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Dissolved Gas Analysis
(DGA) of Power Transformer Oil




         Shivaji choudhury
1.Introduction
   Transformer is one of the most
    important but complex component of
    electricity generation and transmission
    system.
    Much attention is needed on
    maintenance of transformers in order
    to have fault free electric supply and to
    maximize the lifetime and efficacy of a
    transformer.
2. Gases in oil filled transformers

   The detection of certain gases
    generated in an oil-filled transformer
    in service is frequently the first
    available indication of a malfunction
    that may eventually lead to failure if
    not corrected.
2.1.Benefits of DGA
   Assesses the internal condition of the
    transformer
   Helps calculate probability of failure and
    end of life
   Identifies degradation before it leads to
    failure
   Essential for effective maintenance and
    replacement strategies
   Low cost test process
3.Internal View of a Large Power Transformer
4.Cause of gas formation

   The two principal causes of gas
    formation within an operating
    transformer are
    4.1.Cellulosic Decomposition
   4.2.Oil Decomposition
4.1.Cellulosic Decomposition

   The thermal decomposition of oil-
    impregnated cellulose insulation
    produces carbon oxides (CO, CO2)
    and some hydrogen or methane.
4.2.Oil Decomposition

   Mineral transformer oils are mixtures
    of many different hydrocarbon
    molecules, and the decomposition
    processes for these hydrocarbons in
    thermal or electrical faults are
    complex.
4.3.Oil Decomposition
                           -some of these gases
                            will be formed in larger
                            or smaller quantities
                            depending on the
                            energy content of the
                            fault.
                           -for example, low
                            energy faults such as
                            corona partial
                            discharges in gas
                            bubbles, or low
                            temperature hot spots,
                            will form mainly H2
                            and CH4.
5.Interpretation of Gas Analysis

   Thermal Faults
   Electrical Faults—Low Intensity
    Discharges
   Electrical Faults—High Intensity Arcing
5.0.Halstead's Thermal Equilibrium Partial
Pressures as a Function of Temperature
5.1.1.Thermal faults

    The decomposition of mineral oil from 150 °C
    to 500 °C produces relatively large quantities
    of the low molecular weight gases, such as
    hydrogen (H2) and methane (CH4), and trace
    quantities of the higher molecular weight gases
    ethylene (C2H4) and ethane (C2H6).
5.1.2.Thermal faults

    At the upper end of the thermal fault range,
    increasing quantities of hydrogen and
    ethylene and traces of acetylene (C2H2) may
    be produced.
    In contrast with the thermal decomposition
    of oil, the thermal decomposition of cellulose
    and other solid insulation produces carbon
    monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2), and
    water vapor at temperatures much lower
    than that for decomposition of oil.
5.1.3.Thermal faults

   The ratio of CO2/CO is sometimes used
    as an indicator of the thermal
    decomposition of cellulose.
   As the magnitude of CO increases, the
    ratio of CO2/CO decreases. This may
    indicate an abnormality that is
    degrading cellulosic insulation.
5.2.Electrical Faults—
Low Intensity Discharges

    Low intensity discharges such as partial
    discharges and very low level intermittent
    arcing produce mainly hydrogen, with
    decreasing quantities of methane and trace
    quantities of acetylene.
   As the intensity of the discharge increases,
    the acetylene and ethylene concentrations
    rise significantly .
5.3.Electrical Faults—
High Intensity Arcing
    As the intensity of the electrical
    discharge reaches arcing or
    continuing discharge proportions that
    produce temperatures from 700 °C to
    1800 °C, the quantity of acetylene
    becomes pronounced.
6.Interpretation of Dissolved Gas
Analysis (DGA)

   Key gas Method- IEEE
   Type of faults –IEC 60599
   IEC Gas ratio method
   Duval Triangle
   Rogers ratio method flow chart
   Deornenburg method flow chart
6.1. Key Gas Method
   Thermal –oil
   Thermal –cellulose
   Electrical –corona
   Electrical -arcing
6.1.1.Thermal -oil
   Decomposition products include ethylene
    and methane ,together with smaller
    quantities of hydrogen and ethane
    .traces of acetylene may be formed if
    the fault is severe or involves electrical
    contacts.
   Principal gas - ethylene
6.1.2.Thermal -cellulose
   Large quantities of carbon dioxide
    and carbon monoxide are evolved
    from overheated cellulose
    .hydrocarbon gases ,such as methane
    and ethylene ,will be formed if fault
    involves an oil impregnated structure
   Principal gas—carbon monoxide
6.1.3.Electrical - relative corona
   Low energy electrical discharges
    produce hydrogen and methane ,with
    small quantities of ethane and
    ethylene .
   Principal gas –hydrogen
6.1.4.Electrical –arcing
   Large amounts of hydrogen and
    acetylene are produced ,with minor
    quantities of methane and ethylene
    .carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide
    may also formed if fault involves
    cellulose. Oil may be carbonized.
   Principal gas- acetylene
6.1.5.Key Gas Method
6.2.Type of faults –IEC 60599

   1. PD- Partial Discharges (corona)
   2. D1- Discharges of low energy    Electrical

   3. D2- Discharges of high energy
   4. T1 - Thermal faults < 300°
   5. T2 - Thermal faults > 300°< 700
                                       Thermal
    6. T3 - Thermal faults > 700°
6.2.1-Partial discharges of the
corona-type (PD).-


   Typical examples are discharges in
    gas bubbles or voids trapped in
    paper, as a result of poor drying or
    poor oil-impregnation.
6.2.2.Discharges of low energy
(D1)

   -Typical examples are partial
    discharges of the sparking-type,
    inducing pinholes or carbonized
    punctures in paper.-or low-energy
    arcing, inducing carbonized
    perforations or surface tracking of
    paper, or carbon particles in oil.
6.2.3.Discharges of high energy (D2)


   -Typical examples are high energy
    arcing, flashovers and short circuits,
    with power follow through, resulting
    in extensive damage to paper, large
    formation of carbon particles in oil,
    metal fusion, tripping of the
    equipment or gas alarms .
6.2.4.Thermal faults of temperatures
< 300 °C (T1)


     Faults T1 are evidenced by paper
      turning:
     -brown (> 200 °C).
     -black or carbonized (> 300 °C).
     Typical examples are overloading,
      blocked oil ducts, stray flux in beams.
6.2.5.Thermal faults of temperatures
between 300 and 700°C (T2)


   Faults T2 are evidenced by :
   -carbonization of paper.
   -formation of carbon particles in oil.
   Typical examples are defective
    contacts or welds, circulating
    currents.
6.2.6.Thermal faults of temperatures
> 700°C (T3)

   Faults T3 are evidenced by :
   -extensive formation of carbon
    particles in oil.
   -metal coloration (800 °C) or metal
    fusion(> 1000 °C).
   Typical examples are large circulating
    currents in tank and core, short
    circuits in laminations.
6.3.IEC Gas ratio method
6.4.Duval’s Triangle
6.5.Rogers ratio method flow chart
6.6.Deornenburg ratio method flow chart
7.Evaluation of Transformer Condition Using
Individual and TDCG (total dissolved combustible
               gas) Concentration


   A four-level criterion has been developed to classify
    risks to transformers.
   Condition 1 TDCG below this level indicates the
    transformer is operating satisfactorily .
   Condition 2 TDCG within this range indicates greater
    than normal combustible gas level.
   Condition 3 TDCG within this range indicates a high
    level of decomposition.
   Condition 4 TDCG within this range indicates
    excessive decomposition. Continued operation could
    result in failure of the transformer.
7.1.Action based TCG   (total   combustible gas   )
7.2.Dissolved Gas Concentration
8.Sampling

   ASTM D3613 requires that transformer oil
    sampling be taken via a syringe and stopcock
    system from a mineral-oil insulated
    transformer's drain point to ensure no oil
    contact with air.
   To minimise air ingress, it is important that the
    syringe not be pulled forcefully, i.e. the
    transformer oil's natural gravity flow should be
    allowed to work the oil into the syringe .
THANKING YOU

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Dissolved gas analysis of power transformer oil

  • 1. Dissolved Gas Analysis (DGA) of Power Transformer Oil Shivaji choudhury
  • 2. 1.Introduction  Transformer is one of the most important but complex component of electricity generation and transmission system.  Much attention is needed on maintenance of transformers in order to have fault free electric supply and to maximize the lifetime and efficacy of a transformer.
  • 3. 2. Gases in oil filled transformers  The detection of certain gases generated in an oil-filled transformer in service is frequently the first available indication of a malfunction that may eventually lead to failure if not corrected.
  • 4. 2.1.Benefits of DGA  Assesses the internal condition of the transformer  Helps calculate probability of failure and end of life  Identifies degradation before it leads to failure  Essential for effective maintenance and replacement strategies  Low cost test process
  • 5. 3.Internal View of a Large Power Transformer
  • 6. 4.Cause of gas formation  The two principal causes of gas formation within an operating transformer are  4.1.Cellulosic Decomposition  4.2.Oil Decomposition
  • 7. 4.1.Cellulosic Decomposition  The thermal decomposition of oil- impregnated cellulose insulation produces carbon oxides (CO, CO2) and some hydrogen or methane.
  • 8. 4.2.Oil Decomposition  Mineral transformer oils are mixtures of many different hydrocarbon molecules, and the decomposition processes for these hydrocarbons in thermal or electrical faults are complex.
  • 9. 4.3.Oil Decomposition  -some of these gases will be formed in larger or smaller quantities depending on the energy content of the fault.  -for example, low energy faults such as corona partial discharges in gas bubbles, or low temperature hot spots, will form mainly H2 and CH4.
  • 10. 5.Interpretation of Gas Analysis  Thermal Faults  Electrical Faults—Low Intensity Discharges  Electrical Faults—High Intensity Arcing
  • 11. 5.0.Halstead's Thermal Equilibrium Partial Pressures as a Function of Temperature
  • 12. 5.1.1.Thermal faults  The decomposition of mineral oil from 150 °C to 500 °C produces relatively large quantities of the low molecular weight gases, such as hydrogen (H2) and methane (CH4), and trace quantities of the higher molecular weight gases ethylene (C2H4) and ethane (C2H6).
  • 13. 5.1.2.Thermal faults  At the upper end of the thermal fault range, increasing quantities of hydrogen and ethylene and traces of acetylene (C2H2) may be produced.  In contrast with the thermal decomposition of oil, the thermal decomposition of cellulose and other solid insulation produces carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2), and water vapor at temperatures much lower than that for decomposition of oil.
  • 14. 5.1.3.Thermal faults  The ratio of CO2/CO is sometimes used as an indicator of the thermal decomposition of cellulose.  As the magnitude of CO increases, the ratio of CO2/CO decreases. This may indicate an abnormality that is degrading cellulosic insulation.
  • 15. 5.2.Electrical Faults— Low Intensity Discharges  Low intensity discharges such as partial discharges and very low level intermittent arcing produce mainly hydrogen, with decreasing quantities of methane and trace quantities of acetylene.  As the intensity of the discharge increases, the acetylene and ethylene concentrations rise significantly .
  • 16. 5.3.Electrical Faults— High Intensity Arcing  As the intensity of the electrical discharge reaches arcing or continuing discharge proportions that produce temperatures from 700 °C to 1800 °C, the quantity of acetylene becomes pronounced.
  • 17. 6.Interpretation of Dissolved Gas Analysis (DGA)  Key gas Method- IEEE  Type of faults –IEC 60599  IEC Gas ratio method  Duval Triangle  Rogers ratio method flow chart  Deornenburg method flow chart
  • 18. 6.1. Key Gas Method  Thermal –oil  Thermal –cellulose  Electrical –corona  Electrical -arcing
  • 19. 6.1.1.Thermal -oil  Decomposition products include ethylene and methane ,together with smaller quantities of hydrogen and ethane .traces of acetylene may be formed if the fault is severe or involves electrical contacts.  Principal gas - ethylene
  • 20. 6.1.2.Thermal -cellulose  Large quantities of carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide are evolved from overheated cellulose .hydrocarbon gases ,such as methane and ethylene ,will be formed if fault involves an oil impregnated structure  Principal gas—carbon monoxide
  • 21. 6.1.3.Electrical - relative corona  Low energy electrical discharges produce hydrogen and methane ,with small quantities of ethane and ethylene .  Principal gas –hydrogen
  • 22. 6.1.4.Electrical –arcing  Large amounts of hydrogen and acetylene are produced ,with minor quantities of methane and ethylene .carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide may also formed if fault involves cellulose. Oil may be carbonized.  Principal gas- acetylene
  • 24. 6.2.Type of faults –IEC 60599  1. PD- Partial Discharges (corona)  2. D1- Discharges of low energy Electrical  3. D2- Discharges of high energy  4. T1 - Thermal faults < 300°  5. T2 - Thermal faults > 300°< 700 Thermal 6. T3 - Thermal faults > 700°
  • 25. 6.2.1-Partial discharges of the corona-type (PD).-  Typical examples are discharges in gas bubbles or voids trapped in paper, as a result of poor drying or poor oil-impregnation.
  • 26. 6.2.2.Discharges of low energy (D1)  -Typical examples are partial discharges of the sparking-type, inducing pinholes or carbonized punctures in paper.-or low-energy arcing, inducing carbonized perforations or surface tracking of paper, or carbon particles in oil.
  • 27. 6.2.3.Discharges of high energy (D2)  -Typical examples are high energy arcing, flashovers and short circuits, with power follow through, resulting in extensive damage to paper, large formation of carbon particles in oil, metal fusion, tripping of the equipment or gas alarms .
  • 28. 6.2.4.Thermal faults of temperatures < 300 °C (T1)  Faults T1 are evidenced by paper turning:  -brown (> 200 °C).  -black or carbonized (> 300 °C).  Typical examples are overloading, blocked oil ducts, stray flux in beams.
  • 29. 6.2.5.Thermal faults of temperatures between 300 and 700°C (T2)  Faults T2 are evidenced by :  -carbonization of paper.  -formation of carbon particles in oil.  Typical examples are defective contacts or welds, circulating currents.
  • 30. 6.2.6.Thermal faults of temperatures > 700°C (T3)  Faults T3 are evidenced by :  -extensive formation of carbon particles in oil.  -metal coloration (800 °C) or metal fusion(> 1000 °C).  Typical examples are large circulating currents in tank and core, short circuits in laminations.
  • 35. 7.Evaluation of Transformer Condition Using Individual and TDCG (total dissolved combustible gas) Concentration  A four-level criterion has been developed to classify risks to transformers.  Condition 1 TDCG below this level indicates the transformer is operating satisfactorily .  Condition 2 TDCG within this range indicates greater than normal combustible gas level.  Condition 3 TDCG within this range indicates a high level of decomposition.  Condition 4 TDCG within this range indicates excessive decomposition. Continued operation could result in failure of the transformer.
  • 36. 7.1.Action based TCG (total combustible gas )
  • 38. 8.Sampling  ASTM D3613 requires that transformer oil sampling be taken via a syringe and stopcock system from a mineral-oil insulated transformer's drain point to ensure no oil contact with air.  To minimise air ingress, it is important that the syringe not be pulled forcefully, i.e. the transformer oil's natural gravity flow should be allowed to work the oil into the syringe .