The Agni missile (Sanskrit: अग्नि ,ग्नि ,
Agnī, root of English ignite) is a
family of Medium to Intercontinental
range ballistic missiles developed by
India under the Integrated Guided
Missile Development Program.
AGNI MISSILE FAMILY
Agni-I Medium range ballistic missile, 700 – 1200 km
Agni-II intermediate range ballistic missile, 2,000-
2,500 km range.
Agni-III intermediate range ballistic missile, 3,000 -
5,500 km range.
Agni-IV intermediate range ballistic missile, 3,200-
3,700 km range.
Agni-V intercontinental ballistic missile, 5,000 km range
Agni-VI intercontinental ballistic missile, 10,000 km
range (under development)
Agni-I was first tested at the Integrated Test Range in
Chandipur on 25 january 2002.
Weighing 12 tonne with a length of 15 metres, Agni-I
has a range of 700–1200 km and is capable of carrying a
conventional payload of 1000 kg (2,200 lb) or a nuclear
warhead at a speed of 2.5 km/s.
Agni missiles consist of one (short range) or two stages
These are rail and road mobile and powered by solid
propellants. Agni-I is used by the Strategic Force
Command (SFC) of the Indian Army.
"The Agni-I is in service
with the Indian Army."
Agni-II has a range of 2,000–2,500 km has a length
of 20 metres, diameter of one metre and weighs
around 18 tonnes.
Agni - II uses solid propellant in both of its two
The Agni-II can reach most parts of western, central
and southern China.
Agni-III is the third in the Agni series of missiles.
Agni III uses solid propellant in both stages. Agni-III was tested
on July 9, 2006 from Wheeler island off the coast of the eastern
state of Orissa.
After the launch, it was reported that the second stage of the
rocket did not separate and the missile had fallen well short of its
target. Agni-III was again tested on April 12, 2007, this time
successfully, from the Wheeler Island off the coast of Orissa.
On May 7, 2008 India again successfully test fired this missile.
This was the third consecutive test; it validated the missile's
operational readiness while extending the reach of India's nuclear
deterrent to most high-value targets of the nation's most likely
Agni-III has a range of 3,500 km, and can take a warhead of 1.5
tonnes. Its range falls within the reach of most major Chinese
cities, including Beijing and Shanghai.
Agni-IV is the fourth in the Agni series of missiles which was
earlier known as Agni II prime.
Agni-IV was tested on November 15, 2011 from Wheeler
island off the coast of the eastern state of Orissa. With a
range of 2,500-3,500 km
Agni-IV bridges the gap between Agni II and Agni III. Agni
IV can take a warhead of 1 tonne.
It is designed to increase the kill efficiency along with a
higher range performance.
Agni IV is equipped with state-of-the-art technologies, that
includes indigenously developed ring laser gyro and
composite rocket motor.
Its a two-stage missile powered by solid propellant. Its
length is 20 meters and launch weight 17 tonnes.
It can be fired from a road mobile launcher.
The Agni-V is a three stage solid fueled missile with
composite motor casing in the third stage. In many
aspects, the Agni-5 carries forward the Agni-3 pedigree.
With composites used extensively to reduce weight, and
a third stage added on (the Agni-3 was a two-stage
missile), the Agni-5 can fly 1,500 km further than the
3,500 km range Agni III.
On April 19, 2012 at 8.05 am, the Agni V was
successfully test fired by DRDO from Wheeler Island off
the coast of Orissa
Agni-V will feature Multiple Independent Re-entry
Vehicles (MIRVs) with each missile being capable of
carrying 3-10 separate nuclear warheads. Each
warhead can be assigned to a different target,
separated by hundreds of kilometres; alternatively,
two or more warheads can be assigned to one target.
PURPOSES OF MIRV WARHEAD
Provides greater target damage for a given missile
payload as several small warheads cause much more
target damage area than a single large one. This in turn
reduces the number of missiles and launch facilities
required for a given destruction level.
With single warhead missiles, one missile must be
launched for each target. By contrast with a MIRV
warhead, the post-boost (or bus) stage can dispense the
warheads against multiple targets across a broad area.
Reduces the effectiveness of an anti-ballistic missile
defence system that relies on intercepting individual
Abdul Kalam's Pride in Military Rockets of
Tipu Sultan displayed at NASA,USA
At the Wallops center, Kalam
observed a painting that was
hung in the reception lobby
of NASA USA, depicting a
battle scene in which rockets
are being launched against
Curiously, the soldiers
launching the rockets were all
dark-skinned, while the
targets of the rockets were
white-skinned troops in what
appeared to be British
Kalam took a closer look and
realized that the painting was
of a battle between Tipu
Sultan’s army and colonial
British troops on Indian soil.