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Routing fundamentals
with Mikrotik
GLC webinar, 1 December 2016
Achmad Mardiansyah
achmad@glcnetworks.com
GLC Networks, Indonesia
www.glcnetworks.com
Agenda
● Introduction
● Layer 3 concept
● Routing
● Demo
● Q & A
2
www.glcnetworks.com
What is GLC?
● Garda Lintas Cakrawala (www.glcnetworks.com)
● An Indonesian company
● Located in Bandung
● Areas: Training, IT Consulting
● Mikrotik Certified Training Partner
● Mikrotik Certified Consultant
● Mikrotik distributor
3
www.glcnetworks.com
About GLC webinar?
● First webinar: january 1, 2010 (title:
tahun baru bersama solaris - new
year with solaris OS)
● As a sharing event with various
topics: linux, networking, wireless,
database, programming, etc
● Regular schedule: every 2 weeks
● Irregular schedule: as needed
● Checking schedule:
http://www.glcnetworks.com/main/sc
hedule
● You are invited to be a presenter
○ No need to be an expert
○ This is a forum for sharing: knowledge,
experiences, information
4
www.glcnetworks.com
Trainer Introduction
● Name: Achmad Mardiansyah
● Base: bandung, Indonesia
● Linux user since ’99
● Mikrotik user since 2007
● Certified Trainer (MTCNA/RE/WE/UME/INE/TCE)
● Mikrotik Certified Consultant
● Work: Telco engineer, Sysadmin, PHP programmer,
and Lecturer
● Personal website: http://achmad.glcnetworks.com
● More info:
http://au.linkedin.com/in/achmadmardiansyah
5
www.glcnetworks.com
Please introduce yourself
● Your name
● Your company/university?
● Your networking experience?
● Your mikrotik experience?
● Your expectation from this course?
6
www.glcnetworks.com
What is Mikrotik?
● Name of a company
● A brand
● A program (e.g. mikrotik academy)
● Headquarter: Riga, Latvia
7
www.glcnetworks.com
What are mikrotik products?
● Router OS
○ The OS. Specialized for networking
○ Website: www.mikrotik.com/download
● RouterBoard
○ The hardware
○ RouterOS installed
○ Website: www.routerboard.com
8
www.glcnetworks.com
What Router OS can do?
● Go to www.mikrotik.com
○ Download: what_is_routeros.pdf
○ Download: product catalog
○ Download: newsletter
9
www.glcnetworks.com
What are Mikrotik training & certifications?
10
Certificate validity is 3 years
www.glcnetworks.com
Layer 3 concept
11
www.glcnetworks.com
Layer 3
● Logical address
● 2 versions: IPv4 (our focus) and IPv6
● IPv4 32 bit long
● Consist of network part & host part
● Can be class based IP address (without subnet)
● Now it is classless IP address -> VLSM (variable
length subnet mask)
● CIDR (classless inter domain routing)
12
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IP spec (RFC 791)
● Defined long time ago (what 1981?)
● Defines how the IP header looks like
● Still used up to know
● New version -> IPv6
13
www.glcnetworks.com
How the layer 3 address look like?
● IPv4 address is 32 bit
● Written in binary
● Displayed to human in decimal every 8 bit (octet).
● Has 2 parts: network part and host part
● Like a phone number 0812 XXXXXXXX -> hierarchical
● All devices in the network will have same network address
● First and last address cannot be used (for network id and broadcast id)
14
Network part host part
www.glcnetworks.com
Layer 3 connection and addressing
● Devices that uses layer 3 information: router and host
● All devices must have a layer 3 address
● address is hierarchical
○ Network part (e.g. 192.168.0.2/26 -> the first 26 bit of all host in the network will be
the same) -> show the grouping identity
○ Host part
15
192.168.0.0/26
R1
192.168.0.1/26
192.168.0.3/26
192.168.0.2/26
R3
R2
192.168.1.0/24
192.168.2.0/24
192.168.3.0/24
192.168.3.3/24
192.168.3.9/24
192.168.2.9/24
192.168.2.2/24
192.168.1.1/24
192.168.1.9/24
www.glcnetworks.com
What is VLSM?
● Variable-Length Subnet Masking (VLSM)
● Can divide an IP address block into subnets of different sizes using / (slash)
notation
● Solution the in efficient of classful IP address (fixed length). No more class A,
class B, Class C -> pleeease dont say this classes anymore
● making it possible to create subnets with very different host counts without
wasting large numbers of addresses.
● RFC: 1878 (1995)
● Basis for CIDR
● Example: 23.45.0.0/16
○ 23.45.0.0/25
○ 23.45.0.128/25
16
www.glcnetworks.com
VLSM RFC
17
www.glcnetworks.com
What is CIDR?
● CIDR: Classless Inter-Domain Routing (sometimes is called supernetting)
● CIDR solves problem of wasted address space by providing a new and more
flexible way to specify network addresses in routers (using slash as notation)
● allow flexible allocation of Internet Protocol (IP) addresses.
● Replaces classfull network (class A,B,C,D). Please dont ever mention this
anymore...
● CIDR lets a routing table entry represent an aggregation of networks that exist
in the forward path
● Each IP address has a network prefix that identifies either one or several
network gateways.
● RFC: 1519
18
www.glcnetworks.com
CIDR RFC
19
www.glcnetworks.com
Routing
20
www.glcnetworks.com
What is routing table?
● A table at router that is used to
forward packet
● Available on every devices (router
and host)
● Entry is executed sequentially
21
192.168.0.0/26
R1
192.168.0.1/26
192.168.0.3/26
192.168.0.2/26
R3
R2
192.168.1.0/24
192.168.2.0/24
192.168.3.0/24
192.168.3.3/24
192.168.3.9/24
192.168.2.9/24
192.168.2.2/24
192.168.1.1/24
192.168.1.9/24
destination gateway
192.168.0.0/26 direct
192.168.1.0/24 direct
192.168.2.0/24 192.168.0.2
192.168.3.0/24 192.168.0.3
192.168.16.3/32 192.168.0.2
0.0.0.0/0 192.168.0.3
www.glcnetworks.com
When router receive a packet…
(setup priority on routing table)
● Router will analyse the destination IP address
● Router will rearrange the routing entry and put priority
○ Longest prefix wins
○ Lowest distance wins
22
destination gateway
192.168.0.0/26 direct
192.168.1.0/24 direct
192.168.2.0/24 192.168.0.2
192.168.3.0/24 192.168.0.3
192.168.16.3/32 192.168.0.2
0.0.0.0/0 192.168.0.3
destination gateway
192.168.16.3/32 192.168.0.2
192.168.0.0/26 direct
192.168.1.0/24 direct
192.168.2.0/24 192.168.0.2
192.168.3.0/24 192.168.0.3
0.0.0.0/0 192.168.0.3
www.glcnetworks.com
How the routing table works (R1)?
● It works like a firewall: match and action
● You should think in binary to understand how it works
23
destination gateway
192.168.16.3/32
11000000 10101000 00001000 00000011
192.168.0.2
192.168.0.0/26
11000000 10101000 00000000 00
direct
192.168.1.0/24
11000000 10101000 00000001
direct
192.168.2.0/24
11000000 10101000 00000010
192.168.0.2
192.168.3.0/24
11000000 10101000 00000011
192.168.0.3
0.0.0.0/0 192.168.0.3
www.glcnetworks.com
A packet arrived… (part 1)
Destination IP address of the packet is 192.168.16.3, which gateway do we use?
A: 192.168.16.3 = (11000000 10101000 00001000 00000011)
24
destination gateway
192.168.16.3/32
11000000 10101000 00001000 00000011
192.168.0.2
192.168.0.0/26
11000000 10101000 00000000 00
direct
192.168.1.0/24
11000000 10101000 00000001
direct
192.168.2.0/24
11000000 10101000 00000010
192.168.0.2
192.168.3.0/24
11000000 10101000 00000011
192.168.0.3
0.0.0.0/0 192.168.0.3
MATCH
www.glcnetworks.com
A packet arrived… (part 2)
Destination IP address of the packet is 192.168.2.6, which gateway do we use?
A: 192.168.2.6 = (11000000 10101000 00000010 00000110)
25
destination gateway
192.168.16.3/32
11000000 10101000 00001000 00000011
192.168.0.2
192.168.0.0/26
11000000 10101000 00000000 00
direct
192.168.1.0/24
11000000 10101000 00000001
direct
192.168.2.0/24
11000000 10101000 00000010
192.168.0.2
192.168.3.0/24
11000000 10101000 00000011
192.168.0.3
0.0.0.0/0 192.168.0.3
NOT MATCH
NOT MATCH
NOT MATCH
MATCH
www.glcnetworks.com
A packet arrived… (part 3)
Destination IP address of the packet is 192.168.8.6, which gateway do we use?
A: 192.168.8.6 = (11000000 10101000 00001000 00000110)
26
destination gateway
192.168.16.3/32
11000000 10101000 00001000 00000011
192.168.0.2
192.168.0.0/26
11000000 10101000 00000000 00
direct
192.168.1.0/24
11000000 10101000 00000001
direct
192.168.2.0/24
11000000 10101000 00000010
192.168.0.2
192.168.3.0/24
11000000 10101000 00000011
192.168.0.3
0.0.0.0/0 192.168.0.3
NOT MATCH
NOT MATCH
NOT MATCH
MATCH
NOT MATCH
NOT MATCH
www.glcnetworks.com
Static routing
● Entries on routing table is created
manually
● Admin must manage routing table
in all routers
● Admin have full control
27
192.168.0.0/26
R1
192.168.0.1/26
192.168.0.3/26
192.168.0.2/26
R3
R2
192.168.1.0/24
192.168.2.0/24
192.168.3.0/24
192.168.3.3/24
192.168.3.9/24
192.168.2.9/24
192.168.2.2/24
192.168.1.1/24
192.168.1.9/24
destination gateway
192.168.0.0/26 direct
192.168.1.0/24 direct
192.168.2.0/24 192.168.0.2
192.168.3.0/24 192.168.0.3
192.168.16.3/32 192.168.0.2
0.0.0.0/0 192.168.0.3
www.glcnetworks.com
Dynamic routing
● Entries on routing table is created
automatically using routing protocol
(RIP, OSPF, BGP)
● Admin must have a good
knowledge about routing protocol
28
192.168.0.0/26
R1
192.168.0.1/26
192.168.0.3/26
192.168.0.2/26
R3
R2
192.168.1.0/24
192.168.2.0/24
192.168.3.0/24
192.168.3.3/24
192.168.3.9/24
192.168.2.9/24
192.168.2.2/24
192.168.1.1/24
192.168.1.9/24
destination gateway
192.168.0.0/26 direct
192.168.1.0/24 direct
192.168.2.0/24 192.168.0.2
192.168.3.0/24 192.168.0.3
192.168.16.3/32 192.168.0.2
0.0.0.0/0 192.168.0.3
www.glcnetworks.com
DEMO
29
www.glcnetworks.com
Mikrotik routing table
30
www.glcnetworks.com
QA
31
www.glcnetworks.com
Interested?
Just come to our
training...
Special price for webinar attendees...
32
www.glcnetworks.com
End of slides
● Thank you for your attention
● Please submit your feedback: http://bit.ly/glcfeedback
● Like our facebook page: “GLC networks”
● Stay tune with our schedule
33

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Routing fundamentals with mikrotik

  • 1. www.glcnetworks.com Routing fundamentals with Mikrotik GLC webinar, 1 December 2016 Achmad Mardiansyah achmad@glcnetworks.com GLC Networks, Indonesia
  • 2. www.glcnetworks.com Agenda ● Introduction ● Layer 3 concept ● Routing ● Demo ● Q & A 2
  • 3. www.glcnetworks.com What is GLC? ● Garda Lintas Cakrawala (www.glcnetworks.com) ● An Indonesian company ● Located in Bandung ● Areas: Training, IT Consulting ● Mikrotik Certified Training Partner ● Mikrotik Certified Consultant ● Mikrotik distributor 3
  • 4. www.glcnetworks.com About GLC webinar? ● First webinar: january 1, 2010 (title: tahun baru bersama solaris - new year with solaris OS) ● As a sharing event with various topics: linux, networking, wireless, database, programming, etc ● Regular schedule: every 2 weeks ● Irregular schedule: as needed ● Checking schedule: http://www.glcnetworks.com/main/sc hedule ● You are invited to be a presenter ○ No need to be an expert ○ This is a forum for sharing: knowledge, experiences, information 4
  • 5. www.glcnetworks.com Trainer Introduction ● Name: Achmad Mardiansyah ● Base: bandung, Indonesia ● Linux user since ’99 ● Mikrotik user since 2007 ● Certified Trainer (MTCNA/RE/WE/UME/INE/TCE) ● Mikrotik Certified Consultant ● Work: Telco engineer, Sysadmin, PHP programmer, and Lecturer ● Personal website: http://achmad.glcnetworks.com ● More info: http://au.linkedin.com/in/achmadmardiansyah 5
  • 6. www.glcnetworks.com Please introduce yourself ● Your name ● Your company/university? ● Your networking experience? ● Your mikrotik experience? ● Your expectation from this course? 6
  • 7. www.glcnetworks.com What is Mikrotik? ● Name of a company ● A brand ● A program (e.g. mikrotik academy) ● Headquarter: Riga, Latvia 7
  • 8. www.glcnetworks.com What are mikrotik products? ● Router OS ○ The OS. Specialized for networking ○ Website: www.mikrotik.com/download ● RouterBoard ○ The hardware ○ RouterOS installed ○ Website: www.routerboard.com 8
  • 9. www.glcnetworks.com What Router OS can do? ● Go to www.mikrotik.com ○ Download: what_is_routeros.pdf ○ Download: product catalog ○ Download: newsletter 9
  • 10. www.glcnetworks.com What are Mikrotik training & certifications? 10 Certificate validity is 3 years
  • 12. www.glcnetworks.com Layer 3 ● Logical address ● 2 versions: IPv4 (our focus) and IPv6 ● IPv4 32 bit long ● Consist of network part & host part ● Can be class based IP address (without subnet) ● Now it is classless IP address -> VLSM (variable length subnet mask) ● CIDR (classless inter domain routing) 12
  • 13. www.glcnetworks.com IP spec (RFC 791) ● Defined long time ago (what 1981?) ● Defines how the IP header looks like ● Still used up to know ● New version -> IPv6 13
  • 14. www.glcnetworks.com How the layer 3 address look like? ● IPv4 address is 32 bit ● Written in binary ● Displayed to human in decimal every 8 bit (octet). ● Has 2 parts: network part and host part ● Like a phone number 0812 XXXXXXXX -> hierarchical ● All devices in the network will have same network address ● First and last address cannot be used (for network id and broadcast id) 14 Network part host part
  • 15. www.glcnetworks.com Layer 3 connection and addressing ● Devices that uses layer 3 information: router and host ● All devices must have a layer 3 address ● address is hierarchical ○ Network part (e.g. 192.168.0.2/26 -> the first 26 bit of all host in the network will be the same) -> show the grouping identity ○ Host part 15 192.168.0.0/26 R1 192.168.0.1/26 192.168.0.3/26 192.168.0.2/26 R3 R2 192.168.1.0/24 192.168.2.0/24 192.168.3.0/24 192.168.3.3/24 192.168.3.9/24 192.168.2.9/24 192.168.2.2/24 192.168.1.1/24 192.168.1.9/24
  • 16. www.glcnetworks.com What is VLSM? ● Variable-Length Subnet Masking (VLSM) ● Can divide an IP address block into subnets of different sizes using / (slash) notation ● Solution the in efficient of classful IP address (fixed length). No more class A, class B, Class C -> pleeease dont say this classes anymore ● making it possible to create subnets with very different host counts without wasting large numbers of addresses. ● RFC: 1878 (1995) ● Basis for CIDR ● Example: 23.45.0.0/16 ○ 23.45.0.0/25 ○ 23.45.0.128/25 16
  • 18. www.glcnetworks.com What is CIDR? ● CIDR: Classless Inter-Domain Routing (sometimes is called supernetting) ● CIDR solves problem of wasted address space by providing a new and more flexible way to specify network addresses in routers (using slash as notation) ● allow flexible allocation of Internet Protocol (IP) addresses. ● Replaces classfull network (class A,B,C,D). Please dont ever mention this anymore... ● CIDR lets a routing table entry represent an aggregation of networks that exist in the forward path ● Each IP address has a network prefix that identifies either one or several network gateways. ● RFC: 1519 18
  • 21. www.glcnetworks.com What is routing table? ● A table at router that is used to forward packet ● Available on every devices (router and host) ● Entry is executed sequentially 21 192.168.0.0/26 R1 192.168.0.1/26 192.168.0.3/26 192.168.0.2/26 R3 R2 192.168.1.0/24 192.168.2.0/24 192.168.3.0/24 192.168.3.3/24 192.168.3.9/24 192.168.2.9/24 192.168.2.2/24 192.168.1.1/24 192.168.1.9/24 destination gateway 192.168.0.0/26 direct 192.168.1.0/24 direct 192.168.2.0/24 192.168.0.2 192.168.3.0/24 192.168.0.3 192.168.16.3/32 192.168.0.2 0.0.0.0/0 192.168.0.3
  • 22. www.glcnetworks.com When router receive a packet… (setup priority on routing table) ● Router will analyse the destination IP address ● Router will rearrange the routing entry and put priority ○ Longest prefix wins ○ Lowest distance wins 22 destination gateway 192.168.0.0/26 direct 192.168.1.0/24 direct 192.168.2.0/24 192.168.0.2 192.168.3.0/24 192.168.0.3 192.168.16.3/32 192.168.0.2 0.0.0.0/0 192.168.0.3 destination gateway 192.168.16.3/32 192.168.0.2 192.168.0.0/26 direct 192.168.1.0/24 direct 192.168.2.0/24 192.168.0.2 192.168.3.0/24 192.168.0.3 0.0.0.0/0 192.168.0.3
  • 23. www.glcnetworks.com How the routing table works (R1)? ● It works like a firewall: match and action ● You should think in binary to understand how it works 23 destination gateway 192.168.16.3/32 11000000 10101000 00001000 00000011 192.168.0.2 192.168.0.0/26 11000000 10101000 00000000 00 direct 192.168.1.0/24 11000000 10101000 00000001 direct 192.168.2.0/24 11000000 10101000 00000010 192.168.0.2 192.168.3.0/24 11000000 10101000 00000011 192.168.0.3 0.0.0.0/0 192.168.0.3
  • 24. www.glcnetworks.com A packet arrived… (part 1) Destination IP address of the packet is 192.168.16.3, which gateway do we use? A: 192.168.16.3 = (11000000 10101000 00001000 00000011) 24 destination gateway 192.168.16.3/32 11000000 10101000 00001000 00000011 192.168.0.2 192.168.0.0/26 11000000 10101000 00000000 00 direct 192.168.1.0/24 11000000 10101000 00000001 direct 192.168.2.0/24 11000000 10101000 00000010 192.168.0.2 192.168.3.0/24 11000000 10101000 00000011 192.168.0.3 0.0.0.0/0 192.168.0.3 MATCH
  • 25. www.glcnetworks.com A packet arrived… (part 2) Destination IP address of the packet is 192.168.2.6, which gateway do we use? A: 192.168.2.6 = (11000000 10101000 00000010 00000110) 25 destination gateway 192.168.16.3/32 11000000 10101000 00001000 00000011 192.168.0.2 192.168.0.0/26 11000000 10101000 00000000 00 direct 192.168.1.0/24 11000000 10101000 00000001 direct 192.168.2.0/24 11000000 10101000 00000010 192.168.0.2 192.168.3.0/24 11000000 10101000 00000011 192.168.0.3 0.0.0.0/0 192.168.0.3 NOT MATCH NOT MATCH NOT MATCH MATCH
  • 26. www.glcnetworks.com A packet arrived… (part 3) Destination IP address of the packet is 192.168.8.6, which gateway do we use? A: 192.168.8.6 = (11000000 10101000 00001000 00000110) 26 destination gateway 192.168.16.3/32 11000000 10101000 00001000 00000011 192.168.0.2 192.168.0.0/26 11000000 10101000 00000000 00 direct 192.168.1.0/24 11000000 10101000 00000001 direct 192.168.2.0/24 11000000 10101000 00000010 192.168.0.2 192.168.3.0/24 11000000 10101000 00000011 192.168.0.3 0.0.0.0/0 192.168.0.3 NOT MATCH NOT MATCH NOT MATCH MATCH NOT MATCH NOT MATCH
  • 27. www.glcnetworks.com Static routing ● Entries on routing table is created manually ● Admin must manage routing table in all routers ● Admin have full control 27 192.168.0.0/26 R1 192.168.0.1/26 192.168.0.3/26 192.168.0.2/26 R3 R2 192.168.1.0/24 192.168.2.0/24 192.168.3.0/24 192.168.3.3/24 192.168.3.9/24 192.168.2.9/24 192.168.2.2/24 192.168.1.1/24 192.168.1.9/24 destination gateway 192.168.0.0/26 direct 192.168.1.0/24 direct 192.168.2.0/24 192.168.0.2 192.168.3.0/24 192.168.0.3 192.168.16.3/32 192.168.0.2 0.0.0.0/0 192.168.0.3
  • 28. www.glcnetworks.com Dynamic routing ● Entries on routing table is created automatically using routing protocol (RIP, OSPF, BGP) ● Admin must have a good knowledge about routing protocol 28 192.168.0.0/26 R1 192.168.0.1/26 192.168.0.3/26 192.168.0.2/26 R3 R2 192.168.1.0/24 192.168.2.0/24 192.168.3.0/24 192.168.3.3/24 192.168.3.9/24 192.168.2.9/24 192.168.2.2/24 192.168.1.1/24 192.168.1.9/24 destination gateway 192.168.0.0/26 direct 192.168.1.0/24 direct 192.168.2.0/24 192.168.0.2 192.168.3.0/24 192.168.0.3 192.168.16.3/32 192.168.0.2 0.0.0.0/0 192.168.0.3
  • 32. www.glcnetworks.com Interested? Just come to our training... Special price for webinar attendees... 32
  • 33. www.glcnetworks.com End of slides ● Thank you for your attention ● Please submit your feedback: http://bit.ly/glcfeedback ● Like our facebook page: “GLC networks” ● Stay tune with our schedule 33