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antibiotic susceptibility testing

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AST testing in microbiology

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antibiotic susceptibility testing

  1. 1. Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing By, Dr.Malathi.M II year PG, M.D., Microbiology Chengalpattu medical college
  2. 2. Introduction • Once an organism is isolated , characterization frequently includes tests to detect antimicrobial resistance, which is the prime important key component for the physician. • The procedures used to produce the antimicrobial susceptibility profiles and detect resistance to therapeutic agents are referred to as antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST) methods.
  3. 3. TESTING METHODS: • Methods that directly measure the activity of one or more antimicrobial agents against a bacterial isolate • Methods that directly detect the presence of a specific resistance mechanism in a bacterial isolate • Special methods that measure complex antimicrobial organism interactions
  4. 4. GUIDELINES • CLSI 2014 (CURRENT) • EUCAST
  5. 5. Media DiscInoculum
  6. 6. MEDIA IN AST BEST MEDIUM – MHA (Mueller Hinton Agar) 1. Shows acceptable batch to batch reproducibility for susceptibility testing 2. Low in sulphonamide, trimethoprim and tetracycline inhibitors 3. Gives satisfactory growth of most non fastidious pathogens Media
  7. 7. • Store the plates at 2 to 8 deg C • Use within 7 days of preparation • Each batch of MHA plates should be checked for sterility control • MHA added with 2% NaCl • MHA added with defibrinated sheep blood 5%s
  8. 8. Factors affecting AST • pH • Moisture • Effects of Thymidine/thymine • Divalent cations
  9. 9. Antibiotic Stock solutions • Buy commercial pure source of antibiotics • Don’t use injectable solutions • Accurate weighing of powders is must • Standard strains of stock cultures should be used to evaluate the stock solution • After preparing the stock solution, make 5 ml aliquots and frozen it Disc
  10. 10. Calculation of stock solution 1000 --------- * V * C = W P
  11. 11. DRIED FILTER PAPER DISCS: • Whatmann no.1 filter paper is made to form a disc size of 6mm • Keep in petridish and sterilize in a hot air oven • With the help of antibiotic delivery loop which has a 20G wire with diameter of 2mm  the antibiotic is delivered (0.005ml)
  12. 12. Storage of discs • Refrigerate at 2 to 8 deg C • Beta lactam class drugs should be frozen • The drugs should be kept outside at RT 1 to 2 hours before work • The dispensing apparatus which is used to deliver the drugs should also be refrigerated • Check the expiry of drugs
  13. 13. Inoculum – Standard: • O.5 Mcfarland standard • Prepared by 0.5ml of 0.048mol/L BaCl2 and 99.5ml of 0.18mol/L of H2SO4 • Added with constant stirring • Turbidity standard is checked by spectrophotometer – 625nm – absorbance should be 0.008 to 0.10 Inoculum
  14. 14. • Seal the tubes containing the Mcfarland standards and store in dark at RT • The standard turbidity should be mixed throroughly every time before use • Check the density monthly and replace it monthly
  15. 15. AST  METHODS • Disk diffusion method • MIC method • E Test • Automated systems
  16. 16. CONVENTIONAL AST DISK DIFFUSION METHOD: • Simplest and most convenient • Widely used everywhere • Developed by kirby, sherrris, bauer and turk in 1966 • Types: 1. Kirby Bauer method 2. Stokes method
  17. 17. KIRBY BAUER METHOD • Types: 1. Direct colony suspension method 2. Inoculum (log phase ) method
  18. 18. Application of Discs • 150 mm plate  12 discs • 100 mm plate  6 discs • Drug should not be relocated • Distance from the lid edge  15mm • Distance between two drug from center to center  24mm • Inoculum  disc placement  incubation ( only 15 minutes delay is acceptable each)
  19. 19. Kirby baeur disc method
  20. 20. INTERPRETATION: • After 16 to 18 hours • Confluent lawn of growth • Zones of inhibition  uniformly circular • Read with reflected light • For MRSA  read in transmitted light • When proteus is tested  thin veil of swarming growth after the zone of inhibition should be ignored
  21. 21. STOKES METHOD • Built in controls against many variables and provide dependable results • A standard sensitive strain of the bacterium is inoculated in the middle third of the culture plate • Standard strains: • S.aureus ATCC 25923 • E.coli ATCC 25922 • P.aeruginosa ATCC 27853
  22. 22. Stoke method
  23. 23. • The test bacterium is inoculated in the upper and lower third of the plate • Antibiotic discs are placed between the standard and test inocula so that zones of inhibition formed around each disc are composed of standard and test bacteria. • The results are reported as Susceptible, Intermediate susceptible, Resistant
  24. 24. DILUTION METHODS • The minimum concentration of antimicrobial to inhibit or to kill the microorganism is determined • MIC • Broth dilution method • Agar dilution method
  25. 25. • MIC – lowest concentration of antimicrobial that will inhibit the visible growth of an organism in an ideal growth condition • MBC – least concentration of the test antiiotic which will completely kill the bacteria tested
  26. 26. BROTH DILUTION METHOD • Media: cation adjusted MH broth with a pH of 7.2 to 7.4 • For Haem.influenzae – HTM • For TMP-SMX – Thymidine free medium • For oxacillin Resistance – MH broth with 2% NaCl
  27. 27. Working antibiotic solution • Take original stock solution • Prepare stock dilutions of the antibiotic of concentrations 1000 and 100ug/ml • Arrange two rows of 12 sterile 7.5*1.3cm capped tubes in the rack • Take a 30ml universal screw capped bottle • Add 8ml broth and required antibiotic concentration and mix the contents
  28. 28. • Take 2ml + 2ml and put it in first tube in both rows • Remaining 4ml broth  add 4ml fresh broth • Transfer 2ml+2ml and put in second tube • Continue this dilution upto 11 tubes • 12th tube  control
  29. 29. INOCULATION • Inoculation of 1st row with one drop of overnight broth culture 1 in 1000 dilutions • 2nd row with control with known sensitivity organisms • Final inoculum = 5 * 105 cfu/ml • Incubate at 37degC for 16 to 18 hours • Inoculate another tube with 2ml broth and keep at 4degC in a refrigerator overnight to be used as standard for determinattion of complete inhibition
  30. 30. Broth dilution method
  31. 31. INTERPRETATION • Positive control tube – turbidity • Negative control tube – clear • MIC end point is read • Special comments: 1. For TMP-SMX 2. Trailing
  32. 32. MICROBROTH DILUTION METHOD • Use double strength mueller hinton broth • 4 X strength antibiotic solutions prepared as serial 2 fold dilutions • Test organism is 2X106 /ml • Done in 96 well plate
  33. 33. AGAR DILUTION METHOD • 1ml concentration of the drug + 24 ml of MHA • Inoculum – make 1:10 dilution of 0.5Mcfarland standard inoculum which delivers 107 cfu/ml • Using pipette or calibrated loop , deliver 0.001 ml on the surface of the agar giving the final inoculum of 104 cfu /spot • Inoculate a control plate
  34. 34. Agar dilution method
  35. 35. INTERPRETATION • Examine the drug free control growth of the test organism for viability and purity • Place the plate on a dark background and examine them for the lowest concentration that inhibits visible growth • A single colony of a faint haze is not recorded as growth
  36. 36. E test • Epsilometer test • An exponential gradient testing methodology • A predefined stable antimicrobial gradient is present on a thin inert carrier strip • Following incubation, the E strip releases drug and a symmetrical inhibition ellipse is produced • MIC = intersection of the inhibitory zone edge and the calibrated carrier strip
  37. 37. E test
  38. 38. QUALITY CONTROL IN AST • QC: a process in the laboratory designed to monitor the analytical phase of testing procedures to ensure that tests are working properly • CLSI recommends use of ATCC strains for QC in AST
  39. 39. • QC strains should be included daily with the test ideally • Not more than 1 in 20 results should be outside the accuracy limits • No zone should be more than 4 SD away from midpoint between the stated limits
  40. 40. • Due to expense, it can be switched as once weekly testing • Perform QC for 30 days and with less than 10% inaccuracy , continue for weekly • Test repeated for each new drug included • All documentation maintained indefinitely
  41. 41. REFERENCE STRAINS FOR QC • Beta lactamase negative – ATCC E.coli 25922 • Beta lactamase positive – ATCC E.coli 35218 • Aminoglycosides – P.aeruginosa ATCC 27853 • Thymidine levels – E.feacalis ATCC 29212 • Cephalosporins – H.influenzae ATCC 49766 • Beta lactamase negative – ATCC staph.25923 • Beta lactamase positive – ATCC staph 38591
  42. 42. REFERENCES • Diagnostic Microbiology – Bailey and Scott 13th edition • CLSI guidelines 2014 • Quality control in AST – ijmm journal • Practical microbiology – Mackie and Mccartney – 14th edition • Image courtesy – google search engine

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