central atom Arrangement of   electron pairs Molecular Geometry tetrahedral trigonal pyramidal
VSEPR AB 4 4 0 tetrahedral tetrahedral 10.1 AB 2 E 2 2 2 Class # of atoms bonded to   central atom  # lone pairs on central atom Arrangement of   electron pairs Molecular Geometry AB 3 E 3 1 tetrahedral trigonal pyramidal tetrahedral bent H O H
VSEPR 10.1 AB 5 5 0 trigonal bipyramidal trigonal bipyramidal AB 4 E 4 1 Class # of atoms bonded to   central atom  # lone pairs on central atom Arrangement of   electron pairs Molecular Geometry trigonal bipyramidal See-Saw (distorted tetrahedron)
VSEPR 10.1 AB 5 5 0 trigonal bipyramidal trigonal bipyramidal AB 3 E 2 3 2 Class # of atoms bonded to   central atom  # lone pairs on central atom Arrangement of   electron pairs Molecular Geometry AB 4 E 4 1 trigonal bipyramidal See-Saw trigonal bipyramidal T-shaped Cl F F F
VSEPR 10.1 AB 5 5 0 trigonal bipyramidal trigonal bipyramidal AB 2 E 3 2 3 Class # of atoms bonded to   central atom  # lone pairs on central atom Arrangement of   electron pairs Molecular Geometry AB 4 E 4 1 trigonal bipyramidal See-Saw AB 3 E 2 3 2 trigonal bipyramidal T-shaped trigonal bipyramidal linear I I I
VSEPR 10.1 AB 5 E 5 1 Class # of atoms bonded to   central atom  # lone pairs on central atom Arrangement of   electron pairs Molecular Geometry AB 6 6 0 octahedral octahedral octahedral square pyramidal Br F F F F F
VSEPR 10.1 AB 4 E 2 4 2 Class # of atoms bonded to   central atom  # lone pairs on central atom Arrangement of   electron pairs Molecular Geometry AB 6 6 0 octahedral octahedral AB 5 E 5 1 octahedral square pyramidal octahedral square planar Xe F F F F
10.1
Predicting Molecular Geometry ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],AB 2 E bent AB 4 E See-Saw (distorted Tetrahedron) 10.1 What are the molecular geometries of SO 2  and SF 4 ? (In SF 4 , S uses an expanded octet of 10.) S F F F F S O O S O O
Parent shapes for EX n  molecules (n = 2-5) ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Parent shapes for EX n  molecules (n = 6-8) ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Final structures for VSEPR theory.
More final structures for VSEPR.
Dipole Moments and Polar Molecules 10.2 electron rich region electron poor region H F  
10.2
10.2 dipole moment polar molecule no dipole moment nonpolar molecule dipole moment polar molecule no dipole moment nonpolar molecule Which of the following molecules have a dipole moment? H 2 O, CO 2 , SO 2 , and CH 4 O H H S O O C O O C H H H H
10.2 Chemistry In Action:  Microwave Ovens
Valence bond theory – bonds are formed by sharing of e -  from overlapping  atomic  orbitals. Sharing of two electrons between the two atoms. 10.3 Bond Dissociation Energy Bond Length H 2 F 2 436.4 kJ/mole 150.6 kJ/mole 74 pm 142 pm Overlap Of 2 1s 2 2p How does Lewis theory explain the bonds in H 2  and F 2 ?
Stop here
Hybridization  – mixing of two or more atomic orbitals to form a new set of hybrid orbitals. ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],10.4
10.4
Formation of  sp 2  Hybrid Orbitals 10.4
Formation of  sp  Hybrid Orbitals 10.4
# of Lone Pairs + # of Bonded Atoms Hybridization Examples 2 3 4 5 6 sp sp 2 sp 3 sp 3 d sp 3 d 2 BeCl 2 BF 3 CH 4 , NH 3 , H 2 O PCl 5 SF 6 Count the number of lone pairs AND the number of atoms bonded to the central atom 10.4 How do I predict the hybridization of the central atom?
10.4
Sigma (  ) and Pi Bonds (  ) Single bond 1 sigma bond Double bond 1 sigma bond and 1 pi bond Triple bond 1 sigma bond and 2 pi bonds    bonds = 6 + 1 = 7    bonds = 1 10.5 How many    and    bonds are in the acetic acid (vinegar) molecule CH 3 COOH? C H H C H O O H
10.5 Sigma bond (  ) – electron density between the 2 atoms Pi bond (  ) – electron density above and below plane of nuclei  of the bonding atoms
10.5
10.5
Molecular orbital theory – bonds are formed from interaction of atomic orbitals to form  molecular  orbitals. No unpaired e - Should be diamagnetic  Experiments show O 2  is paramagnetic (has UNPAIRED e-) 10.6 MO Theory is NOT in the AP Chemistry Curriculum and will NOT be on the AP exam! This is just a quick overview! O O
Energy levels of bonding and antibonding  molecular  orbitals in hydrogen (H 2 ). A  bonding molecular orbital  has lower energy and greater stability than the atomic orbitals from which it was formed. An  antibonding molecular orbital  has higher energy and lower stability than the atomic orbitals from which it was formed. 10.6
10.6
 
[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],10.7 Molecular Orbital (MO) Configurations
10.7 bond order ½ 1 0 ½ bond order  =  1 2 Number of electrons in bonding MOs Number of electrons in antibonding MOs ( - )
Delocalized molecular orbitals  are not confined between two adjacent bonding atoms, but actually extend over three or more atoms. 10.8
10.6

More Related Content

What's hot

Crystal field theory
Crystal field theoryCrystal field theory
Crystal field theorysurya287
 
Molecular Orbital Theory (MOT)
Molecular Orbital Theory  (MOT)Molecular Orbital Theory  (MOT)
Molecular Orbital Theory (MOT)Shivaji Burungale
 
Annulenes and Heteroannulenes - Premie Fernandes
Annulenes and Heteroannulenes - Premie FernandesAnnulenes and Heteroannulenes - Premie Fernandes
Annulenes and Heteroannulenes - Premie FernandesBebeto G
 
B.tech. ii engineering chemistry unit 4 B organic chemistry
B.tech. ii engineering chemistry unit 4 B organic chemistryB.tech. ii engineering chemistry unit 4 B organic chemistry
B.tech. ii engineering chemistry unit 4 B organic chemistryRai University
 
2012 Orbital Hybrization, Sigma and Pi Bonds
2012 Orbital Hybrization, Sigma and Pi Bonds2012 Orbital Hybrization, Sigma and Pi Bonds
2012 Orbital Hybrization, Sigma and Pi BondsDavid Young
 
Organometallic Chemistry
Organometallic ChemistryOrganometallic Chemistry
Organometallic ChemistryManju Sebastian
 
CHEMICAL BONDING II: Molecular geometry and Hybridization of Atomic orbitals
CHEMICAL BONDING II: Molecular geometry and Hybridization of Atomic orbitalsCHEMICAL BONDING II: Molecular geometry and Hybridization of Atomic orbitals
CHEMICAL BONDING II: Molecular geometry and Hybridization of Atomic orbitalsCharilyn Cruz
 
Metal alkene complexes.ppt
Metal alkene complexes.pptMetal alkene complexes.ppt
Metal alkene complexes.pptDrGeetaTewari
 
Chapter 1 structure and bonding
Chapter 1 structure and bondingChapter 1 structure and bonding
Chapter 1 structure and bondingWong Hsiung
 
WALSH DIAGRAM- SEMINAR TOPIC- ABSTRACT
WALSH DIAGRAM- SEMINAR TOPIC- ABSTRACTWALSH DIAGRAM- SEMINAR TOPIC- ABSTRACT
WALSH DIAGRAM- SEMINAR TOPIC- ABSTRACTDr. Basudev Baral
 
Transition metal complexes unit 1
Transition metal complexes unit 1Transition metal complexes unit 1
Transition metal complexes unit 1dean dundas
 
Molecular orbitals
Molecular orbitalsMolecular orbitals
Molecular orbitalsITC Limited
 

What's hot (20)

Crystal field theory
Crystal field theoryCrystal field theory
Crystal field theory
 
Molecular Orbital Theory (MOT)
Molecular Orbital Theory  (MOT)Molecular Orbital Theory  (MOT)
Molecular Orbital Theory (MOT)
 
Annulenes and Heteroannulenes - Premie Fernandes
Annulenes and Heteroannulenes - Premie FernandesAnnulenes and Heteroannulenes - Premie Fernandes
Annulenes and Heteroannulenes - Premie Fernandes
 
B.tech. ii engineering chemistry unit 4 B organic chemistry
B.tech. ii engineering chemistry unit 4 B organic chemistryB.tech. ii engineering chemistry unit 4 B organic chemistry
B.tech. ii engineering chemistry unit 4 B organic chemistry
 
Metallobiomolecules
MetallobiomoleculesMetallobiomolecules
Metallobiomolecules
 
2012 Orbital Hybrization, Sigma and Pi Bonds
2012 Orbital Hybrization, Sigma and Pi Bonds2012 Orbital Hybrization, Sigma and Pi Bonds
2012 Orbital Hybrization, Sigma and Pi Bonds
 
Organometallic Chemistry
Organometallic ChemistryOrganometallic Chemistry
Organometallic Chemistry
 
CHEMICAL BONDING II: Molecular geometry and Hybridization of Atomic orbitals
CHEMICAL BONDING II: Molecular geometry and Hybridization of Atomic orbitalsCHEMICAL BONDING II: Molecular geometry and Hybridization of Atomic orbitals
CHEMICAL BONDING II: Molecular geometry and Hybridization of Atomic orbitals
 
What is Chemical Bonding?
What is Chemical Bonding?What is Chemical Bonding?
What is Chemical Bonding?
 
Quantum Chemistry
Quantum ChemistryQuantum Chemistry
Quantum Chemistry
 
Metal alkene complexes.ppt
Metal alkene complexes.pptMetal alkene complexes.ppt
Metal alkene complexes.ppt
 
pericyclic reaction
 pericyclic reaction pericyclic reaction
pericyclic reaction
 
Chapter 1 structure and bonding
Chapter 1 structure and bondingChapter 1 structure and bonding
Chapter 1 structure and bonding
 
WALSH DIAGRAM- SEMINAR TOPIC- ABSTRACT
WALSH DIAGRAM- SEMINAR TOPIC- ABSTRACTWALSH DIAGRAM- SEMINAR TOPIC- ABSTRACT
WALSH DIAGRAM- SEMINAR TOPIC- ABSTRACT
 
Organometallic compounds
Organometallic compoundsOrganometallic compounds
Organometallic compounds
 
Transition metal complexes unit 1
Transition metal complexes unit 1Transition metal complexes unit 1
Transition metal complexes unit 1
 
Reaction intermediates
Reaction intermediatesReaction intermediates
Reaction intermediates
 
Molecular orbitals
Molecular orbitalsMolecular orbitals
Molecular orbitals
 
Hinshel wood theory
Hinshel wood   theoryHinshel wood   theory
Hinshel wood theory
 
Molecular Orbital Theory
Molecular Orbital Theory  Molecular Orbital Theory
Molecular Orbital Theory
 

Viewers also liked

Molecular structure and bonding
Molecular structure and bondingMolecular structure and bonding
Molecular structure and bondingChris Sonntag
 
Space lattices
Space latticesSpace lattices
Space latticesjo
 
Mme 323 materials science week 4 - structure of crystalline solids
Mme 323 materials science   week 4 - structure of crystalline solidsMme 323 materials science   week 4 - structure of crystalline solids
Mme 323 materials science week 4 - structure of crystalline solidsAdhi Primartomo
 
Space lattice and crystal structure,miller indices PEC UNIVERSITY CHD
Space lattice and crystal structure,miller indices PEC UNIVERSITY CHDSpace lattice and crystal structure,miller indices PEC UNIVERSITY CHD
Space lattice and crystal structure,miller indices PEC UNIVERSITY CHDPEC University Chandigarh
 
Basic crystallography
Basic crystallographyBasic crystallography
Basic crystallographyMukhlis Adam
 
Unit i-crystal structure
Unit i-crystal structureUnit i-crystal structure
Unit i-crystal structureAkhil Chowdhury
 
Crystal structure
Crystal structureCrystal structure
Crystal structureParth Patel
 
Detailed lesson plan in chemistry
Detailed lesson plan in chemistryDetailed lesson plan in chemistry
Detailed lesson plan in chemistryArjel Diongson
 
Chapter 9 Lecture- Molecular Geometry
Chapter 9 Lecture- Molecular GeometryChapter 9 Lecture- Molecular Geometry
Chapter 9 Lecture- Molecular GeometryMary Beth Smith
 
Crystal structures in material science
Crystal structures in material scienceCrystal structures in material science
Crystal structures in material scienceSachin Hariprasad
 
Crystal structures & Packing Fraction
Crystal structures & Packing FractionCrystal structures & Packing Fraction
Crystal structures & Packing Fractionbagga1212
 
Chemistry Investigatory Project Class 12
Chemistry Investigatory Project Class 12Chemistry Investigatory Project Class 12
Chemistry Investigatory Project Class 12Self-employed
 

Viewers also liked (20)

postulates of VSEPR theory
 postulates of VSEPR theory postulates of VSEPR theory
postulates of VSEPR theory
 
Vsepr theory
Vsepr theoryVsepr theory
Vsepr theory
 
Chemical bonding II
Chemical bonding IIChemical bonding II
Chemical bonding II
 
VSEPR
VSEPRVSEPR
VSEPR
 
Molecular structure and bonding
Molecular structure and bondingMolecular structure and bonding
Molecular structure and bonding
 
Lattice 1
Lattice 1Lattice 1
Lattice 1
 
Space lattices
Space latticesSpace lattices
Space lattices
 
Chemistry
ChemistryChemistry
Chemistry
 
Mme 323 materials science week 4 - structure of crystalline solids
Mme 323 materials science   week 4 - structure of crystalline solidsMme 323 materials science   week 4 - structure of crystalline solids
Mme 323 materials science week 4 - structure of crystalline solids
 
Space lattice and crystal structure,miller indices PEC UNIVERSITY CHD
Space lattice and crystal structure,miller indices PEC UNIVERSITY CHDSpace lattice and crystal structure,miller indices PEC UNIVERSITY CHD
Space lattice and crystal structure,miller indices PEC UNIVERSITY CHD
 
Basic crystallography
Basic crystallographyBasic crystallography
Basic crystallography
 
Unit i-crystal structure
Unit i-crystal structureUnit i-crystal structure
Unit i-crystal structure
 
Crystal structure
Crystal structureCrystal structure
Crystal structure
 
Detailed lesson plan in chemistry
Detailed lesson plan in chemistryDetailed lesson plan in chemistry
Detailed lesson plan in chemistry
 
Chapter 9 Lecture- Molecular Geometry
Chapter 9 Lecture- Molecular GeometryChapter 9 Lecture- Molecular Geometry
Chapter 9 Lecture- Molecular Geometry
 
Crystal structures in material science
Crystal structures in material scienceCrystal structures in material science
Crystal structures in material science
 
Crystal structures
Crystal structuresCrystal structures
Crystal structures
 
La latent
La latentLa latent
La latent
 
Crystal structures & Packing Fraction
Crystal structures & Packing FractionCrystal structures & Packing Fraction
Crystal structures & Packing Fraction
 
Chemistry Investigatory Project Class 12
Chemistry Investigatory Project Class 12Chemistry Investigatory Project Class 12
Chemistry Investigatory Project Class 12
 

Similar to AP Chemistry - VSEPR

Ch10 chemical bonding ii
Ch10 chemical bonding iiCh10 chemical bonding ii
Ch10 chemical bonding iiSa'ib J. Khouri
 
Chemical bonding part 2
Chemical bonding part 2Chemical bonding part 2
Chemical bonding part 2Hoshi94
 
Chemical bonding and molecular structure
Chemical bonding and molecular structureChemical bonding and molecular structure
Chemical bonding and molecular structureBathla Tuition Centre
 
Chapter 9 Pptrevised
Chapter 9 PptrevisedChapter 9 Pptrevised
Chapter 9 Pptrevisedspongeluv11
 
Introduction to Foundation of Chemistry 1
Introduction to Foundation of Chemistry 1Introduction to Foundation of Chemistry 1
Introduction to Foundation of Chemistry 1M.T.H Group
 
Chapter 10 and 11 notes
Chapter 10 and 11 notesChapter 10 and 11 notes
Chapter 10 and 11 notesWong Hsiung
 
Chemical bonding part 1 (chem 11)
Chemical bonding part 1 (chem 11)Chemical bonding part 1 (chem 11)
Chemical bonding part 1 (chem 11)Hoshi94
 
Chemical bonding part 1
Chemical bonding part 1Chemical bonding part 1
Chemical bonding part 1Hoshi94
 
Polarity-of-Molecules-Physical Science 11.pdf
Polarity-of-Molecules-Physical Science 11.pdfPolarity-of-Molecules-Physical Science 11.pdf
Polarity-of-Molecules-Physical Science 11.pdfhanifapinto
 
Molecular geometry and chemical bonding
Molecular geometry and chemical bondingMolecular geometry and chemical bonding
Molecular geometry and chemical bondingDamodar Koirala
 
akdjhfadklhjkhdfhj
akdjhfadklhjkhdfhjakdjhfadklhjkhdfhj
akdjhfadklhjkhdfhjwhapproject
 
6_2019_04_23!10_09_45_AM.ppt
6_2019_04_23!10_09_45_AM.ppt6_2019_04_23!10_09_45_AM.ppt
6_2019_04_23!10_09_45_AM.pptRiandyPutra1
 
POLARITY OF MOLECULES.pptx
POLARITY OF MOLECULES.pptxPOLARITY OF MOLECULES.pptx
POLARITY OF MOLECULES.pptxRaquel Lansangan
 
L7moleculargeometry 130906001602-
L7moleculargeometry 130906001602-L7moleculargeometry 130906001602-
L7moleculargeometry 130906001602-Cleophas Rwemera
 

Similar to AP Chemistry - VSEPR (20)

Ch10 chemical bonding ii
Ch10 chemical bonding iiCh10 chemical bonding ii
Ch10 chemical bonding ii
 
Ap Chapter 10 Bonding Ii
Ap Chapter 10 Bonding IiAp Chapter 10 Bonding Ii
Ap Chapter 10 Bonding Ii
 
Chemical bonding part 2
Chemical bonding part 2Chemical bonding part 2
Chemical bonding part 2
 
Chemical bonding and molecular structure
Chemical bonding and molecular structureChemical bonding and molecular structure
Chemical bonding and molecular structure
 
Chapter 08
Chapter 08Chapter 08
Chapter 08
 
Chapter 08
Chapter 08Chapter 08
Chapter 08
 
Chapter 9 Pptrevised
Chapter 9 PptrevisedChapter 9 Pptrevised
Chapter 9 Pptrevised
 
Introduction to Foundation of Chemistry 1
Introduction to Foundation of Chemistry 1Introduction to Foundation of Chemistry 1
Introduction to Foundation of Chemistry 1
 
Chapter 10 and 11 notes
Chapter 10 and 11 notesChapter 10 and 11 notes
Chapter 10 and 11 notes
 
Chemical bonding part 1 (chem 11)
Chemical bonding part 1 (chem 11)Chemical bonding part 1 (chem 11)
Chemical bonding part 1 (chem 11)
 
Chemical bonding part 1
Chemical bonding part 1Chemical bonding part 1
Chemical bonding part 1
 
Polarity-of-Molecules-Physical Science 11.pdf
Polarity-of-Molecules-Physical Science 11.pdfPolarity-of-Molecules-Physical Science 11.pdf
Polarity-of-Molecules-Physical Science 11.pdf
 
Ch 9 section 3 to 5
Ch 9 section 3 to 5Ch 9 section 3 to 5
Ch 9 section 3 to 5
 
Molecular geometry and chemical bonding
Molecular geometry and chemical bondingMolecular geometry and chemical bonding
Molecular geometry and chemical bonding
 
akdjhfadklhjkhdfhj
akdjhfadklhjkhdfhjakdjhfadklhjkhdfhj
akdjhfadklhjkhdfhj
 
6_2019_04_23!10_09_45_AM.ppt
6_2019_04_23!10_09_45_AM.ppt6_2019_04_23!10_09_45_AM.ppt
6_2019_04_23!10_09_45_AM.ppt
 
Bonding
BondingBonding
Bonding
 
POLARITY OF MOLECULES.pptx
POLARITY OF MOLECULES.pptxPOLARITY OF MOLECULES.pptx
POLARITY OF MOLECULES.pptx
 
L7moleculargeometry 130906001602-
L7moleculargeometry 130906001602-L7moleculargeometry 130906001602-
L7moleculargeometry 130906001602-
 
Basic organic chemistry
Basic organic chemistryBasic organic chemistry
Basic organic chemistry
 

Recently uploaded

Multi Domain Alias In the Odoo 17 ERP Module
Multi Domain Alias In the Odoo 17 ERP ModuleMulti Domain Alias In the Odoo 17 ERP Module
Multi Domain Alias In the Odoo 17 ERP ModuleCeline George
 
Transaction Management in Database Management System
Transaction Management in Database Management SystemTransaction Management in Database Management System
Transaction Management in Database Management SystemChristalin Nelson
 
Q-Factor General Quiz-7th April 2024, Quiz Club NITW
Q-Factor General Quiz-7th April 2024, Quiz Club NITWQ-Factor General Quiz-7th April 2024, Quiz Club NITW
Q-Factor General Quiz-7th April 2024, Quiz Club NITWQuiz Club NITW
 
Team Lead Succeed – Helping you and your team achieve high-performance teamwo...
Team Lead Succeed – Helping you and your team achieve high-performance teamwo...Team Lead Succeed – Helping you and your team achieve high-performance teamwo...
Team Lead Succeed – Helping you and your team achieve high-performance teamwo...Association for Project Management
 
ESP 4-EDITED.pdfmmcncncncmcmmnmnmncnmncmnnjvnnv
ESP 4-EDITED.pdfmmcncncncmcmmnmnmncnmncmnnjvnnvESP 4-EDITED.pdfmmcncncncmcmmnmnmncnmncmnnjvnnv
ESP 4-EDITED.pdfmmcncncncmcmmnmnmncnmncmnnjvnnvRicaMaeCastro1
 
Congestive Cardiac Failure..presentation
Congestive Cardiac Failure..presentationCongestive Cardiac Failure..presentation
Congestive Cardiac Failure..presentationdeepaannamalai16
 
INTRODUCTION TO CATHOLIC CHRISTOLOGY.pptx
INTRODUCTION TO CATHOLIC CHRISTOLOGY.pptxINTRODUCTION TO CATHOLIC CHRISTOLOGY.pptx
INTRODUCTION TO CATHOLIC CHRISTOLOGY.pptxHumphrey A Beña
 
Mythology Quiz-4th April 2024, Quiz Club NITW
Mythology Quiz-4th April 2024, Quiz Club NITWMythology Quiz-4th April 2024, Quiz Club NITW
Mythology Quiz-4th April 2024, Quiz Club NITWQuiz Club NITW
 
Daily Lesson Plan in Mathematics Quarter 4
Daily Lesson Plan in Mathematics Quarter 4Daily Lesson Plan in Mathematics Quarter 4
Daily Lesson Plan in Mathematics Quarter 4JOYLYNSAMANIEGO
 
Grade Three -ELLNA-REVIEWER-ENGLISH.pptx
Grade Three -ELLNA-REVIEWER-ENGLISH.pptxGrade Three -ELLNA-REVIEWER-ENGLISH.pptx
Grade Three -ELLNA-REVIEWER-ENGLISH.pptxkarenfajardo43
 
ICS2208 Lecture6 Notes for SL spaces.pdf
ICS2208 Lecture6 Notes for SL spaces.pdfICS2208 Lecture6 Notes for SL spaces.pdf
ICS2208 Lecture6 Notes for SL spaces.pdfVanessa Camilleri
 
Man or Manufactured_ Redefining Humanity Through Biopunk Narratives.pptx
Man or Manufactured_ Redefining Humanity Through Biopunk Narratives.pptxMan or Manufactured_ Redefining Humanity Through Biopunk Narratives.pptx
Man or Manufactured_ Redefining Humanity Through Biopunk Narratives.pptxDhatriParmar
 
Q4-PPT-Music9_Lesson-1-Romantic-Opera.pptx
Q4-PPT-Music9_Lesson-1-Romantic-Opera.pptxQ4-PPT-Music9_Lesson-1-Romantic-Opera.pptx
Q4-PPT-Music9_Lesson-1-Romantic-Opera.pptxlancelewisportillo
 
DIFFERENT BASKETRY IN THE PHILIPPINES PPT.pptx
DIFFERENT BASKETRY IN THE PHILIPPINES PPT.pptxDIFFERENT BASKETRY IN THE PHILIPPINES PPT.pptx
DIFFERENT BASKETRY IN THE PHILIPPINES PPT.pptxMichelleTuguinay1
 
Active Learning Strategies (in short ALS).pdf
Active Learning Strategies (in short ALS).pdfActive Learning Strategies (in short ALS).pdf
Active Learning Strategies (in short ALS).pdfPatidar M
 
Beauty Amidst the Bytes_ Unearthing Unexpected Advantages of the Digital Wast...
Beauty Amidst the Bytes_ Unearthing Unexpected Advantages of the Digital Wast...Beauty Amidst the Bytes_ Unearthing Unexpected Advantages of the Digital Wast...
Beauty Amidst the Bytes_ Unearthing Unexpected Advantages of the Digital Wast...DhatriParmar
 
Textual Evidence in Reading and Writing of SHS
Textual Evidence in Reading and Writing of SHSTextual Evidence in Reading and Writing of SHS
Textual Evidence in Reading and Writing of SHSMae Pangan
 

Recently uploaded (20)

Multi Domain Alias In the Odoo 17 ERP Module
Multi Domain Alias In the Odoo 17 ERP ModuleMulti Domain Alias In the Odoo 17 ERP Module
Multi Domain Alias In the Odoo 17 ERP Module
 
Transaction Management in Database Management System
Transaction Management in Database Management SystemTransaction Management in Database Management System
Transaction Management in Database Management System
 
Q-Factor General Quiz-7th April 2024, Quiz Club NITW
Q-Factor General Quiz-7th April 2024, Quiz Club NITWQ-Factor General Quiz-7th April 2024, Quiz Club NITW
Q-Factor General Quiz-7th April 2024, Quiz Club NITW
 
Team Lead Succeed – Helping you and your team achieve high-performance teamwo...
Team Lead Succeed – Helping you and your team achieve high-performance teamwo...Team Lead Succeed – Helping you and your team achieve high-performance teamwo...
Team Lead Succeed – Helping you and your team achieve high-performance teamwo...
 
ESP 4-EDITED.pdfmmcncncncmcmmnmnmncnmncmnnjvnnv
ESP 4-EDITED.pdfmmcncncncmcmmnmnmncnmncmnnjvnnvESP 4-EDITED.pdfmmcncncncmcmmnmnmncnmncmnnjvnnv
ESP 4-EDITED.pdfmmcncncncmcmmnmnmncnmncmnnjvnnv
 
Congestive Cardiac Failure..presentation
Congestive Cardiac Failure..presentationCongestive Cardiac Failure..presentation
Congestive Cardiac Failure..presentation
 
INTRODUCTION TO CATHOLIC CHRISTOLOGY.pptx
INTRODUCTION TO CATHOLIC CHRISTOLOGY.pptxINTRODUCTION TO CATHOLIC CHRISTOLOGY.pptx
INTRODUCTION TO CATHOLIC CHRISTOLOGY.pptx
 
Mythology Quiz-4th April 2024, Quiz Club NITW
Mythology Quiz-4th April 2024, Quiz Club NITWMythology Quiz-4th April 2024, Quiz Club NITW
Mythology Quiz-4th April 2024, Quiz Club NITW
 
INCLUSIVE EDUCATION PRACTICES FOR TEACHERS AND TRAINERS.pptx
INCLUSIVE EDUCATION PRACTICES FOR TEACHERS AND TRAINERS.pptxINCLUSIVE EDUCATION PRACTICES FOR TEACHERS AND TRAINERS.pptx
INCLUSIVE EDUCATION PRACTICES FOR TEACHERS AND TRAINERS.pptx
 
Daily Lesson Plan in Mathematics Quarter 4
Daily Lesson Plan in Mathematics Quarter 4Daily Lesson Plan in Mathematics Quarter 4
Daily Lesson Plan in Mathematics Quarter 4
 
Grade Three -ELLNA-REVIEWER-ENGLISH.pptx
Grade Three -ELLNA-REVIEWER-ENGLISH.pptxGrade Three -ELLNA-REVIEWER-ENGLISH.pptx
Grade Three -ELLNA-REVIEWER-ENGLISH.pptx
 
ICS2208 Lecture6 Notes for SL spaces.pdf
ICS2208 Lecture6 Notes for SL spaces.pdfICS2208 Lecture6 Notes for SL spaces.pdf
ICS2208 Lecture6 Notes for SL spaces.pdf
 
Man or Manufactured_ Redefining Humanity Through Biopunk Narratives.pptx
Man or Manufactured_ Redefining Humanity Through Biopunk Narratives.pptxMan or Manufactured_ Redefining Humanity Through Biopunk Narratives.pptx
Man or Manufactured_ Redefining Humanity Through Biopunk Narratives.pptx
 
Q4-PPT-Music9_Lesson-1-Romantic-Opera.pptx
Q4-PPT-Music9_Lesson-1-Romantic-Opera.pptxQ4-PPT-Music9_Lesson-1-Romantic-Opera.pptx
Q4-PPT-Music9_Lesson-1-Romantic-Opera.pptx
 
DIFFERENT BASKETRY IN THE PHILIPPINES PPT.pptx
DIFFERENT BASKETRY IN THE PHILIPPINES PPT.pptxDIFFERENT BASKETRY IN THE PHILIPPINES PPT.pptx
DIFFERENT BASKETRY IN THE PHILIPPINES PPT.pptx
 
prashanth updated resume 2024 for Teaching Profession
prashanth updated resume 2024 for Teaching Professionprashanth updated resume 2024 for Teaching Profession
prashanth updated resume 2024 for Teaching Profession
 
Faculty Profile prashantha K EEE dept Sri Sairam college of Engineering
Faculty Profile prashantha K EEE dept Sri Sairam college of EngineeringFaculty Profile prashantha K EEE dept Sri Sairam college of Engineering
Faculty Profile prashantha K EEE dept Sri Sairam college of Engineering
 
Active Learning Strategies (in short ALS).pdf
Active Learning Strategies (in short ALS).pdfActive Learning Strategies (in short ALS).pdf
Active Learning Strategies (in short ALS).pdf
 
Beauty Amidst the Bytes_ Unearthing Unexpected Advantages of the Digital Wast...
Beauty Amidst the Bytes_ Unearthing Unexpected Advantages of the Digital Wast...Beauty Amidst the Bytes_ Unearthing Unexpected Advantages of the Digital Wast...
Beauty Amidst the Bytes_ Unearthing Unexpected Advantages of the Digital Wast...
 
Textual Evidence in Reading and Writing of SHS
Textual Evidence in Reading and Writing of SHSTextual Evidence in Reading and Writing of SHS
Textual Evidence in Reading and Writing of SHS
 

AP Chemistry - VSEPR

  • 1. Chemical Bonding II: Molecular Geometry and Hybridization of Atomic Orbitals
  • 3. Valence shell electron pair repulsion (VSEPR) model: Predict the geometry of the molecule from the electrostatic repulsions between the electron (bonding and nonbonding) pairs. AB 2 2 0 10.1 Class # of atoms bonded to central atom # lone pairs on central atom Arrangement of electron pairs Molecular Geometry linear linear B B
  • 4. 10.1 Cl Cl Be 2 atoms bonded to central atom 0 lone pairs on central atom
  • 5. AB 2 2 0 linear linear VSEPR AB 3 3 0 10.1 Class # of atoms bonded to central atom # lone pairs on central atom Arrangement of electron pairs Molecular Geometry trigonal planar trigonal planar
  • 7. AB 2 2 0 linear linear VSEPR 10.1 AB 4 4 0 Class # of atoms bonded to central atom # lone pairs on central atom Arrangement of electron pairs Molecular Geometry AB 3 3 0 trigonal planar trigonal planar tetrahedral tetrahedral
  • 9. AB 2 2 0 linear linear VSEPR 10.1 AB 4 4 0 tetrahedral tetrahedral AB 5 5 0 Class # of atoms bonded to central atom # lone pairs on central atom Arrangement of electron pairs Molecular Geometry AB 3 3 0 trigonal planar trigonal planar trigonal bipyramidal trigonal bipyramidal
  • 10. 10.1
  • 11. AB 2 2 0 linear linear VSEPR 10.1 AB 4 4 0 tetrahedral tetrahedral AB 6 6 0 Class # of atoms bonded to central atom # lone pairs on central atom Arrangement of electron pairs Molecular Geometry AB 3 3 0 trigonal planar trigonal planar AB 5 5 0 trigonal bipyramidal trigonal bipyramidal octahedral octahedral
  • 12. 10.1
  • 13. 10.1
  • 14. bonding-pair vs. bonding pair repulsion lone-pair vs. lone pair repulsion lone-pair vs. bonding pair repulsion > >
  • 15. VSEPR AB 3 3 0 trigonal planar trigonal planar AB 2 E 2 1 10.1 Class # of atoms bonded to central atom # lone pairs on central atom Arrangement of electron pairs Molecular Geometry trigonal planar bent
  • 16. VSEPR AB 3 E 3 1 AB 4 4 0 tetrahedral tetrahedral 10.1 Class # of atoms bonded to central atom # lone pairs on central atom Arrangement of electron pairs Molecular Geometry tetrahedral trigonal pyramidal
  • 17. VSEPR AB 4 4 0 tetrahedral tetrahedral 10.1 AB 2 E 2 2 2 Class # of atoms bonded to central atom # lone pairs on central atom Arrangement of electron pairs Molecular Geometry AB 3 E 3 1 tetrahedral trigonal pyramidal tetrahedral bent H O H
  • 18. VSEPR 10.1 AB 5 5 0 trigonal bipyramidal trigonal bipyramidal AB 4 E 4 1 Class # of atoms bonded to central atom # lone pairs on central atom Arrangement of electron pairs Molecular Geometry trigonal bipyramidal See-Saw (distorted tetrahedron)
  • 19. VSEPR 10.1 AB 5 5 0 trigonal bipyramidal trigonal bipyramidal AB 3 E 2 3 2 Class # of atoms bonded to central atom # lone pairs on central atom Arrangement of electron pairs Molecular Geometry AB 4 E 4 1 trigonal bipyramidal See-Saw trigonal bipyramidal T-shaped Cl F F F
  • 20. VSEPR 10.1 AB 5 5 0 trigonal bipyramidal trigonal bipyramidal AB 2 E 3 2 3 Class # of atoms bonded to central atom # lone pairs on central atom Arrangement of electron pairs Molecular Geometry AB 4 E 4 1 trigonal bipyramidal See-Saw AB 3 E 2 3 2 trigonal bipyramidal T-shaped trigonal bipyramidal linear I I I
  • 21. VSEPR 10.1 AB 5 E 5 1 Class # of atoms bonded to central atom # lone pairs on central atom Arrangement of electron pairs Molecular Geometry AB 6 6 0 octahedral octahedral octahedral square pyramidal Br F F F F F
  • 22. VSEPR 10.1 AB 4 E 2 4 2 Class # of atoms bonded to central atom # lone pairs on central atom Arrangement of electron pairs Molecular Geometry AB 6 6 0 octahedral octahedral AB 5 E 5 1 octahedral square pyramidal octahedral square planar Xe F F F F
  • 23. 10.1
  • 24.
  • 25.
  • 26.
  • 27. Final structures for VSEPR theory.
  • 28. More final structures for VSEPR.
  • 29. Dipole Moments and Polar Molecules 10.2 electron rich region electron poor region H F  
  • 30. 10.2
  • 31. 10.2 dipole moment polar molecule no dipole moment nonpolar molecule dipole moment polar molecule no dipole moment nonpolar molecule Which of the following molecules have a dipole moment? H 2 O, CO 2 , SO 2 , and CH 4 O H H S O O C O O C H H H H
  • 32. 10.2 Chemistry In Action: Microwave Ovens
  • 33. Valence bond theory – bonds are formed by sharing of e - from overlapping atomic orbitals. Sharing of two electrons between the two atoms. 10.3 Bond Dissociation Energy Bond Length H 2 F 2 436.4 kJ/mole 150.6 kJ/mole 74 pm 142 pm Overlap Of 2 1s 2 2p How does Lewis theory explain the bonds in H 2 and F 2 ?
  • 35.
  • 36. 10.4
  • 37. Formation of sp 2 Hybrid Orbitals 10.4
  • 38. Formation of sp Hybrid Orbitals 10.4
  • 39. # of Lone Pairs + # of Bonded Atoms Hybridization Examples 2 3 4 5 6 sp sp 2 sp 3 sp 3 d sp 3 d 2 BeCl 2 BF 3 CH 4 , NH 3 , H 2 O PCl 5 SF 6 Count the number of lone pairs AND the number of atoms bonded to the central atom 10.4 How do I predict the hybridization of the central atom?
  • 40. 10.4
  • 41. Sigma (  ) and Pi Bonds (  ) Single bond 1 sigma bond Double bond 1 sigma bond and 1 pi bond Triple bond 1 sigma bond and 2 pi bonds  bonds = 6 + 1 = 7  bonds = 1 10.5 How many  and  bonds are in the acetic acid (vinegar) molecule CH 3 COOH? C H H C H O O H
  • 42. 10.5 Sigma bond (  ) – electron density between the 2 atoms Pi bond (  ) – electron density above and below plane of nuclei of the bonding atoms
  • 43. 10.5
  • 44. 10.5
  • 45. Molecular orbital theory – bonds are formed from interaction of atomic orbitals to form molecular orbitals. No unpaired e - Should be diamagnetic Experiments show O 2 is paramagnetic (has UNPAIRED e-) 10.6 MO Theory is NOT in the AP Chemistry Curriculum and will NOT be on the AP exam! This is just a quick overview! O O
  • 46. Energy levels of bonding and antibonding molecular orbitals in hydrogen (H 2 ). A bonding molecular orbital has lower energy and greater stability than the atomic orbitals from which it was formed. An antibonding molecular orbital has higher energy and lower stability than the atomic orbitals from which it was formed. 10.6
  • 47. 10.6
  • 48.  
  • 49.
  • 50. 10.7 bond order ½ 1 0 ½ bond order = 1 2 Number of electrons in bonding MOs Number of electrons in antibonding MOs ( - )
  • 51. Delocalized molecular orbitals are not confined between two adjacent bonding atoms, but actually extend over three or more atoms. 10.8
  • 52. 10.6