SlideShare a Scribd company logo
Report on
Post Lintel Structure
CONTENT
Introduction -01
Building as Structure -02
Classification of structural System -03
General Properties -04
Definition -05
History -06
Concept -07
Meterals -08
Post -09
Lintel -10
Foundation-11-12
Span Material Relations-13
Cantilever Beans-14
Failures-15
CONTENT
00
Failures-15
Advantage-16
Disadvantage-17
Force on structure-18
Load-19-21
Load & support in conostuction -22
THERMAL MOVEMENT OF STRUCTURAL STEEL-23
Other Structure & bridge structure-24-27
Modern Uses -28
Examples - 29-31
Conclusion -32
INTRODUCTION
Building systems can be post-and-lintel, vaulted or internal structures.
There are several ways to build according to the type and location. How
to build depends on the technological level of the community that builds
and the needs they manifest.
In any case, the construction system uses by a community reflects part
of his personality as the building is a way to transform the environment
adapted to the human needs. Ever since man left the shelter that
provided the cave, until now, there have been three different building
systems: lintel, domed and internal structures.
The building method of post and lintel has been used for centuries.
All structural openings have evolved from this system, which is seen in
pure form only in framed structures, because the posts of doors,
windows, ceilings, and roofs normally form part of the wall.
Post and lintel construction is recognized by its simple vertical and
horizontal design, in which a pair of vertical supports are set in the
ground or a foundation, and a horizontal structure is balanced on top of
them.
01
Building as a structure
Building as a structure :
A building is a structure, or a system. On a system of organized
elements, which are these elements ?
A building can serve as a structure in many ways, depending on the
purpose of it to the human been, the place were it is built or to
understand reason.
- Skin
- Importance of the Location. Landmark
-Tall buildings: feet, torso, head
- Patrimonial structure
-Shelter
-Shell
02
Classification of the Structural Systems
Classification of the Structural Systems:
MASSIVE STRUCTURES:
They are those in which the resistance and the stability are obtained
by means of the mass, even though the completely solid structure not.
RETICULAR STRUCTURES:
It consists of a network of assembled elements
SUPERFICIAL STRUCTURES:
They can have high performance due to his double function like
structure and surrounding, they can be very stable and strong.
SYSTEMS FORMED BY BARS.
With adjustments of bars very diverse structural schemes can form, of
which I could become one first subdivision between triangular
adjustments, type armor, and adjustments type frame. In the first
external loads they resist essentially by axial forces in the members. In
the adjustments nontriangulados, or type frame, the transmission of the
loads implies the appearance of sharp flexion and.
SYSTEMS WITH PLATES.
By means of vertical adjustments (walls) and horizontals (slabs)
systems of diverse characteristics can be formed, those that in general
can be denominated type drawer. The over position of plates simply
supported in a single direction and walls, Integra a system equivalent to
the post and the threshold and that has similar limitations. The lack of
continuity in the supports makes very vulnerable before accidental
actions that can introduce vertical tensions or sharp efforts in the
connection.
03
The general properties
The general properties:
Form: natural, remolded or reconstituted.
Weight :
like contributor to the gravitational loads of the structure.
Fire resistance:
combustion, conductivity, point of fusion and general behavior of high
temperatures.
Coefficient of thermal expansion: related to the dimensional changes
due to the temperature variations.
Durability:
resistance to the climate, insects and wearing downs.
Appearance:
natural or modified.
04
Definition
Definition
Is a simple construction method using a lintel, header, or architrave as
the horizontal member over a building void supported at its ends by
two vertical columns, pillars, or posts. This architectural system and
building method has been commonly used for centuries to support the
weight of the structure located above the openings created by
windows and doors in a bearing wall.
A structure is formed generally by an adjustment of basic elements.
The adjustment must take advantage of the peculiar characteristics,
each element obtain the most efficient form of the global structural
system, fulfilling the restrictions imposed by the operation of the
construction and many other aspects.
05
History
HistoryI
From prehistoric times to the Roman Empire, the post  and  lintel
system was the root of architectural design. The interiors of Egyptian
temples and the exteriors of Greek temples are delineated by columns
covered by stone lintels. The Greeks opened their interior spaces by
substituting wooden beams for stone, since the wood required fewer
supports. The development of the arch and vault challenged the system but
could not diminish its importance either in masonry construction or in wood
framing, by its nature dependent on posts and beams .
Ancient Egyptian, Greek, and Roman architects made extensive use of Post-
and-lintel construction to support the roofs of temples and public places.
Such ancient structures as Stonehenge, in Britain, were constructed on the
post-and-lintel system, which was the basis of architecture from prehistoric
to Roman times. The interiors of Egyptian temples and the exteriors of
Greek temples are delineated by columns covered by stone lintels. The
Greeks substituted wooden beams for stone because the wood required
fewer supports and opened up the interior spaces.
One of the earliest and most renowned post and lintel example is the
prehistoric Stonehenge monument in England, where massive stone blocks
were placed in a circle in the support-and-overhead design. Pure post and
lintel construction also can be found in a variety of early shelters, including
huts, cottages and stables. The Romans developed a variation of post and
lintel construction with the arch, which added stability and support, and by
the Catholic Church in Europe with the introduction of buttresses to support
massive cathedral walls
.
06
Concept
Concept
Post and lintel, or in contemporary usage Post and beam, is a simple
construction method using a lintel, or header as the horizontal member
over a building void supported at its ends by two vertical columns,
pillars, or posts.
This architectural system and building method has been commonly used
for centuries to support weight, such as a roof or deck, depending on
the vertical posts it rests on. It can support a huge amount of weight,
and is effective for reinforcing tall buildings or heavy structures. The
post refers to the vertical support, which is paired with an identical
support to form the full design. Posts can be columns, poles or beams,
modified to meet as architectural designs.
There are two main force vectors acting upon the post and lintel system:
weight carrying compression at the joint between lintel and post, and
tension induced by deformation of self-weight and the load above
between the posts. The two posts are under compression from the
weight of the lintel (or beam) above.
.
07
Material
Material.
The posts must support the lintel and its loads without crushing or
buckling. Post material must be especially strong in compression . Post
and lintel construction can incorporate wood, metal and stone. Stone has
this property and is more versatile in its use as a post than as a lintel.
Under heavy loads, stone is superior to wood but not to iron, steel, or
reinforced concrete. When used in doorways, wood and steel are the
most common materials. Depending on building requirements and
ordinances, the supports in windows may be made of plastic or
fiberglass, while wood or metal form the surrounding frame. Masonry
posts, including those of brick, may be highly efficient, because loads
compress the joints and add to their cohesiveness .The most important
detail about post and lintel construction is the pieces must fit together
exactly, so they are often prefabricated in mills and shops, and then
assembled on-site.
.
08
Post and lintel system
Post and lintel system :
Two upright members (post, columns, piers)
Third member (lintel, beam, girder, rafter)
The basis for the evolution of all openings
To support the weight of the structure located above the openings
Post :
The job of the post is to support the lintel and its loads without crushing or
buckling. Failure occurs, as in lintels, from excessive weakness or length,
but the difference is that the material must be especially strong in
compression. Stone, which has this property, is more versatile as a post
than as a lintel; under heavy loads it is superior to wood but not to iron,
steel, or reinforced concrete. Masonry post, including those of brick, may
be highly efficient, since the loads compress the joints and add to their
cohesiveness. Although monolithic stone columns are used, they are
extravagant to produce for large structures, and columns are usually built
up of a series of cylindrical blocks called drums.
The job of the post is to support the lintel and its loads without crushing or
buckling.
Masonry post, including those of brick, may be highly efficient, since the
loads compress the joints and add to their cohesiveness.
09
Post and lintel system
Beam:
The job of the beam or lintel is to bear loads that rest on it, also
includes its own wheigth
-The beam has to be able to do this without deformor break
Made of wood, stone, steel or reinforced or pre-tensioned concrete
Stone lintels must be short, weak in bending
Materials strong in bending, bigger span, greater openings
Mansory lintels are inefficient  cohesiveness of mortar
10
load
BEAM or
LINTEL
Foundation
Foundation:
A foundation is a structure that transfers loads to the ground.
Foundations are generally broken into two categories:
shallow foundations
deep foundations.
Shallow foundations
A shallow foundation is a type of foundation which tranfers building
loads to the earth very near the surface, rather than to a subsurface layer
or a range of depths as does a deep foundation. Shallow foundations include
spread footing foundations and slab-on grade foundations
Deep foundations.:
A deep foundation is a type of foundation. Deep foundations are distinguished
from shallow foundations by the depth they are embedded into the ground.
There are many reasons why someone would recommend a deep foundation
over a shallow foundation, but some of the common reasons are very large
design loads, a poor soil at shallow depth, or site constraints (like property
lines). There are different terms used to describe different types of deep
foundations including piles.
11
Foundation
Retaining wall :
A retaining wall is a structure that holds back earth from a
building or other structure. Retaining walls stabilize soil and/or
rock from downslope movement or erosion and provide support
for vertical or near-vertical grade changes. Cofferdams and
bulkheads, structures that hold back water, are sometimes
also considered retaining walls. Retaining walls are generally
made of masonry, stone, brick, concrete, vinyl, steel or timber.
They also decompose over time.
12
13
14
Cantiliver beam
Cantiliver Beam
.
Failure occurs when the material is
to weak or the span is to long to support the load.
This makes the beam bend or break.
This aspect combined with others can cause many structural
accidents, destroying the structure like a house of cards
15
Advantage:
Building Time
Homes constructed with a post and beam construction method can
usually be assembled quicker that other types of construction. The
frame and insulated wall sections of a home are usually preassembled in
a shop and then transported to the site where the home is built. This
allows the mortise and tenon joints to be premilled at a remote location,
saving time at the building site.
Aesthetics
Post and beam construction is generally considered to be more
aesthetically pleasing than other types of construction because the
wood is exposed on both the interior and exterior of the home. This is a
subjective judgment that is obviously up to the individual viewing the
home.
Fire Resistance
Some building codes classify building materials into five different types
based on the combustibility or fire resistance capability. Post and beam
construction materials are classified as Type IV material, and the
construction method is known for delaying the spread of exterior fires
into the interior
16
Advantage
Energy Efficiency
The post and beam construction method is considered more energy
efficient than houses constructed using alternative methods because it
is easier to insulate the home. In a post and beam construction, cold air
can penetrate only through the joints in between the individual timber
beams. The insulation used has less of a cold air flow to protect
against.
A home constructed with wood studs nailed together and then covered
with exterior and interior panels allows cold air to infiltrate anywhere
along the frame, making it more difficult to insulate.
Online References
Many online sites exist to provide information on post and beam homes.
Some of the sites include the Timber Frame Forum, and the Timber
Engineering Reference Center. The URLs for these two sites are in the
Resources section of this article.
Open Living Spaces
Homes that are constructed using post and beam methods have larger
interior living spaces than houses constructed using alternative methods.
This is because the timber frames are strong enough to avoid the use of
interior load-bearing walls.
Disadvantage:
The biggest disadvantage to a post and lintel construction is the limited
weight that can be held up, and the small distances required between
the posts.
The tension induced by deformation of self-weight and the load above
between the posts.
17
Disadvantage
18
Force on structure
19
Load
Gravity Loads
Gravity loads include all forces that are acting in the vertical
plane (see Figure 2). These types of forces are commonly
broken down into dead loads and live loads in a
uniform pounds per square foot loading nomenclature.
Dead loads account for the anticipated weight of objects
that are expected to remain in place permanently. Dead
loads include roofing materials, mechanical equipment,
ceilings, floor finishes, metal decking, floor slabs, structural
materials, cladding, facades and parapets. Live
loads are those loads that are anticipated to be mobile or
transient in nature. Live loads include occupancy loading,
office equipment and furnishings.
Horizontal Loads
Forces created by wind or seismic activity are considered to act in the
horizontal plane. While seismic activity is
capable of including vertical forces, this discussion will be based only on
horizontal forces. The majority of this
section will address wind forces and how they are transferred to the
primary structural systems of the building (see
Figure 3).
20
Load
Seismic
Seismic activity induces horizontal forces, and at
times, vertical loads. The discussions in this publication
will focus on horizontal forces imposed during
seismic activity. Forces created during a seismic event
are directly related to weight or mass of the various
levels on a specific building. During seismic activity
horizontal diaphragms behave like wind load transfers
with respect to the primary lateral load resisting
systems. However, the induced forces are much more
sensitive to the shape of the building and the positioning
of the lateral load resisting systems. It is
advantageous to consider a very regular building
plan in areas of the country with significant seismic
activity.
21
Load
Braced Frames  Cross Bracing
Perhaps the most common type of braced frame is the cross-braced frame.
A typical representation of a crossbraced frame is shown in Figures 5 and
6. Figure 5 shows a typical floor framing plan with cross bracing denoted
by the dashed-line drawn between the two center columns. The solid lines
indicate the floor beams and girders. A typical multi-floor building elevation
with cross-braced bays beginning at the foundation level is shown in
A Figure 6. While only one bay is indicated in Figure 6 as having cross
bracing, it must be understood that many
bays along a given column line may be necessary to resist the lateral loads
imposed on a specific structure. One
or more column lines having one or more bays of cross bracing may be
necessary as well. It is important to establish
early on in the development of any project the location of braced bays. These
considerations are typical to
all of the braced frames discussed in this publication.
22
Load & support in conostuction
Lintel Beam Girder Rafter
Post Columns Piers
Simple construction method
Upright members: posts, columns or piers
Hold a third member horizontally: lintel, beam, girder or rafter.
In this system acts two forces, compression and tension.
Post and lintel construction-pieces must fit together exactly.
23
THERMAL MOVEMENT OF STRUCTURAL STEEL
THERMAL MOVEMENT OF STRUCTURAL STEEL
Change in steel length = (0.0000065) × (Length of steel) ×
(Temperature differential)
If a building with a large rectangular floor plan is exposed
to a temperature differential of 60° Fahrenheit,
andhas expansion joints at every 200 ft in the long
direction (see Figure 15), the horizontal movement in
that direction
will be as follows:
Change in steel length = (0.0000065) × (200 ft) ×
(60° Fahrenheit)
= 0.08 ft
= 0.94 in.
Basic Vibration Terminology
Dynamic Loadings. Dynamic loadings can be classified as harmonic,
periodic, transient and impulsive as shown
in Figure 18. Harmonic or sinusoidal loads are usually associated with rotating
machinery. Periodic loads are
caused by rhythmic human activities such as dancing and aerobics,
and by impactive equipment. Transient loads
occur from movement of people and include walking and running.
Single jumps and heel-drop impacts areexamples of impulsive loads.
Period and Frequency. Period is the time, usually in seconds, between
successive
peak excursions in repeating
24
Oters structures
25
Oters structures
beam bridge:
A beam bridge is a rigid,, horizontal structure that rests on two end
supports, and carries traffic loads by acting structurally as a beam. It is a
direct descendant of the log bridge, now more normally made from shallow
steel "I". It is frequently used in pedestrian bridges and for highway
overpasses and flyovers. As is its ancestor, this bridge is in structural terms
the simplest of the many bridge types.
cantilever bridge
A cantilever bridge is a bridge built using cantilevers: structures that project
horizontally into space, supported on only one end. For small footbridges,
the cantilevers may be simple beams; however, large cantilever bridges
designed to handle road or rail traffic use trusses built from structural
Steel or box girders built from prestressed concrete. The steel
truss cantilever bridge was a major engineering breakthrough when
first put into practice, as it can span distances of over 1500 feet,
and can be more easily constructed at difficult crossings by virtue of
using little or no falsework.
arch bridge
An arch bridge is a bridge with abutments at each end shaped as
a curved arch. Arch bridges work by transferring the weight of
the bridge and its loads partially into a horizontal thrust restrained
by the abutments at either side. A viaduct may be made from a
series of arches.
26
Oters structures
Arch bridge
An arch bridge is a bridge with abutments at each end shaped as
a curved arch. Arch bridges work by transferring the weight of
the bridge and its loads partially into a horizontal thrust restrained
by the abutments at either side. A viaduct may be made from a
series of arches.
Truss bridge
A truss bridge is a bridge composed of connected elements (typically
straight) which may be stressed from tension, compression, or sometimes
both in response to dynamic loads. Truss bridges are one of the oldest types
of modern bridges. This type of bridge structure has a fairly simple design
and is particularly cheap to construct owing to its efficient use of materials
27
Oters structures
Suspension bridge
A suspension bridge is a type of bridge that has been made
since ancient
times as early as 100 AD. Simple suspension bridges, for
use by pedestrians and livestock, are still constructed,
based upon the ancient Inca rope bridge. Suspended from two
high locations over a river or valley, simple suspension bridges
follow a shallow downward arc and are not suited for modern
roads and railroads. Advances in materials and design led to
the development of the suspended-deck suspension bridge, a
modern bridge capable of carrying vehicles and light rail.
Instead of the deck following the downward arc of the main
load-bearing cables (or chains), these cables are
suspended between towers, and vertical suspender cables
carry the weight of the deck below, upon which traffic
crosses. This arrangement allows the deck to be level or to
arc slightly upward for additional clearance.
28
Modern Uses
Modern Uses
Today, most post and lintel construction has a third
component, the wall, which adds additional support and hides
the post and lintel design within the framework. It can still be
seen in doorways and columns, in which the space between
the vertical supports is open.
Variations on post and lintel design can be found in bridges,
complex archways and crossbeams, sometimes with cable
support adding extra stability.
Because post and lintel construction is so simple, it forms the
base for the entrances to modern buildings that do not
feature curves, which add stability.
29
EXAMPLES
The Parthenon, Greece
St. Paul’s Cathedral, London
Temple of Horus at Edfu, Egypt
30
EXAMPLES
The Parthenon, Greece
St. Paul’s Cathedral, London
Temple of Horus at Edfu, Egypt
31
EXAMPLES
Stonehenge, England.
Temple of Karnak, Egypt.
Glass House, Philip Johnson,
Connecticut.
32
Conclusion
Form prehistoric times, the post and lintel
System has been used for all kinds of structures.
Since the Roman and Egiptian temples to the
evolution of frames and archs, the post and lintel
system has remained as the basic idea.
Even now modern buildings use a basic post
And lintel system idea. The engineers had
combined these two elements to create a
mushroom columns. This is column that has a slab
at the end making it a column with support fuction
it can become the ceiling of a structure.

More Related Content

What's hot

curtain wall -skin of building
 curtain wall -skin of building curtain wall -skin of building
curtain wall -skin of building
abidha karthu
 
Form active structure system (1)
 Form active structure system (1) Form active structure system (1)
Form active structure system (1)
Prince Pathania
 
dome and vault
dome and vaultdome and vault
dome and vault
kaiwan1996
 
Philosophies of f l wright
Philosophies of f l wright Philosophies of f l wright
Philosophies of f l wright
Manish Jain Luhadia
 
Buildings Structure system
Buildings Structure systemBuildings Structure system
Buildings Structure system
Alshimaa Aboelmakarem Farag
 
Geodesic Dome - History and Construction
Geodesic Dome - History and ConstructionGeodesic Dome - History and Construction
Geodesic Dome - History and Construction
Azra Maliha
 
VAULT CONSTRUCTION
VAULT CONSTRUCTIONVAULT CONSTRUCTION
VAULT CONSTRUCTION
Aida Nesa
 
High-rise Presentation
High-rise PresentationHigh-rise Presentation
High-rise Presentation
Kaiserin Tania
 
Case Study: Membrane Structures
Case Study: Membrane StructuresCase Study: Membrane Structures
Case Study: Membrane Structures
Prasad Thanthratey
 
Space frames
Space framesSpace frames
Space frames
Bnv Aditya
 
Shell structures- advanced building construction
Shell structures- advanced building constructionShell structures- advanced building construction
Shell structures- advanced building construction
Shweta Modi
 
Renault distribution centre
Renault distribution centreRenault distribution centre
Renault distribution centre
HetviPatel58
 
Case Study: High Rise Buildings
Case Study: High Rise BuildingsCase Study: High Rise Buildings
Case Study: High Rise Buildings
Prasad Thanthratey
 
LESS IS MORE(MIES VAN DER ROHE)
LESS IS MORE(MIES VAN DER ROHE)LESS IS MORE(MIES VAN DER ROHE)
LESS IS MORE(MIES VAN DER ROHE)
Aashna Arora
 
High Rise Building Research Document
High Rise Building Research DocumentHigh Rise Building Research Document
High Rise Building Research Document
Nicholas Socrates
 
DOME
DOMEDOME
DOME
gandhisha
 
Modern Architecture History
Modern Architecture HistoryModern Architecture History
Modern Architecture History
Integral University
 
Shell structure
Shell structureShell structure
Shell structure
Taha Padrawala
 
Tensile structures and Pneumatic Structures
Tensile structures and Pneumatic StructuresTensile structures and Pneumatic Structures
Tensile structures and Pneumatic Structures
Geeva Chandana
 
Post lintel structre
Post lintel structrePost lintel structre

What's hot (20)

curtain wall -skin of building
 curtain wall -skin of building curtain wall -skin of building
curtain wall -skin of building
 
Form active structure system (1)
 Form active structure system (1) Form active structure system (1)
Form active structure system (1)
 
dome and vault
dome and vaultdome and vault
dome and vault
 
Philosophies of f l wright
Philosophies of f l wright Philosophies of f l wright
Philosophies of f l wright
 
Buildings Structure system
Buildings Structure systemBuildings Structure system
Buildings Structure system
 
Geodesic Dome - History and Construction
Geodesic Dome - History and ConstructionGeodesic Dome - History and Construction
Geodesic Dome - History and Construction
 
VAULT CONSTRUCTION
VAULT CONSTRUCTIONVAULT CONSTRUCTION
VAULT CONSTRUCTION
 
High-rise Presentation
High-rise PresentationHigh-rise Presentation
High-rise Presentation
 
Case Study: Membrane Structures
Case Study: Membrane StructuresCase Study: Membrane Structures
Case Study: Membrane Structures
 
Space frames
Space framesSpace frames
Space frames
 
Shell structures- advanced building construction
Shell structures- advanced building constructionShell structures- advanced building construction
Shell structures- advanced building construction
 
Renault distribution centre
Renault distribution centreRenault distribution centre
Renault distribution centre
 
Case Study: High Rise Buildings
Case Study: High Rise BuildingsCase Study: High Rise Buildings
Case Study: High Rise Buildings
 
LESS IS MORE(MIES VAN DER ROHE)
LESS IS MORE(MIES VAN DER ROHE)LESS IS MORE(MIES VAN DER ROHE)
LESS IS MORE(MIES VAN DER ROHE)
 
High Rise Building Research Document
High Rise Building Research DocumentHigh Rise Building Research Document
High Rise Building Research Document
 
DOME
DOMEDOME
DOME
 
Modern Architecture History
Modern Architecture HistoryModern Architecture History
Modern Architecture History
 
Shell structure
Shell structureShell structure
Shell structure
 
Tensile structures and Pneumatic Structures
Tensile structures and Pneumatic StructuresTensile structures and Pneumatic Structures
Tensile structures and Pneumatic Structures
 
Post lintel structre
Post lintel structrePost lintel structre
Post lintel structre
 

Viewers also liked

Structural System
Structural SystemStructural System
Structural System
Hamza Ghnemmat
 
Architectural structures
Architectural structuresArchitectural structures
Architectural structures
Krishnan Mudaliar Bopalan
 
Lintels and arches
Lintels and archesLintels and arches
Lintels and arches
Shakil Ahmmad
 
lintel and arches for building construction
lintel and arches for building constructionlintel and arches for building construction
lintel and arches for building construction
Nagma Modi
 
Types of structures
Types of structuresTypes of structures
Types of structures
carnipe
 
High rise structure & core
High rise  structure & coreHigh rise  structure & core
High rise structure & core
Meer Musabber ali (joyous)
 
Lintels and arches in construction
Lintels and arches in constructionLintels and arches in construction
Lintels and arches in construction
SARASWATI PATHARIYA
 
2.0 Framework Structural System
2.0 Framework Structural System2.0 Framework Structural System
2.0 Framework Structural System
Yaya Hamid
 
Structures
StructuresStructures
Structures
anavcosio
 
Types of structures
Types of structuresTypes of structures
Types of structures
Javier Gómez
 
Architecture (Post and Lintel/Pyramids)
Architecture (Post and Lintel/Pyramids)Architecture (Post and Lintel/Pyramids)
Architecture (Post and Lintel/Pyramids)
Amanda Waterhouse
 
Analysis of diagrid structure in comparison with exterior braced frame structure
Analysis of diagrid structure in comparison with exterior braced frame structureAnalysis of diagrid structure in comparison with exterior braced frame structure
Analysis of diagrid structure in comparison with exterior braced frame structure
eSAT Journals
 
building construction and material
building construction and materialbuilding construction and material
building construction and material
suzain ali
 
Lintels and Beams
Lintels and BeamsLintels and Beams
Lintels and Beams
Steve Jarvis
 
Total precase concrete structure for multi storey
Total precase concrete structure for multi storeyTotal precase concrete structure for multi storey
Total precase concrete structure for multi storey
Broad Homes Intl.
 
Structures
StructuresStructures
Structures
TheraHibari
 
Structure as Architecture
Structure as ArchitectureStructure as Architecture
Structure as Architecture
Hashim k abdul azeez
 
Structural System Overview
Structural System OverviewStructural System Overview
Structural System Overview
Amjed Bin-Ali
 
Type of building structures
Type of building structuresType of building structures
Type of building structures
Zabihullah Nasiri
 
Masters Thesis Report _ Skyscraper _ High rise Mixed use Development
Masters Thesis Report _ Skyscraper _ High rise Mixed use DevelopmentMasters Thesis Report _ Skyscraper _ High rise Mixed use Development
Masters Thesis Report _ Skyscraper _ High rise Mixed use Development
Ar. M. Senthil [ senthilmani ]
 

Viewers also liked (20)

Structural System
Structural SystemStructural System
Structural System
 
Architectural structures
Architectural structuresArchitectural structures
Architectural structures
 
Lintels and arches
Lintels and archesLintels and arches
Lintels and arches
 
lintel and arches for building construction
lintel and arches for building constructionlintel and arches for building construction
lintel and arches for building construction
 
Types of structures
Types of structuresTypes of structures
Types of structures
 
High rise structure & core
High rise  structure & coreHigh rise  structure & core
High rise structure & core
 
Lintels and arches in construction
Lintels and arches in constructionLintels and arches in construction
Lintels and arches in construction
 
2.0 Framework Structural System
2.0 Framework Structural System2.0 Framework Structural System
2.0 Framework Structural System
 
Structures
StructuresStructures
Structures
 
Types of structures
Types of structuresTypes of structures
Types of structures
 
Architecture (Post and Lintel/Pyramids)
Architecture (Post and Lintel/Pyramids)Architecture (Post and Lintel/Pyramids)
Architecture (Post and Lintel/Pyramids)
 
Analysis of diagrid structure in comparison with exterior braced frame structure
Analysis of diagrid structure in comparison with exterior braced frame structureAnalysis of diagrid structure in comparison with exterior braced frame structure
Analysis of diagrid structure in comparison with exterior braced frame structure
 
building construction and material
building construction and materialbuilding construction and material
building construction and material
 
Lintels and Beams
Lintels and BeamsLintels and Beams
Lintels and Beams
 
Total precase concrete structure for multi storey
Total precase concrete structure for multi storeyTotal precase concrete structure for multi storey
Total precase concrete structure for multi storey
 
Structures
StructuresStructures
Structures
 
Structure as Architecture
Structure as ArchitectureStructure as Architecture
Structure as Architecture
 
Structural System Overview
Structural System OverviewStructural System Overview
Structural System Overview
 
Type of building structures
Type of building structuresType of building structures
Type of building structures
 
Masters Thesis Report _ Skyscraper _ High rise Mixed use Development
Masters Thesis Report _ Skyscraper _ High rise Mixed use DevelopmentMasters Thesis Report _ Skyscraper _ High rise Mixed use Development
Masters Thesis Report _ Skyscraper _ High rise Mixed use Development
 

Similar to post lintel structure for architects

structural system.pdf
structural system.pdfstructural system.pdf
structural system.pdf
JaySu14
 
Building technology 3
Building technology 3 Building technology 3
Building technology 3
GrkemDiken
 
Structural systems notes
Structural systems notesStructural systems notes
Structural systems notes
Aaqib Iqbal
 
Structure Systems.pptx
Structure Systems.pptxStructure Systems.pptx
Structure Systems.pptx
MGAzam5
 
structure analysis by PUC
structure analysis by PUC structure analysis by PUC
structure analysis by PUC
promitchowdhury1
 
Structural systems in high rise buildings
Structural systems in high rise buildingsStructural systems in high rise buildings
Structural systems in high rise buildings
Karthik Suresh
 
Structural System in High Rise building
Structural System in High Rise buildingStructural System in High Rise building
Structural System in High Rise building
Civil Millennium Design Complex (CMDC)
 
Lecture 8 THigh Rise structures.pdf
Lecture 8 THigh Rise structures.pdfLecture 8 THigh Rise structures.pdf
Lecture 8 THigh Rise structures.pdf
SALONIKAAHUJA1
 
Group 2 structure 3.1 PUC
Group 2 structure  3.1 PUC Group 2 structure  3.1 PUC
Group 2 structure 3.1 PUC
promitchowdhury1
 
cruz's
cruz'scruz's
cruz's
cruzcriollo
 
structure, technology and materials of highrise buildings
structure, technology and materials of highrise buildingsstructure, technology and materials of highrise buildings
structure, technology and materials of highrise buildings
shahul130103
 
structure analysis by PUC GRP 3
structure analysis by PUC GRP 3structure analysis by PUC GRP 3
structure analysis by PUC GRP 3
promitchowdhury1
 
high rise building construction
high rise building constructionhigh rise building construction
high rise building construction
Aditya Sanyal
 
2.1 RC superstructures.pdf
2.1 RC superstructures.pdf2.1 RC superstructures.pdf
2.1 RC superstructures.pdf
MUHAMMADHAIKALIQBALK
 
Technology materials of tall buildings highrise
Technology materials of tall buildings highriseTechnology materials of tall buildings highrise
Technology materials of tall buildings highrise
Bee Key Verma
 
MDC.pptx
MDC.pptxMDC.pptx
MDC.pptx
ssuserc0bf9b
 
Assunit1
Assunit1Assunit1
Assunit1
Rúpã Sahukar
 
Str_Tall building_1 gyfdccvggbhhnniihgffvv
Str_Tall building_1 gyfdccvggbhhnniihgffvvStr_Tall building_1 gyfdccvggbhhnniihgffvv
Str_Tall building_1 gyfdccvggbhhnniihgffvv
KaziNishaan2
 
Matkon_S.06.a_-_Portal_MKLW.pdf
Matkon_S.06.a_-_Portal_MKLW.pdfMatkon_S.06.a_-_Portal_MKLW.pdf
Matkon_S.06.a_-_Portal_MKLW.pdf
MuhammadKholifLirWid
 
JANNATUL NAIEM (ID-201932030022)building technology exam.pdf
JANNATUL NAIEM (ID-201932030022)building technology exam.pdfJANNATUL NAIEM (ID-201932030022)building technology exam.pdf
JANNATUL NAIEM (ID-201932030022)building technology exam.pdf
JannatulNayeemswarna1
 

Similar to post lintel structure for architects (20)

structural system.pdf
structural system.pdfstructural system.pdf
structural system.pdf
 
Building technology 3
Building technology 3 Building technology 3
Building technology 3
 
Structural systems notes
Structural systems notesStructural systems notes
Structural systems notes
 
Structure Systems.pptx
Structure Systems.pptxStructure Systems.pptx
Structure Systems.pptx
 
structure analysis by PUC
structure analysis by PUC structure analysis by PUC
structure analysis by PUC
 
Structural systems in high rise buildings
Structural systems in high rise buildingsStructural systems in high rise buildings
Structural systems in high rise buildings
 
Structural System in High Rise building
Structural System in High Rise buildingStructural System in High Rise building
Structural System in High Rise building
 
Lecture 8 THigh Rise structures.pdf
Lecture 8 THigh Rise structures.pdfLecture 8 THigh Rise structures.pdf
Lecture 8 THigh Rise structures.pdf
 
Group 2 structure 3.1 PUC
Group 2 structure  3.1 PUC Group 2 structure  3.1 PUC
Group 2 structure 3.1 PUC
 
cruz's
cruz'scruz's
cruz's
 
structure, technology and materials of highrise buildings
structure, technology and materials of highrise buildingsstructure, technology and materials of highrise buildings
structure, technology and materials of highrise buildings
 
structure analysis by PUC GRP 3
structure analysis by PUC GRP 3structure analysis by PUC GRP 3
structure analysis by PUC GRP 3
 
high rise building construction
high rise building constructionhigh rise building construction
high rise building construction
 
2.1 RC superstructures.pdf
2.1 RC superstructures.pdf2.1 RC superstructures.pdf
2.1 RC superstructures.pdf
 
Technology materials of tall buildings highrise
Technology materials of tall buildings highriseTechnology materials of tall buildings highrise
Technology materials of tall buildings highrise
 
MDC.pptx
MDC.pptxMDC.pptx
MDC.pptx
 
Assunit1
Assunit1Assunit1
Assunit1
 
Str_Tall building_1 gyfdccvggbhhnniihgffvv
Str_Tall building_1 gyfdccvggbhhnniihgffvvStr_Tall building_1 gyfdccvggbhhnniihgffvv
Str_Tall building_1 gyfdccvggbhhnniihgffvv
 
Matkon_S.06.a_-_Portal_MKLW.pdf
Matkon_S.06.a_-_Portal_MKLW.pdfMatkon_S.06.a_-_Portal_MKLW.pdf
Matkon_S.06.a_-_Portal_MKLW.pdf
 
JANNATUL NAIEM (ID-201932030022)building technology exam.pdf
JANNATUL NAIEM (ID-201932030022)building technology exam.pdfJANNATUL NAIEM (ID-201932030022)building technology exam.pdf
JANNATUL NAIEM (ID-201932030022)building technology exam.pdf
 

Recently uploaded

How to Create & Publish a Blog in Odoo 17 Website
How to Create & Publish a Blog in Odoo 17 WebsiteHow to Create & Publish a Blog in Odoo 17 Website
How to Create & Publish a Blog in Odoo 17 Website
Celine George
 
formative Evaluation By Dr.Kshirsagar R.V
formative Evaluation By Dr.Kshirsagar R.Vformative Evaluation By Dr.Kshirsagar R.V
formative Evaluation By Dr.Kshirsagar R.V
DrRavindrakshirsagar1
 
How to Manage Access Rights & User Types in Odoo 17
How to Manage Access Rights & User Types in Odoo 17How to Manage Access Rights & User Types in Odoo 17
How to Manage Access Rights & User Types in Odoo 17
Celine George
 
A beginner’s guide to project reviews - everything you wanted to know but wer...
A beginner’s guide to project reviews - everything you wanted to know but wer...A beginner’s guide to project reviews - everything you wanted to know but wer...
A beginner’s guide to project reviews - everything you wanted to know but wer...
Association for Project Management
 
What is Rescue Session in Odoo 17 POS - Odoo 17 Slides
What is Rescue Session in Odoo 17 POS - Odoo 17 SlidesWhat is Rescue Session in Odoo 17 POS - Odoo 17 Slides
What is Rescue Session in Odoo 17 POS - Odoo 17 Slides
Celine George
 
How to Empty a One2Many Field in Odoo 17
How to Empty a One2Many Field in Odoo 17How to Empty a One2Many Field in Odoo 17
How to Empty a One2Many Field in Odoo 17
Celine George
 
How to Add a Filter in the Odoo 17 - Odoo 17 Slides
How to Add a Filter in the Odoo 17 - Odoo 17 SlidesHow to Add a Filter in the Odoo 17 - Odoo 17 Slides
How to Add a Filter in the Odoo 17 - Odoo 17 Slides
Celine George
 
JavaScript Interview Questions PDF By ScholarHat
JavaScript Interview  Questions PDF By ScholarHatJavaScript Interview  Questions PDF By ScholarHat
JavaScript Interview Questions PDF By ScholarHat
Scholarhat
 
SD_Integrating 21st Century Skills in Classroom-based Assessment.pptx
SD_Integrating 21st Century Skills in Classroom-based Assessment.pptxSD_Integrating 21st Century Skills in Classroom-based Assessment.pptx
SD_Integrating 21st Century Skills in Classroom-based Assessment.pptx
elwoodprias1
 
FINAL MATATAG Kindergarten CG 2023 pdf
FINAL MATATAG Kindergarten CG 2023   pdfFINAL MATATAG Kindergarten CG 2023   pdf
FINAL MATATAG Kindergarten CG 2023 pdf
maricelrudela
 
New Features in Odoo 17 Sign - Odoo 17 Slides
New Features in Odoo 17 Sign - Odoo 17 SlidesNew Features in Odoo 17 Sign - Odoo 17 Slides
New Features in Odoo 17 Sign - Odoo 17 Slides
Celine George
 
Introduction to Google Productivity Tools for Office and Personal Use
Introduction to Google Productivity Tools for Office and Personal UseIntroduction to Google Productivity Tools for Office and Personal Use
Introduction to Google Productivity Tools for Office and Personal Use
Excellence Foundation for South Sudan
 
BÀI TẬP BỔ TRỢ 4 KỸ NĂNG TIẾNG ANH LỚP 12 - GLOBAL SUCCESS - FORM MỚI 2025 - ...
BÀI TẬP BỔ TRỢ 4 KỸ NĂNG TIẾNG ANH LỚP 12 - GLOBAL SUCCESS - FORM MỚI 2025 - ...BÀI TẬP BỔ TRỢ 4 KỸ NĂNG TIẾNG ANH LỚP 12 - GLOBAL SUCCESS - FORM MỚI 2025 - ...
BÀI TẬP BỔ TRỢ 4 KỸ NĂNG TIẾNG ANH LỚP 12 - GLOBAL SUCCESS - FORM MỚI 2025 - ...
Nguyen Thanh Tu Collection
 
Allopathic M1 Srudent Orientation Powerpoint
Allopathic M1 Srudent Orientation PowerpointAllopathic M1 Srudent Orientation Powerpoint
Allopathic M1 Srudent Orientation Powerpoint
Julie Sarpy
 
ASP.NET Core Interview Questions PDF By ScholarHat.pdf
ASP.NET Core Interview Questions PDF By ScholarHat.pdfASP.NET Core Interview Questions PDF By ScholarHat.pdf
ASP.NET Core Interview Questions PDF By ScholarHat.pdf
Scholarhat
 
SEQUNCES Lecture_Notes_Unit4_chapter11_sequence
SEQUNCES  Lecture_Notes_Unit4_chapter11_sequenceSEQUNCES  Lecture_Notes_Unit4_chapter11_sequence
SEQUNCES Lecture_Notes_Unit4_chapter11_sequence
Murugan Solaiyappan
 
matatag curriculum education for Kindergarten
matatag curriculum education for Kindergartenmatatag curriculum education for Kindergarten
matatag curriculum education for Kindergarten
SarahAlie1
 
1. Importance_of_reducing_postharvest_loss.pptx
1. Importance_of_reducing_postharvest_loss.pptx1. Importance_of_reducing_postharvest_loss.pptx
1. Importance_of_reducing_postharvest_loss.pptx
UmeshTimilsina1
 
E-learning Odoo 17 New features - Odoo 17 Slides
E-learning Odoo 17  New features - Odoo 17 SlidesE-learning Odoo 17  New features - Odoo 17 Slides
E-learning Odoo 17 New features - Odoo 17 Slides
Celine George
 
Open Source and AI - ByWater Closing Keynote Presentation.pdf
Open Source and AI - ByWater Closing Keynote Presentation.pdfOpen Source and AI - ByWater Closing Keynote Presentation.pdf
Open Source and AI - ByWater Closing Keynote Presentation.pdf
Jessica Zairo
 

Recently uploaded (20)

How to Create & Publish a Blog in Odoo 17 Website
How to Create & Publish a Blog in Odoo 17 WebsiteHow to Create & Publish a Blog in Odoo 17 Website
How to Create & Publish a Blog in Odoo 17 Website
 
formative Evaluation By Dr.Kshirsagar R.V
formative Evaluation By Dr.Kshirsagar R.Vformative Evaluation By Dr.Kshirsagar R.V
formative Evaluation By Dr.Kshirsagar R.V
 
How to Manage Access Rights & User Types in Odoo 17
How to Manage Access Rights & User Types in Odoo 17How to Manage Access Rights & User Types in Odoo 17
How to Manage Access Rights & User Types in Odoo 17
 
A beginner’s guide to project reviews - everything you wanted to know but wer...
A beginner’s guide to project reviews - everything you wanted to know but wer...A beginner’s guide to project reviews - everything you wanted to know but wer...
A beginner’s guide to project reviews - everything you wanted to know but wer...
 
What is Rescue Session in Odoo 17 POS - Odoo 17 Slides
What is Rescue Session in Odoo 17 POS - Odoo 17 SlidesWhat is Rescue Session in Odoo 17 POS - Odoo 17 Slides
What is Rescue Session in Odoo 17 POS - Odoo 17 Slides
 
How to Empty a One2Many Field in Odoo 17
How to Empty a One2Many Field in Odoo 17How to Empty a One2Many Field in Odoo 17
How to Empty a One2Many Field in Odoo 17
 
How to Add a Filter in the Odoo 17 - Odoo 17 Slides
How to Add a Filter in the Odoo 17 - Odoo 17 SlidesHow to Add a Filter in the Odoo 17 - Odoo 17 Slides
How to Add a Filter in the Odoo 17 - Odoo 17 Slides
 
JavaScript Interview Questions PDF By ScholarHat
JavaScript Interview  Questions PDF By ScholarHatJavaScript Interview  Questions PDF By ScholarHat
JavaScript Interview Questions PDF By ScholarHat
 
SD_Integrating 21st Century Skills in Classroom-based Assessment.pptx
SD_Integrating 21st Century Skills in Classroom-based Assessment.pptxSD_Integrating 21st Century Skills in Classroom-based Assessment.pptx
SD_Integrating 21st Century Skills in Classroom-based Assessment.pptx
 
FINAL MATATAG Kindergarten CG 2023 pdf
FINAL MATATAG Kindergarten CG 2023   pdfFINAL MATATAG Kindergarten CG 2023   pdf
FINAL MATATAG Kindergarten CG 2023 pdf
 
New Features in Odoo 17 Sign - Odoo 17 Slides
New Features in Odoo 17 Sign - Odoo 17 SlidesNew Features in Odoo 17 Sign - Odoo 17 Slides
New Features in Odoo 17 Sign - Odoo 17 Slides
 
Introduction to Google Productivity Tools for Office and Personal Use
Introduction to Google Productivity Tools for Office and Personal UseIntroduction to Google Productivity Tools for Office and Personal Use
Introduction to Google Productivity Tools for Office and Personal Use
 
BÀI TẬP BỔ TRỢ 4 KỸ NĂNG TIẾNG ANH LỚP 12 - GLOBAL SUCCESS - FORM MỚI 2025 - ...
BÀI TẬP BỔ TRỢ 4 KỸ NĂNG TIẾNG ANH LỚP 12 - GLOBAL SUCCESS - FORM MỚI 2025 - ...BÀI TẬP BỔ TRỢ 4 KỸ NĂNG TIẾNG ANH LỚP 12 - GLOBAL SUCCESS - FORM MỚI 2025 - ...
BÀI TẬP BỔ TRỢ 4 KỸ NĂNG TIẾNG ANH LỚP 12 - GLOBAL SUCCESS - FORM MỚI 2025 - ...
 
Allopathic M1 Srudent Orientation Powerpoint
Allopathic M1 Srudent Orientation PowerpointAllopathic M1 Srudent Orientation Powerpoint
Allopathic M1 Srudent Orientation Powerpoint
 
ASP.NET Core Interview Questions PDF By ScholarHat.pdf
ASP.NET Core Interview Questions PDF By ScholarHat.pdfASP.NET Core Interview Questions PDF By ScholarHat.pdf
ASP.NET Core Interview Questions PDF By ScholarHat.pdf
 
SEQUNCES Lecture_Notes_Unit4_chapter11_sequence
SEQUNCES  Lecture_Notes_Unit4_chapter11_sequenceSEQUNCES  Lecture_Notes_Unit4_chapter11_sequence
SEQUNCES Lecture_Notes_Unit4_chapter11_sequence
 
matatag curriculum education for Kindergarten
matatag curriculum education for Kindergartenmatatag curriculum education for Kindergarten
matatag curriculum education for Kindergarten
 
1. Importance_of_reducing_postharvest_loss.pptx
1. Importance_of_reducing_postharvest_loss.pptx1. Importance_of_reducing_postharvest_loss.pptx
1. Importance_of_reducing_postharvest_loss.pptx
 
E-learning Odoo 17 New features - Odoo 17 Slides
E-learning Odoo 17  New features - Odoo 17 SlidesE-learning Odoo 17  New features - Odoo 17 Slides
E-learning Odoo 17 New features - Odoo 17 Slides
 
Open Source and AI - ByWater Closing Keynote Presentation.pdf
Open Source and AI - ByWater Closing Keynote Presentation.pdfOpen Source and AI - ByWater Closing Keynote Presentation.pdf
Open Source and AI - ByWater Closing Keynote Presentation.pdf
 

post lintel structure for architects

  • 2. CONTENT Introduction -01 Building as Structure -02 Classification of structural System -03 General Properties -04 Definition -05 History -06 Concept -07 Meterals -08 Post -09 Lintel -10 Foundation-11-12 Span Material Relations-13 Cantilever Beans-14 Failures-15 CONTENT 00 Failures-15 Advantage-16 Disadvantage-17 Force on structure-18 Load-19-21 Load & support in conostuction -22 THERMAL MOVEMENT OF STRUCTURAL STEEL-23 Other Structure & bridge structure-24-27 Modern Uses -28 Examples - 29-31 Conclusion -32
  • 3. INTRODUCTION Building systems can be post-and-lintel, vaulted or internal structures. There are several ways to build according to the type and location. How to build depends on the technological level of the community that builds and the needs they manifest. In any case, the construction system uses by a community reflects part of his personality as the building is a way to transform the environment adapted to the human needs. Ever since man left the shelter that provided the cave, until now, there have been three different building systems: lintel, domed and internal structures. The building method of post and lintel has been used for centuries. All structural openings have evolved from this system, which is seen in pure form only in framed structures, because the posts of doors, windows, ceilings, and roofs normally form part of the wall. Post and lintel construction is recognized by its simple vertical and horizontal design, in which a pair of vertical supports are set in the ground or a foundation, and a horizontal structure is balanced on top of them. 01
  • 4. Building as a structure Building as a structure : A building is a structure, or a system. On a system of organized elements, which are these elements ? A building can serve as a structure in many ways, depending on the purpose of it to the human been, the place were it is built or to understand reason. - Skin - Importance of the Location. Landmark -Tall buildings: feet, torso, head - Patrimonial structure -Shelter -Shell 02
  • 5. Classification of the Structural Systems Classification of the Structural Systems: MASSIVE STRUCTURES: They are those in which the resistance and the stability are obtained by means of the mass, even though the completely solid structure not. RETICULAR STRUCTURES: It consists of a network of assembled elements SUPERFICIAL STRUCTURES: They can have high performance due to his double function like structure and surrounding, they can be very stable and strong. SYSTEMS FORMED BY BARS. With adjustments of bars very diverse structural schemes can form, of which I could become one first subdivision between triangular adjustments, type armor, and adjustments type frame. In the first external loads they resist essentially by axial forces in the members. In the adjustments nontriangulados, or type frame, the transmission of the loads implies the appearance of sharp flexion and. SYSTEMS WITH PLATES. By means of vertical adjustments (walls) and horizontals (slabs) systems of diverse characteristics can be formed, those that in general can be denominated type drawer. The over position of plates simply supported in a single direction and walls, Integra a system equivalent to the post and the threshold and that has similar limitations. The lack of continuity in the supports makes very vulnerable before accidental actions that can introduce vertical tensions or sharp efforts in the connection. 03
  • 6. The general properties The general properties: Form: natural, remolded or reconstituted. Weight : like contributor to the gravitational loads of the structure. Fire resistance: combustion, conductivity, point of fusion and general behavior of high temperatures. Coefficient of thermal expansion: related to the dimensional changes due to the temperature variations. Durability: resistance to the climate, insects and wearing downs. Appearance: natural or modified. 04
  • 7. Definition Definition Is a simple construction method using a lintel, header, or architrave as the horizontal member over a building void supported at its ends by two vertical columns, pillars, or posts. This architectural system and building method has been commonly used for centuries to support the weight of the structure located above the openings created by windows and doors in a bearing wall. A structure is formed generally by an adjustment of basic elements. The adjustment must take advantage of the peculiar characteristics, each element obtain the most efficient form of the global structural system, fulfilling the restrictions imposed by the operation of the construction and many other aspects. 05
  • 8. History HistoryI From prehistoric times to the Roman Empire, the post  and  lintel system was the root of architectural design. The interiors of Egyptian temples and the exteriors of Greek temples are delineated by columns covered by stone lintels. The Greeks opened their interior spaces by substituting wooden beams for stone, since the wood required fewer supports. The development of the arch and vault challenged the system but could not diminish its importance either in masonry construction or in wood framing, by its nature dependent on posts and beams . Ancient Egyptian, Greek, and Roman architects made extensive use of Post- and-lintel construction to support the roofs of temples and public places. Such ancient structures as Stonehenge, in Britain, were constructed on the post-and-lintel system, which was the basis of architecture from prehistoric to Roman times. The interiors of Egyptian temples and the exteriors of Greek temples are delineated by columns covered by stone lintels. The Greeks substituted wooden beams for stone because the wood required fewer supports and opened up the interior spaces. One of the earliest and most renowned post and lintel example is the prehistoric Stonehenge monument in England, where massive stone blocks were placed in a circle in the support-and-overhead design. Pure post and lintel construction also can be found in a variety of early shelters, including huts, cottages and stables. The Romans developed a variation of post and lintel construction with the arch, which added stability and support, and by the Catholic Church in Europe with the introduction of buttresses to support massive cathedral walls . 06
  • 9. Concept Concept Post and lintel, or in contemporary usage Post and beam, is a simple construction method using a lintel, or header as the horizontal member over a building void supported at its ends by two vertical columns, pillars, or posts. This architectural system and building method has been commonly used for centuries to support weight, such as a roof or deck, depending on the vertical posts it rests on. It can support a huge amount of weight, and is effective for reinforcing tall buildings or heavy structures. The post refers to the vertical support, which is paired with an identical support to form the full design. Posts can be columns, poles or beams, modified to meet as architectural designs. There are two main force vectors acting upon the post and lintel system: weight carrying compression at the joint between lintel and post, and tension induced by deformation of self-weight and the load above between the posts. The two posts are under compression from the weight of the lintel (or beam) above. . 07
  • 10. Material Material. The posts must support the lintel and its loads without crushing or buckling. Post material must be especially strong in compression . Post and lintel construction can incorporate wood, metal and stone. Stone has this property and is more versatile in its use as a post than as a lintel. Under heavy loads, stone is superior to wood but not to iron, steel, or reinforced concrete. When used in doorways, wood and steel are the most common materials. Depending on building requirements and ordinances, the supports in windows may be made of plastic or fiberglass, while wood or metal form the surrounding frame. Masonry posts, including those of brick, may be highly efficient, because loads compress the joints and add to their cohesiveness .The most important detail about post and lintel construction is the pieces must fit together exactly, so they are often prefabricated in mills and shops, and then assembled on-site. . 08
  • 11. Post and lintel system Post and lintel system : Two upright members (post, columns, piers) Third member (lintel, beam, girder, rafter) The basis for the evolution of all openings To support the weight of the structure located above the openings Post : The job of the post is to support the lintel and its loads without crushing or buckling. Failure occurs, as in lintels, from excessive weakness or length, but the difference is that the material must be especially strong in compression. Stone, which has this property, is more versatile as a post than as a lintel; under heavy loads it is superior to wood but not to iron, steel, or reinforced concrete. Masonry post, including those of brick, may be highly efficient, since the loads compress the joints and add to their cohesiveness. Although monolithic stone columns are used, they are extravagant to produce for large structures, and columns are usually built up of a series of cylindrical blocks called drums. The job of the post is to support the lintel and its loads without crushing or buckling. Masonry post, including those of brick, may be highly efficient, since the loads compress the joints and add to their cohesiveness. 09
  • 12. Post and lintel system Beam: The job of the beam or lintel is to bear loads that rest on it, also includes its own wheigth -The beam has to be able to do this without deformor break Made of wood, stone, steel or reinforced or pre-tensioned concrete Stone lintels must be short, weak in bending Materials strong in bending, bigger span, greater openings Mansory lintels are inefficient  cohesiveness of mortar 10 load BEAM or LINTEL
  • 13. Foundation Foundation: A foundation is a structure that transfers loads to the ground. Foundations are generally broken into two categories: shallow foundations deep foundations. Shallow foundations A shallow foundation is a type of foundation which tranfers building loads to the earth very near the surface, rather than to a subsurface layer or a range of depths as does a deep foundation. Shallow foundations include spread footing foundations and slab-on grade foundations Deep foundations.: A deep foundation is a type of foundation. Deep foundations are distinguished from shallow foundations by the depth they are embedded into the ground. There are many reasons why someone would recommend a deep foundation over a shallow foundation, but some of the common reasons are very large design loads, a poor soil at shallow depth, or site constraints (like property lines). There are different terms used to describe different types of deep foundations including piles. 11
  • 14. Foundation Retaining wall : A retaining wall is a structure that holds back earth from a building or other structure. Retaining walls stabilize soil and/or rock from downslope movement or erosion and provide support for vertical or near-vertical grade changes. Cofferdams and bulkheads, structures that hold back water, are sometimes also considered retaining walls. Retaining walls are generally made of masonry, stone, brick, concrete, vinyl, steel or timber. They also decompose over time. 12
  • 15. 13
  • 17. Failure occurs when the material is to weak or the span is to long to support the load. This makes the beam bend or break. This aspect combined with others can cause many structural accidents, destroying the structure like a house of cards 15
  • 18. Advantage: Building Time Homes constructed with a post and beam construction method can usually be assembled quicker that other types of construction. The frame and insulated wall sections of a home are usually preassembled in a shop and then transported to the site where the home is built. This allows the mortise and tenon joints to be premilled at a remote location, saving time at the building site. Aesthetics Post and beam construction is generally considered to be more aesthetically pleasing than other types of construction because the wood is exposed on both the interior and exterior of the home. This is a subjective judgment that is obviously up to the individual viewing the home. Fire Resistance Some building codes classify building materials into five different types based on the combustibility or fire resistance capability. Post and beam construction materials are classified as Type IV material, and the construction method is known for delaying the spread of exterior fires into the interior 16 Advantage Energy Efficiency The post and beam construction method is considered more energy efficient than houses constructed using alternative methods because it is easier to insulate the home. In a post and beam construction, cold air can penetrate only through the joints in between the individual timber beams. The insulation used has less of a cold air flow to protect against. A home constructed with wood studs nailed together and then covered with exterior and interior panels allows cold air to infiltrate anywhere along the frame, making it more difficult to insulate. Online References Many online sites exist to provide information on post and beam homes. Some of the sites include the Timber Frame Forum, and the Timber Engineering Reference Center. The URLs for these two sites are in the Resources section of this article. Open Living Spaces Homes that are constructed using post and beam methods have larger interior living spaces than houses constructed using alternative methods. This is because the timber frames are strong enough to avoid the use of interior load-bearing walls.
  • 19. Disadvantage: The biggest disadvantage to a post and lintel construction is the limited weight that can be held up, and the small distances required between the posts. The tension induced by deformation of self-weight and the load above between the posts. 17 Disadvantage
  • 21. 19 Load Gravity Loads Gravity loads include all forces that are acting in the vertical plane (see Figure 2). These types of forces are commonly broken down into dead loads and live loads in a uniform pounds per square foot loading nomenclature. Dead loads account for the anticipated weight of objects that are expected to remain in place permanently. Dead loads include roofing materials, mechanical equipment, ceilings, floor finishes, metal decking, floor slabs, structural materials, cladding, facades and parapets. Live loads are those loads that are anticipated to be mobile or transient in nature. Live loads include occupancy loading, office equipment and furnishings. Horizontal Loads Forces created by wind or seismic activity are considered to act in the horizontal plane. While seismic activity is capable of including vertical forces, this discussion will be based only on horizontal forces. The majority of this section will address wind forces and how they are transferred to the primary structural systems of the building (see Figure 3).
  • 22. 20 Load Seismic Seismic activity induces horizontal forces, and at times, vertical loads. The discussions in this publication will focus on horizontal forces imposed during seismic activity. Forces created during a seismic event are directly related to weight or mass of the various levels on a specific building. During seismic activity horizontal diaphragms behave like wind load transfers with respect to the primary lateral load resisting systems. However, the induced forces are much more sensitive to the shape of the building and the positioning of the lateral load resisting systems. It is advantageous to consider a very regular building plan in areas of the country with significant seismic activity.
  • 23. 21 Load Braced Frames  Cross Bracing Perhaps the most common type of braced frame is the cross-braced frame. A typical representation of a crossbraced frame is shown in Figures 5 and 6. Figure 5 shows a typical floor framing plan with cross bracing denoted by the dashed-line drawn between the two center columns. The solid lines indicate the floor beams and girders. A typical multi-floor building elevation with cross-braced bays beginning at the foundation level is shown in A Figure 6. While only one bay is indicated in Figure 6 as having cross bracing, it must be understood that many bays along a given column line may be necessary to resist the lateral loads imposed on a specific structure. One or more column lines having one or more bays of cross bracing may be necessary as well. It is important to establish early on in the development of any project the location of braced bays. These considerations are typical to all of the braced frames discussed in this publication.
  • 24. 22 Load & support in conostuction Lintel Beam Girder Rafter Post Columns Piers Simple construction method Upright members: posts, columns or piers Hold a third member horizontally: lintel, beam, girder or rafter. In this system acts two forces, compression and tension. Post and lintel construction-pieces must fit together exactly.
  • 25. 23 THERMAL MOVEMENT OF STRUCTURAL STEEL THERMAL MOVEMENT OF STRUCTURAL STEEL Change in steel length = (0.0000065) × (Length of steel) × (Temperature differential) If a building with a large rectangular floor plan is exposed to a temperature differential of 60° Fahrenheit, andhas expansion joints at every 200 ft in the long direction (see Figure 15), the horizontal movement in that direction will be as follows: Change in steel length = (0.0000065) × (200 ft) × (60° Fahrenheit) = 0.08 ft = 0.94 in. Basic Vibration Terminology Dynamic Loadings. Dynamic loadings can be classified as harmonic, periodic, transient and impulsive as shown in Figure 18. Harmonic or sinusoidal loads are usually associated with rotating machinery. Periodic loads are caused by rhythmic human activities such as dancing and aerobics, and by impactive equipment. Transient loads occur from movement of people and include walking and running. Single jumps and heel-drop impacts areexamples of impulsive loads. Period and Frequency. Period is the time, usually in seconds, between successive peak excursions in repeating
  • 27. 25 Oters structures beam bridge: A beam bridge is a rigid,, horizontal structure that rests on two end supports, and carries traffic loads by acting structurally as a beam. It is a direct descendant of the log bridge, now more normally made from shallow steel "I". It is frequently used in pedestrian bridges and for highway overpasses and flyovers. As is its ancestor, this bridge is in structural terms the simplest of the many bridge types. cantilever bridge A cantilever bridge is a bridge built using cantilevers: structures that project horizontally into space, supported on only one end. For small footbridges, the cantilevers may be simple beams; however, large cantilever bridges designed to handle road or rail traffic use trusses built from structural Steel or box girders built from prestressed concrete. The steel truss cantilever bridge was a major engineering breakthrough when first put into practice, as it can span distances of over 1500 feet, and can be more easily constructed at difficult crossings by virtue of using little or no falsework. arch bridge An arch bridge is a bridge with abutments at each end shaped as a curved arch. Arch bridges work by transferring the weight of the bridge and its loads partially into a horizontal thrust restrained by the abutments at either side. A viaduct may be made from a series of arches.
  • 28. 26 Oters structures Arch bridge An arch bridge is a bridge with abutments at each end shaped as a curved arch. Arch bridges work by transferring the weight of the bridge and its loads partially into a horizontal thrust restrained by the abutments at either side. A viaduct may be made from a series of arches. Truss bridge A truss bridge is a bridge composed of connected elements (typically straight) which may be stressed from tension, compression, or sometimes both in response to dynamic loads. Truss bridges are one of the oldest types of modern bridges. This type of bridge structure has a fairly simple design and is particularly cheap to construct owing to its efficient use of materials
  • 29. 27 Oters structures Suspension bridge A suspension bridge is a type of bridge that has been made since ancient times as early as 100 AD. Simple suspension bridges, for use by pedestrians and livestock, are still constructed, based upon the ancient Inca rope bridge. Suspended from two high locations over a river or valley, simple suspension bridges follow a shallow downward arc and are not suited for modern roads and railroads. Advances in materials and design led to the development of the suspended-deck suspension bridge, a modern bridge capable of carrying vehicles and light rail. Instead of the deck following the downward arc of the main load-bearing cables (or chains), these cables are suspended between towers, and vertical suspender cables carry the weight of the deck below, upon which traffic crosses. This arrangement allows the deck to be level or to arc slightly upward for additional clearance.
  • 30. 28 Modern Uses Modern Uses Today, most post and lintel construction has a third component, the wall, which adds additional support and hides the post and lintel design within the framework. It can still be seen in doorways and columns, in which the space between the vertical supports is open. Variations on post and lintel design can be found in bridges, complex archways and crossbeams, sometimes with cable support adding extra stability. Because post and lintel construction is so simple, it forms the base for the entrances to modern buildings that do not feature curves, which add stability.
  • 31. 29 EXAMPLES The Parthenon, Greece St. Paul’s Cathedral, London Temple of Horus at Edfu, Egypt
  • 32. 30 EXAMPLES The Parthenon, Greece St. Paul’s Cathedral, London Temple of Horus at Edfu, Egypt
  • 33. 31 EXAMPLES Stonehenge, England. Temple of Karnak, Egypt. Glass House, Philip Johnson, Connecticut.
  • 34. 32 Conclusion Form prehistoric times, the post and lintel System has been used for all kinds of structures. Since the Roman and Egiptian temples to the evolution of frames and archs, the post and lintel system has remained as the basic idea. Even now modern buildings use a basic post And lintel system idea. The engineers had combined these two elements to create a mushroom columns. This is column that has a slab at the end making it a column with support fuction it can become the ceiling of a structure.