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Meer Musabber ali
& Md. Rabiul Awal
Dept. of architecture. primeasia
university , Dhaka ,Bangladesh .
topics
Structure & core
Introduction
High-rise commercial buildings are the icons of modern
society. These symbolize the power of commerce in the
present world system.
These also add the 3rd dimension to the city.
In addition, at the micro level, having an office at an
attractive high-rise building gives additional advantage to
the business in terms of better customer confidence and
corporate identity.
Definition
A high-rise building is defined as a building 35 meters or greater in
height
Generally constructed using a structural frame, provided with high-
speed elevators,
Although originally high-rises were designed for commercial purposes,
 many high-rises are now planned for multiple uses.
 Thats means, the combination of office, residential, retail and hotel
space etc.
•It must be divided into multiple levels
•of at least 2 meters height.
•If it has fewer than 12 such internal
•levels, then the highest undivided portion must not exceed 50% of the
total height
•It must be divided into multiple levels
•of at least 2 meters height.
•If it has fewer than 12 such internal
•levels, then the highest undivided portion must not exceed 50% of the
total height
CLASSIFICATION
Neo classic style
Art deco style
Modern style
High Modern style
Contemporary architecture
Price Tower
Home Insurance Building
Chrysler Building
Richard Daley Center
Burj Khalifa
Chrysler BuildingBurj Khalifa
Richard Daley CenterPrice Tower
FORM
• PROPORTION ,
• SYMMETRIC/
ASYMMETRIC ,
• PURE FORM.
 HUMAN SCALE,
CITY SCALE.
Human scale
Scale.
.
.Structure.
.Climate.
.Cost & Benefit.
FAR RULES ANALYSIS
TYPE:
SHOPING CUM OFFICE BUILDING
According to BNBC GADJET 2008 the building type is f
FAR (Floor Area ratio):
Set Back
For according high rise building the required set back follows-
1. From three sides of the site is min. 3m/10ft.
2. There will be no built form within 4.5m(14.7ft) from the mid point of
access road or 1.5m (5ft) from front side.
3.Required green space is the 50% of the total site without any shading
from the built form.
Ground Coverage:
Built area (on the site) x100
Total land area
Mandatory green space: mandatory setback-(minus)
mandatory paved area
FAR RULES ANALYSIS
 According to rules we can provide 50% paved area from uncovered
spaces
 Shades on this paved area can be provided where the minimum
height should be 13(4m) from ground level or 10(3m) from plinth
level.
 The uncovered ground of the site must used for guard room & parking.
Guard room:
From roadside boundary wall the height of the guard room will be
8(2.5m) from finished ground level & the maximum Floor area will be
53 sft (5sqm).
Boundary wall:
Maximum height for boundary wall is  (2.75m) . For rear & side walls
solid height is  (1.75m) & Perforated height is 3.28 (1m).
Balcony:
The height of the railing of the balcony will be max. 3. or 1200mm. The
balcony
must not extend above the set back area.
Podium
The height of the podium will be maximum 40 (12m). This height is
determined with parapet. According to BNBC, MGC of the podium will be
75%. In this case the MGC of the high rise tower will be recessed to
37.5%.
FAR RULES ANALYSIS
Re Escape:
Lift, escalators etc will not count as fire escape elements. Fire
escape should be located on the exterior faade of the building.
Fire escape must not route to basement.
Ramp:
Slope of ramp should be 1:8 preparation length of the ramp should
be minimum 14 (4.25m) clear height of the ramp must be minimum
8.
Stair:
.Minimum width of stair is 5(1.5m)
.Railing height of stair is minimum 3(0.m)
.Clear height of stair is minimum 7(2.10m)
LIFT:
. LIFT LOBBY MINIMUM 1.5MX1.5M
. LIFT CABIN MINIMUM 1.5MX1.2M
. LIFT DOOR WIDTH MINIMUN 800 MM/0.8M
Toilet:
. 5% TOILET SPACE REQUIRE FOR
DESIBLE PERSON EACH FLOOR.
. TOILET MINIMUM 1.5MX1.5M
RampStair
There are two basic sources for high-rise buildings'
load actions-
# Geophysical load (result of gravitational,
meteorological &
Seismological changes).
# Man-made load (generated by cars, elevators,
machines etc.
Load action on high-rise buildings
Linear elements
Surface elements
Column
Wall slab
Either solid with perforations or
trussed, capable of carrying axial and
rotational forces.
Solid or ribbed, supported on floor
framing, capable of supporting forces
in and perpendicular to the plane.
Beam
column
beam
slab
Wall
The Basic Structural Element
General planning consideration
1. Structural
2. Economic
3. Soil condition
4. Height and width ratio
5. Fabrication and erection
. Mechanical system
7. Fire rating
8. Availability and cost of materials
Basic Load action factors:
Dead load
Live load
Construction load
Snow rain and ice load
Wind load
Seismic load
Sources of
Building Load
Geophysical
Man Made
Dead load
Wind load
Construction
Load
Earthquake
Load
Live load
Basundhara city
Lloyd building
Hotel trump int’l
blocks for an
effective mesh
Hot area
Windward columns in tension
Wind force
Side walls in shear
Load action on high-rise buildings
GUST VELOCITY
Turbulence
 When any moving air mass meets an
obstruction, such as building,
 it responds like any fluids by moving to
each side then rejoining the major air
flow-
Wind Pressure-lateral load
When any moving air mass meets an
obstruction, such as building, it responds like
any fluids by moving to each side then rejoining
the major air flow-
Steps should be taken for earthquake
All portion of structure shall be designed and
constructed to act as a unit in resisting horizontal forces
Masonry or concrete elements shall be reinforced
Only roof live load may be neglected when considering the effect of seismic
forces in combination with vertical load
Concrete or masonry walls shall be anchored to all floors and roofs providing lateral
support of the wall
Building behavior during the earthquake
The magnitude of the horizontal inertia
force F depends on the building mass M,
ground acceleration A.
If a building and its foundation were regid,
it would have same acceleration as the
ground, that is by Newtons Law - F=MA
CORE
HIGHRISE BUILDING PROVIDES:
 COURT / ATRIUM
LIFT LOBBY
 STAIRS
 ESCALATOR
CAPSULE LIFT
Ducts
FIRE ESCAPE
Elevator shafts
(elevator cars &
equipments inside them)
Elevator lobby
Staircases
Fire protected lobbies
A H U
Toilets
Ancillary rooms (pantry,
space for cleaning
materials etc)
Mechanical vertical
services riser ducts
(electrical power &
lighting distribution,
water distribution,
sewerage pipes)
Electrical vertical
service riser
CORE
Core positions can be
classified into three types
Central core
Double core
Single core
X-SHAPED
OPEN FORMS
Single core
Double core
Central core
Typology of Core
central core
Advantage:
i.it allows all window space to be utilized as rental office space.
ii.Permits offices to varying depth to receive natural light.
iii.It is suitable in terms of access and in some cases may be
equidistant from all sides.
iv.Simplifies area division.
Disadvantage:
1. The central interior location limits the depth of the offices.
ii. It requires an access corridor around its perimeter.
Some examples of the central core:
Equitable Building
Place Victoria office Tower
Alcoa Building etc
All the above building cores are shown later. central core
Typology of Core
Off center core
Advantage:
It permits all windows and the building perimeter space to
be used for offices.
It has more flexibility depth and arrangements of spaces.
This can be particularly desirable where large open spaces
are required
Disadvantages:
Some problems of accessibility
This is less suitable for the distant spaces and the corners
of the building.
A long corridor for accessibility is required.
Less flexibility of tenant (rentel) distribution.
Off center core
Typology of Core
Exterior core
Advantages:
It leaves the entire floor area of the building available for tenant use.
The core does not complicate the floor plan either functionally of
structurally.
Maximum flexibility is achieved with respect to tenant distribution of
office depth and plan layout.
Disadvantages:
In case of multi-tenant occupancy, the core requires a
long access corridor thus the flexibility of tenant distribution is
reduced.
The core occupied desirable window spaces, so that, the
offices immediately adjacent to the core may not receive any natural
light.
Exterior core
Typology of Core
Double core
Advantage:
The double cores are placed on the hot sides (east,
west) thus, provide buffer zones, and minimum air-conditioning is
required.
The window openings run through north and south.
Lift lobbies, stairways and toilets are naturally
ventilated and a view out is possible.
The double core has more flexibility in floor area division.
Disadvantages:
If the building is not that big, then it becomes costly.
Some examples of the central core:
One first national plaza
Overseas Chinese Bank etc.
Double core
DUCT & CORE
lift stair
G. Toilet.
LIFTLIFTLIFTLIFT
UP
L. Toilet.
LIFTLIFT
Toilets
Toilets
Fire protected lobbies
Staircase
Elevator lobby
Duct
s
Fire
escape
Main
stair
Vertical circulation
Staircases
Escalator
Elevators
Fire escape
 Controller
 elevator car
 Selector car
 Counter weight
 Traveling cables
 Rope traction cables
 Governor
Buffer
Two car groupings
Three car groupings
Four car groupings
Six car groupings
Eight car groupings
The basic components of elevator
Two car groupings
Four car groupingsThree car groupings
Six car groupingsEight car groupings
High-rise building structure
elements
 THE BASIC STRUCTURAL ELEMENTS OF a
BUILDING ARE THE FOLLOWING:
COURT / ATRIUM
LIFT LOBBY
 STAIRS
 ESCALATOR
 CAPSULE LIFT
 CORE
CORE
STAIRS
atrium
LIFT LOBBY
Common High-rise building structure
1. Parallel bearing walls
2. Core and Facade Bearing walls
3. Self supporting boxes
4. Cantilevered slab
5. Flat slab
6. Interspatial
7. Suspension
1 2 73 4 5 6
STRUCTURE
Common High-rise building structure
1. Staggered truss
2. Rigid frame
3. Rigid frame and core
4. Trussed frame
5. Belt trussed frame and core
. Tube in tube
7. Bundled tube
1 2 73 4 5 6
Braced Frame Structures:
Central Plaza, Malaysia
Architect: Ken Yeang
Swiss Re Tower, London
Architect: Norman Foster
Century Tower, Japan
Architect: Norman Foster
K Bracing Storey Height Knee Bracing Double Diagonal Bracing
Rigid Frame Structures:
 Parallel or orthogonally
arrangement of columns and girders
 Simplicity and convenience of its
rectangular form.
Rigid Frame Structures
Infilled Frame Structures:
 Consists of a steel or reinforced column
and girder frame with infills of brickwork
or concrete block work.
Empire State Building
Architect: Richmond, Lamb &
Harmon
Limestone infills
and facing
Wall Frame Structures
 Shear walls are combined with rigid frames
Transco Tower
Architect: Johnson/Burgee Architects
Tubular Structures:
Millennium Tower
Architect: Norman Foster
Tube in tube
Tube in tube
Bundle tube
Braced tube
Types of tubular structure:
Bundle Tube Structures:
 The sears tower consists of four
parallel rigid steel frames in each
orthogonal direction, interconnected to
form nine bundled tubes.
Section A-A
Sears Tower
Architect: Skidmore, Owings & Merril
Section B-B
Section C-C
Two
additional
tube omitted
Section D-D
Braced Tube Structures:
John Hancock Building
Architect: Skidmore, Owings & Merril
Outrigger Braced Structures:
Hongkong & Shanghai Bank
Architect: Norman Foster
 Braced-steel frame connected to the exterior columns.
Space Structures:
 Space structure consists essentially of a three
dimensional triangulated frame.
Bank of China
Architect: I. M.
Pei
Flat Plate And Flat Slab Structures:
 Connected rigidly to supporting columns.
 Creating a minimum possible floor depth.
Bel Tower
Architect: Nahas Ahmed Khalil
Flat Plate And Flat Slab Structures Floor plan
Shear- Wall Structures:
National Commercial BanK
Architect: Skidmore, Owings &
Merril
Core Structures:
 A single core serves to carry the entire gravity and
horizontal loading.
 Slabs are supported at each level by
cantilevers from the core
Price Tower
Architect: Frank Lloyd Wright
Suspended Structures:
 Central core with horizontal cantilevers at roof level, to which
vertical hangers
Overseas Chinese bank
Architect: I. M. Pei
 Floor slabs are suspended from the hangers.
CASE STUDY
RWE TOWER
Location: Essen, Germany
Client: Hochtief AG
Occupier: RWE AG
Date of
Construction:
14-1
Architect:
Ingenhoven, Overdieck,
Kahlen & Partner
Building type:
Office building  administrative
headquarters for the electric company
Building
Envelope:
Josef Gartner and Co.
No. of stories: 31
Gross Area: 35,000m2
Site map
Location of the building
RWE tower
Aalto theater
Site Context
As is widely known, in Europe any new building is
required to blend in with the other buildings in a street.
The RWE Tower has the main building set back from the
street, along with the pergola the height of which is
aligned with the eaves of neighbouring houses. There
was still need to obtain the special sanction of the
municipal authorities to construct the skyscraper. As
Achim Nagel, one of the IOK architects, explained,
churches dating back to ancient times were the only tall
buildings. The 12m height of the tower, including an
aerial on the top, is the highest point in North-Rhine
Westphalia, but does not look isolated, when it is seen
from anywhere in the city. Its abstract and clear
external appearance is essentially in harmony with the
row of stores and houses in the street.
Birds eye view of building with site
RWE TOWER
Entrance Hall with
Sense of Space
The elevator shafts are
housed in a tower,
detached from the main
tower, so the ground
floor has ample open
space to share a
continuity with the
theater and the city
park. On ts level, the
columns are a significant
factor in the design, to
indicate that the
building is supported by
them, whereas a sense
of space is available at
the same time. As with
the columns, the walls
are rough concrete, and
the surface is coated
with water paint for
protection.
Building Form
When compared to other prismatic forms, the cylindrical shape is
ideal in terms of the relationship between exterior surface and
interior volume. It also optimizes aerodynamics, energy needs,
surface distribution, and choice of prefabricated elements.
structure
Composite structure grow in this tower building. Frame
structure shows on the interior. Shear wall also support with
column beam frame.
Transparent Elevators
Four ordinary elevator shafts are installed in an independent
tower built along side of the main building. Owing to their
outside location, people can easily find where they are.
Function of the core
1. Stair
2. Lobby & elevator
3. Switch room
4. store
Structure grid
Elevator blow up
Exterior elevator
RWE TOWER
Sunny Boardroom on the Top Floor
On the top floor, the 2th floor of the RWE Tower, there is a boardroom for
gatherings of the RWE Group executives from around the world. The ceiling of
the boardroom is fitted with a large toplight, and the sunlight from it is
regulated by an electric curtain. Not only its facade, but also its partition panels
are mostly made of glass, so as to enhance to view of the surrounding area.
•Natural Ventilation
The double skin allows natural ventilation in the tower.
Even the upper workspaces can enjoy natural air
control without having to fight wind gusts. Users can
control their own environment.
The natural ventilation in a high-rise could give rise to
the following fears: Actually, natural ventilation may
be restricted or influenced by such constructional
parameters as:
•facade layout,
•ventilation slits or louvres,
•air-tightness of windows and doors,
•design of doors (revolving doors,
opening and closing mechanisms).
Sun shading & thermal storage
When the solar radiation is strong, the temperature inside the double-skin rises
as in a greenhouse. model proved that the hotter the facade became relative to
the surrounding air, the more remarkable the convection effect that was achieved,
so as to carry out the sunshading function. Of course, the thermal storage effect
becomes vital, when there is a need to warm the room as in the winter season.
Double Skin
The main concern of the design of this 31-storey cylindrical tower is natural
ventilation. This is achieved by its double-leaf facade, which is intended to
provide good natural ventilation for perimeter office areas. The space
inside the facade is supplied with outside air through a meandering
arrangement of intake and exhaust louvres.
The double skin allows the RWE Tower to "breathe". It consists of an
exterior sheet made of fixed glass panels - 2 x 3.m modules that permit
air circulation through corresponding slots, and an interior sheet with
operable panels. A solar protection system is installed between both layers,
which are 50cm apart. Strips, placed on the setting lines for the exterior
facade modules, are perforated on the right side and solid on the left side,
at the lower level. The disposition is reversed on the upper level, next to the
roof, which guarantees a minimum diagonal of ventilation and prevents the
return of recently evacuated air back into the spaces. The interior layer of
the double skin is a conventional facade, insulated by collapsible panels that
can be controlled manually.
facade
Facade detail
Double skin
RWE TOWER
Natural Ventilation
The double skin allows natural ventilation in the tower. Even the upper
workspaces can enjoy natural air control without having to fight wind gusts.
Users can control their own environment.
The natural ventilation in a high-rise could give rise to the following fears:
Actually, natural ventilation may be restricted or influenced by such
constructional parameters as:
facade layout,
ventilation slits or louvres,
air-tightness of windows and doors,
design of doors (revolving doors,
opening and closing mechanisms).
RWE TOWER
Programme
Foyer
Restaurent
Elevator box
Conference room
Offices
Services
Terrace
Skylight
boardroom
box windows
Vertical dividers in the facade seal
the individual axes from one another
and dampen the sound carried within
the facade cavity, in effect creating
a box window. (see facade
structure.jpg)
Typical floor plan
Terrace level plan
Conference floor plan
restaurent
Ground floor plan
RWE TOWER
Exterior view
Interior stair
Terrace level plan
Conference floor plan
Detail model
skylight
Section through different level
Melbourne central tower
Location:
Located on Elizabeth Street, between Lt Lonsdale and Latrobe Streets in
Melbourne, The Tower is essentially a square plan building, turned 45 degrees to
Elizabeth Street.
Chief Consultant & Architect:
Kisho Kurokawa Architects & Associates,
Bates, Smart and McCutcheon Pty Ltd
Year of completion:
11
Area distribution:
Site area (Office): 2,000 sqm
Net lettable area:
- Office 5,500 sqm
Typical floor plate (Office): 1,500 sqm
Car parking spaces: 1,00
Fig: View of Melbourne central tower
Melbourne central tower
Building height:
211 m, 2 ft
Structural:
Floor to floor distance, 3,875mm.
Floor loading 4.0kPa, 5.0 kpa average & 10 kPa in designated compactus
locations.
Core
Straight core perimeter walls with access/service doors.
Through core passages for direct access on lifts.
Lifts face each other in dedicated lobby. Consistent floor plate on all rises
permits standardisation of office layout.
Tea room incorporated into core - can be converted to a
communication/server room or storage.
Dedicated goods lift servicing all floors and basement areas.
Two dedicated risers are located in the north side of the core.
Fig: 3 Escalator in Melbourne tower
Melbourne central tower
Floor layout:
Straight perimeter walls.
Column free.
Core to wall North 11.5m / South 11.5 / East 10.2M / West
10.2M
Ceilings and Lighting:
Ceiling height 2,00mm.
Tenant zone 250mm.
Two way exposed grid, with ceiling tiles of 00mm x 00mm.
Light intensity 450lux. Lights 2 x 3W PL. fluorescent units.
Low brightness diffusers.
Air conditioning
System type: central plant, variable air volume system with
a CV skin system in the perimeter.
23 variable air volume zones per floor minimum.
Capacities: lighting 1W/m2, population density of one
person/10m2.
Tenant equipment 35W/m2, population density of one
person/10m2.
Condenser water 25W/m2.
11 22 33 44 55 66 77 8
HH
GG
FF
EE
DD
CC
BB
AA
Fig: 5 Floor layout plan
Fig: 6 Entry of Melbourne tower
Fig: 7 Birds eye view
Melbourne central tower
Emergency Power:
Standby diesel generators for 100% tenant load or 50% total building load.
Standby DG Power is provided to Fire & Lift Safety systems, Firemans lifts, 50% of lifts
(In Blackout Mode and 100% in Brownout Mode) 50% chiller capacity, public stair
lighting, 50% public lighting, Security System in addition standby power generator circuits
are provided to each floor of 80 kw (Average). Power to tenanted area is provided on the
basis of 5w/m2 of net lettable area. Load Shed contactors are provided on each
Proprietor & Tenant Switchboards to control non-essential circuits. When required these
contactors may open automatically to shed load.
CCTV, Access Control and Building Automation:
CCTV and Access Control Systems was upgraded to the latest state-of-the-art technology,
with the access control system using proximity cards. In addition the BAS is being upgraded.
Fenestration:
The unique "crystal cut" image of the Office Tower arises from the use of the basic square
plan, from which two corners have been cut. It means that from every point in the city people
will be able to enjoy a changing shape and image of the building.
Fig: 10 Use truss in main entry
Fig: 11 Glass in exterior
Melbourne central tower
Emergency Power:
Standby diesel generators for 100% tenant load or 50% total building load.
Standby DG Power is provided to Fire & Lift Safety systems, Firemans lifts, 50% of lifts
(In Blackout Mode and 100% in Brownout Mode) 50% chiller capacity, public stair
lighting, 50% public lighting, Security System in addition standby power generator circuits
are provided to each floor of 80 kw (Average). Power to tenanted area is provided on the
basis of 5w/m2 of net lettable area. Load Shed contactors are provided on each
Proprietor & Tenant Switchboards to control non-essential circuits. When required these
contactors may open automatically to shed load.
CCTV, Access Control and Building Automation:
CCTV and Access Control Systems was upgraded to the latest state-of-the-art technology,
with the access control system using proximity cards. In addition the BAS is being upgraded.
Fenestration:
The unique "crystal cut" image of the Office Tower arises from the use of the basic square
plan, from which two corners have been cut. It means that from every point in the city people
will be able to enjoy a changing shape and image of the building.
Fig: 10 Use truss in main entry
Fig: 11 Glass in exterior
B el tower
Location:
Road# 1,Dhanmondi # R/A, Dhaka-1205,
Bangladesh.
Clint:
Beximco Group.
Chief Consultant & Architect:
Arch. Nahas Ahmed Khalil.
Structure design
Eng.Taraq Mahamud.
Electrical engineer
Eng.(Sorif, Sallauddin, Moinul Haque).
Year of completion:
September, 200
Property Line:
7000 sft
Built Area:
5411 sft (Each floor) approx.
Number of floor:
15 (Fifteen)
Fig: Roof garden. Fig: Front view of Bel Tower from road.
Bel Tower
B el tower
Architectural system:
Each floor is divided into 4-different levels at 2-4
difference
The lift lobby and the services are at one level rest of the usable floor
areas are connected by the central stair
The emergency fire exit is located at the back of the service area,
which is accessible from any other levels. And the fire exit is in a
distance which is not more than 80from any distance corner of the
building.
At 1: 5 ratios, ramp starts 1.5 meters or 4- ft distance from
road.
Floor to floor height: 10-0 ft.
There is no finished ceiling in the interior space (floor area) without lift
core area.
There is one prayer room in 8th floor.
Centre Air conditioning system.
Vertical zoning:
Flower garden at roof level.
Foyer, lobby, lounge, display area, information booth, maintenance office
and general store, electric board and pump house provided at ground
level.
Central core located on the north east segment of the structure which
houses 2 elevators, the main staircase, fire exit, toilets and store room.
Auditoriums at top level with split-level stages are provided at the
south-east entrance block.
The typical floors are used in office spaces.
Usable floor areas
Services and lift core area
Fire Exit
Duct channel for split system
Duct channel for fire-hose- system
Circulation passage to fire exit
B el tower
Building type :
High-rise Commercial office building for Beximco Group.
Structural system:
The structural system is post slab (Flat plate).
The Building is in simple rectangular grid expected the shift of columns to
meet the inclination of the site line at the north-east side. The lift cores are a
built of centric, shifted to the west side of the building. To meet this shift of
span the shapes and directions of columns are changed according to the
structural requirements.
The total envelop of the building is built with non-load
bearing R.C.C walls with start cladding and certain glass at
the round shaped corners.
Column span:
Maximum span-20- C/C
Minimum span- 15-0 C/C
Column size- 2-0X3-4
Plinth:
2-4
Fig: 6 Long section (Sec-X-X)-parking.
Fig: 4 Long sections (Sec-X-X)
Fig: 5 Typical floor plan (Structural plan).
B el tower
Number of Basement:
02 (two) basement (3 level).
Number of entry:
02 (Office, Basement)
Number of Lift:
02 (Office)
Stair:
01 stair from ground to fifteen &
the stair only use for offices.
Floor height:
Floor to floor 10-0
Fig: 7 No natural light in Lift core Fig: 8 Basement car parking
Fig: 9 Main stairs (Split level floor)
Fig: 10 Main entries from road.
Main entry
B el tower
Fire escape:
1 GF to Roof & 1 Basement to GF.
Glass type:
Single layer glass.
Prayer room:
Only one in 8th floor.
Fig: 11 8th Floor-Prayer rooms. Fig: 12 Reception with lobby, lounge.
Fig: 14 Fire fighting stair Fig: 15 15th Floors-Conference
Hall.
Fig: 13 Single layer glasses.
B el tower
Chiller room:
On 15th floor, proportion of the room is well & natural lighted.
Lift machine:
On 15th floor
Generator room:
2nd Basement floor
Water Pump room:
Basement 2
Fig: 16 Chiller room on 2nd basement
Fig: 19 Lift machineFig: 18 water pumpFig: 17 Lift machine
B el tower
Cooling tower:
02 (two), on the top of roof.
Centre Air conditioning system
Electrical room:
GF (where 11000 volt electricity
substation) Fig: 20 Cooling tower
Fig: 21 Cooling tower
Fig: 22 Mechanical room
Fig: 23 Cooling tower with pipe
B el tower
Fire safety:
Fire safety equipments on every floor.
Car-parking :
Basement 1 & 2
Fig: 24 Fire box Fig: 25 Fire box
Fig: 27 Basement car parking Fig: 28 Parking entry
B el tower
Merits:
24 hours secured.
24 hours standby generator & air condition system
Modern fire fighting system.
Superior quality lifts.
Flower garden at roof level.
Each floor is divided into 4-different levels at 2-4 difference.
Fig: 30 Wrong approach of entry
Fig: 31 Roof gardening
B el tower
Demerits:
Lift is not shown from entry.
Lift core is too small than its office area.
Car parking lot is wrong.
Basement parking is too wrong.
Pedestrian & Vehicular entry approach is wrong.
Fire fighting stair is not proportioned.
At 1: 5 ratios, ramp starts 1.5 meters
or 4- ft distance from road.
No serf ace parking and they have used
surface parking on road.
Sanitary line
Narrow Fire Stair

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High rise structure & core

  • 1. Meer Musabber ali & Md. Rabiul Awal Dept. of architecture. primeasia university , Dhaka ,Bangladesh .
  • 3. Introduction High-rise commercial buildings are the icons of modern society. These symbolize the power of commerce in the present world system. These also add the 3rd dimension to the city. In addition, at the micro level, having an office at an attractive high-rise building gives additional advantage to the business in terms of better customer confidence and corporate identity.
  • 4. Definition A high-rise building is defined as a building 35 meters or greater in height Generally constructed using a structural frame, provided with high- speed elevators, Although originally high-rises were designed for commercial purposes,  many high-rises are now planned for multiple uses.  Thats means, the combination of office, residential, retail and hotel space etc. •It must be divided into multiple levels •of at least 2 meters height. •If it has fewer than 12 such internal •levels, then the highest undivided portion must not exceed 50% of the total height •It must be divided into multiple levels •of at least 2 meters height. •If it has fewer than 12 such internal •levels, then the highest undivided portion must not exceed 50% of the total height
  • 5. CLASSIFICATION Neo classic style Art deco style Modern style High Modern style Contemporary architecture Price Tower Home Insurance Building Chrysler Building Richard Daley Center Burj Khalifa Chrysler BuildingBurj Khalifa Richard Daley CenterPrice Tower
  • 6. FORM • PROPORTION , • SYMMETRIC/ ASYMMETRIC , • PURE FORM.  HUMAN SCALE, CITY SCALE. Human scale Scale. . .Structure. .Climate. .Cost & Benefit.
  • 7. FAR RULES ANALYSIS TYPE: SHOPING CUM OFFICE BUILDING According to BNBC GADJET 2008 the building type is f FAR (Floor Area ratio): Set Back For according high rise building the required set back follows- 1. From three sides of the site is min. 3m/10ft. 2. There will be no built form within 4.5m(14.7ft) from the mid point of access road or 1.5m (5ft) from front side. 3.Required green space is the 50% of the total site without any shading from the built form. Ground Coverage: Built area (on the site) x100 Total land area Mandatory green space: mandatory setback-(minus) mandatory paved area
  • 8. FAR RULES ANALYSIS  According to rules we can provide 50% paved area from uncovered spaces  Shades on this paved area can be provided where the minimum height should be 13(4m) from ground level or 10(3m) from plinth level.  The uncovered ground of the site must used for guard room & parking. Guard room: From roadside boundary wall the height of the guard room will be 8(2.5m) from finished ground level & the maximum Floor area will be 53 sft (5sqm). Boundary wall: Maximum height for boundary wall is  (2.75m) . For rear & side walls solid height is  (1.75m) & Perforated height is 3.28 (1m). Balcony: The height of the railing of the balcony will be max. 3. or 1200mm. The balcony must not extend above the set back area. Podium The height of the podium will be maximum 40 (12m). This height is determined with parapet. According to BNBC, MGC of the podium will be 75%. In this case the MGC of the high rise tower will be recessed to 37.5%.
  • 9. FAR RULES ANALYSIS Re Escape: Lift, escalators etc will not count as fire escape elements. Fire escape should be located on the exterior faade of the building. Fire escape must not route to basement. Ramp: Slope of ramp should be 1:8 preparation length of the ramp should be minimum 14 (4.25m) clear height of the ramp must be minimum 8. Stair: .Minimum width of stair is 5(1.5m) .Railing height of stair is minimum 3(0.m) .Clear height of stair is minimum 7(2.10m) LIFT: . LIFT LOBBY MINIMUM 1.5MX1.5M . LIFT CABIN MINIMUM 1.5MX1.2M . LIFT DOOR WIDTH MINIMUN 800 MM/0.8M Toilet: . 5% TOILET SPACE REQUIRE FOR DESIBLE PERSON EACH FLOOR. . TOILET MINIMUM 1.5MX1.5M RampStair
  • 10. There are two basic sources for high-rise buildings' load actions- # Geophysical load (result of gravitational, meteorological & Seismological changes). # Man-made load (generated by cars, elevators, machines etc. Load action on high-rise buildings
  • 11. Linear elements Surface elements Column Wall slab Either solid with perforations or trussed, capable of carrying axial and rotational forces. Solid or ribbed, supported on floor framing, capable of supporting forces in and perpendicular to the plane. Beam column beam slab Wall The Basic Structural Element
  • 12. General planning consideration 1. Structural 2. Economic 3. Soil condition 4. Height and width ratio 5. Fabrication and erection . Mechanical system 7. Fire rating 8. Availability and cost of materials Basic Load action factors: Dead load Live load Construction load Snow rain and ice load Wind load Seismic load Sources of Building Load Geophysical Man Made Dead load Wind load Construction Load Earthquake Load Live load Basundhara city Lloyd building Hotel trump int’l
  • 13. blocks for an effective mesh Hot area Windward columns in tension Wind force Side walls in shear Load action on high-rise buildings
  • 14. GUST VELOCITY Turbulence  When any moving air mass meets an obstruction, such as building,  it responds like any fluids by moving to each side then rejoining the major air flow- Wind Pressure-lateral load When any moving air mass meets an obstruction, such as building, it responds like any fluids by moving to each side then rejoining the major air flow-
  • 15. Steps should be taken for earthquake All portion of structure shall be designed and constructed to act as a unit in resisting horizontal forces Masonry or concrete elements shall be reinforced Only roof live load may be neglected when considering the effect of seismic forces in combination with vertical load Concrete or masonry walls shall be anchored to all floors and roofs providing lateral support of the wall Building behavior during the earthquake The magnitude of the horizontal inertia force F depends on the building mass M, ground acceleration A. If a building and its foundation were regid, it would have same acceleration as the ground, that is by Newtons Law - F=MA
  • 16. CORE
  • 17. HIGHRISE BUILDING PROVIDES:  COURT / ATRIUM LIFT LOBBY  STAIRS  ESCALATOR CAPSULE LIFT Ducts FIRE ESCAPE Elevator shafts (elevator cars & equipments inside them) Elevator lobby Staircases Fire protected lobbies A H U Toilets Ancillary rooms (pantry, space for cleaning materials etc) Mechanical vertical services riser ducts (electrical power & lighting distribution, water distribution, sewerage pipes) Electrical vertical service riser CORE
  • 18. Core positions can be classified into three types Central core Double core Single core X-SHAPED OPEN FORMS Single core Double core Central core
  • 19. Typology of Core central core Advantage: i.it allows all window space to be utilized as rental office space. ii.Permits offices to varying depth to receive natural light. iii.It is suitable in terms of access and in some cases may be equidistant from all sides. iv.Simplifies area division. Disadvantage: 1. The central interior location limits the depth of the offices. ii. It requires an access corridor around its perimeter. Some examples of the central core: Equitable Building Place Victoria office Tower Alcoa Building etc All the above building cores are shown later. central core
  • 20. Typology of Core Off center core Advantage: It permits all windows and the building perimeter space to be used for offices. It has more flexibility depth and arrangements of spaces. This can be particularly desirable where large open spaces are required Disadvantages: Some problems of accessibility This is less suitable for the distant spaces and the corners of the building. A long corridor for accessibility is required. Less flexibility of tenant (rentel) distribution. Off center core
  • 21. Typology of Core Exterior core Advantages: It leaves the entire floor area of the building available for tenant use. The core does not complicate the floor plan either functionally of structurally. Maximum flexibility is achieved with respect to tenant distribution of office depth and plan layout. Disadvantages: In case of multi-tenant occupancy, the core requires a long access corridor thus the flexibility of tenant distribution is reduced. The core occupied desirable window spaces, so that, the offices immediately adjacent to the core may not receive any natural light. Exterior core
  • 22. Typology of Core Double core Advantage: The double cores are placed on the hot sides (east, west) thus, provide buffer zones, and minimum air-conditioning is required. The window openings run through north and south. Lift lobbies, stairways and toilets are naturally ventilated and a view out is possible. The double core has more flexibility in floor area division. Disadvantages: If the building is not that big, then it becomes costly. Some examples of the central core: One first national plaza Overseas Chinese Bank etc. Double core
  • 23. DUCT & CORE lift stair G. Toilet. LIFTLIFTLIFTLIFT UP L. Toilet. LIFTLIFT Toilets Toilets Fire protected lobbies Staircase Elevator lobby Duct s Fire escape Main stair
  • 24. Vertical circulation Staircases Escalator Elevators Fire escape  Controller  elevator car  Selector car  Counter weight  Traveling cables  Rope traction cables  Governor Buffer Two car groupings Three car groupings Four car groupings Six car groupings Eight car groupings The basic components of elevator Two car groupings Four car groupingsThree car groupings Six car groupingsEight car groupings
  • 25. High-rise building structure elements  THE BASIC STRUCTURAL ELEMENTS OF a BUILDING ARE THE FOLLOWING: COURT / ATRIUM LIFT LOBBY  STAIRS  ESCALATOR  CAPSULE LIFT  CORE CORE STAIRS atrium LIFT LOBBY
  • 26. Common High-rise building structure 1. Parallel bearing walls 2. Core and Facade Bearing walls 3. Self supporting boxes 4. Cantilevered slab 5. Flat slab 6. Interspatial 7. Suspension 1 2 73 4 5 6
  • 28. Common High-rise building structure 1. Staggered truss 2. Rigid frame 3. Rigid frame and core 4. Trussed frame 5. Belt trussed frame and core . Tube in tube 7. Bundled tube 1 2 73 4 5 6
  • 29. Braced Frame Structures: Central Plaza, Malaysia Architect: Ken Yeang Swiss Re Tower, London Architect: Norman Foster Century Tower, Japan Architect: Norman Foster K Bracing Storey Height Knee Bracing Double Diagonal Bracing
  • 30. Rigid Frame Structures:  Parallel or orthogonally arrangement of columns and girders  Simplicity and convenience of its rectangular form. Rigid Frame Structures
  • 31. Infilled Frame Structures:  Consists of a steel or reinforced column and girder frame with infills of brickwork or concrete block work. Empire State Building Architect: Richmond, Lamb & Harmon Limestone infills and facing
  • 32. Wall Frame Structures  Shear walls are combined with rigid frames Transco Tower Architect: Johnson/Burgee Architects
  • 33. Tubular Structures: Millennium Tower Architect: Norman Foster Tube in tube Tube in tube Bundle tube Braced tube Types of tubular structure:
  • 34. Bundle Tube Structures:  The sears tower consists of four parallel rigid steel frames in each orthogonal direction, interconnected to form nine bundled tubes. Section A-A Sears Tower Architect: Skidmore, Owings & Merril Section B-B Section C-C Two additional tube omitted Section D-D
  • 35. Braced Tube Structures: John Hancock Building Architect: Skidmore, Owings & Merril
  • 36. Outrigger Braced Structures: Hongkong & Shanghai Bank Architect: Norman Foster  Braced-steel frame connected to the exterior columns.
  • 37. Space Structures:  Space structure consists essentially of a three dimensional triangulated frame. Bank of China Architect: I. M. Pei
  • 38. Flat Plate And Flat Slab Structures:  Connected rigidly to supporting columns.  Creating a minimum possible floor depth. Bel Tower Architect: Nahas Ahmed Khalil Flat Plate And Flat Slab Structures Floor plan
  • 39. Shear- Wall Structures: National Commercial BanK Architect: Skidmore, Owings & Merril
  • 40. Core Structures:  A single core serves to carry the entire gravity and horizontal loading.  Slabs are supported at each level by cantilevers from the core Price Tower Architect: Frank Lloyd Wright
  • 41. Suspended Structures:  Central core with horizontal cantilevers at roof level, to which vertical hangers Overseas Chinese bank Architect: I. M. Pei  Floor slabs are suspended from the hangers.
  • 43. RWE TOWER Location: Essen, Germany Client: Hochtief AG Occupier: RWE AG Date of Construction: 14-1 Architect: Ingenhoven, Overdieck, Kahlen & Partner Building type: Office building  administrative headquarters for the electric company Building Envelope: Josef Gartner and Co. No. of stories: 31 Gross Area: 35,000m2 Site map Location of the building RWE tower Aalto theater Site Context As is widely known, in Europe any new building is required to blend in with the other buildings in a street. The RWE Tower has the main building set back from the street, along with the pergola the height of which is aligned with the eaves of neighbouring houses. There was still need to obtain the special sanction of the municipal authorities to construct the skyscraper. As Achim Nagel, one of the IOK architects, explained, churches dating back to ancient times were the only tall buildings. The 12m height of the tower, including an aerial on the top, is the highest point in North-Rhine Westphalia, but does not look isolated, when it is seen from anywhere in the city. Its abstract and clear external appearance is essentially in harmony with the row of stores and houses in the street. Birds eye view of building with site
  • 44. RWE TOWER Entrance Hall with Sense of Space The elevator shafts are housed in a tower, detached from the main tower, so the ground floor has ample open space to share a continuity with the theater and the city park. On ts level, the columns are a significant factor in the design, to indicate that the building is supported by them, whereas a sense of space is available at the same time. As with the columns, the walls are rough concrete, and the surface is coated with water paint for protection. Building Form When compared to other prismatic forms, the cylindrical shape is ideal in terms of the relationship between exterior surface and interior volume. It also optimizes aerodynamics, energy needs, surface distribution, and choice of prefabricated elements. structure Composite structure grow in this tower building. Frame structure shows on the interior. Shear wall also support with column beam frame. Transparent Elevators Four ordinary elevator shafts are installed in an independent tower built along side of the main building. Owing to their outside location, people can easily find where they are. Function of the core 1. Stair 2. Lobby & elevator 3. Switch room 4. store Structure grid Elevator blow up Exterior elevator
  • 45. RWE TOWER Sunny Boardroom on the Top Floor On the top floor, the 2th floor of the RWE Tower, there is a boardroom for gatherings of the RWE Group executives from around the world. The ceiling of the boardroom is fitted with a large toplight, and the sunlight from it is regulated by an electric curtain. Not only its facade, but also its partition panels are mostly made of glass, so as to enhance to view of the surrounding area. •Natural Ventilation The double skin allows natural ventilation in the tower. Even the upper workspaces can enjoy natural air control without having to fight wind gusts. Users can control their own environment. The natural ventilation in a high-rise could give rise to the following fears: Actually, natural ventilation may be restricted or influenced by such constructional parameters as: •facade layout, •ventilation slits or louvres, •air-tightness of windows and doors, •design of doors (revolving doors, opening and closing mechanisms). Sun shading & thermal storage When the solar radiation is strong, the temperature inside the double-skin rises as in a greenhouse. model proved that the hotter the facade became relative to the surrounding air, the more remarkable the convection effect that was achieved, so as to carry out the sunshading function. Of course, the thermal storage effect becomes vital, when there is a need to warm the room as in the winter season. Double Skin The main concern of the design of this 31-storey cylindrical tower is natural ventilation. This is achieved by its double-leaf facade, which is intended to provide good natural ventilation for perimeter office areas. The space inside the facade is supplied with outside air through a meandering arrangement of intake and exhaust louvres. The double skin allows the RWE Tower to "breathe". It consists of an exterior sheet made of fixed glass panels - 2 x 3.m modules that permit air circulation through corresponding slots, and an interior sheet with operable panels. A solar protection system is installed between both layers, which are 50cm apart. Strips, placed on the setting lines for the exterior facade modules, are perforated on the right side and solid on the left side, at the lower level. The disposition is reversed on the upper level, next to the roof, which guarantees a minimum diagonal of ventilation and prevents the return of recently evacuated air back into the spaces. The interior layer of the double skin is a conventional facade, insulated by collapsible panels that can be controlled manually. facade Facade detail Double skin
  • 46. RWE TOWER Natural Ventilation The double skin allows natural ventilation in the tower. Even the upper workspaces can enjoy natural air control without having to fight wind gusts. Users can control their own environment. The natural ventilation in a high-rise could give rise to the following fears: Actually, natural ventilation may be restricted or influenced by such constructional parameters as: facade layout, ventilation slits or louvres, air-tightness of windows and doors, design of doors (revolving doors, opening and closing mechanisms).
  • 47. RWE TOWER Programme Foyer Restaurent Elevator box Conference room Offices Services Terrace Skylight boardroom box windows Vertical dividers in the facade seal the individual axes from one another and dampen the sound carried within the facade cavity, in effect creating a box window. (see facade structure.jpg) Typical floor plan Terrace level plan Conference floor plan restaurent Ground floor plan
  • 48. RWE TOWER Exterior view Interior stair Terrace level plan Conference floor plan Detail model skylight Section through different level
  • 49. Melbourne central tower Location: Located on Elizabeth Street, between Lt Lonsdale and Latrobe Streets in Melbourne, The Tower is essentially a square plan building, turned 45 degrees to Elizabeth Street. Chief Consultant & Architect: Kisho Kurokawa Architects & Associates, Bates, Smart and McCutcheon Pty Ltd Year of completion: 11 Area distribution: Site area (Office): 2,000 sqm Net lettable area: - Office 5,500 sqm Typical floor plate (Office): 1,500 sqm Car parking spaces: 1,00 Fig: View of Melbourne central tower
  • 50. Melbourne central tower Building height: 211 m, 2 ft Structural: Floor to floor distance, 3,875mm. Floor loading 4.0kPa, 5.0 kpa average & 10 kPa in designated compactus locations. Core Straight core perimeter walls with access/service doors. Through core passages for direct access on lifts. Lifts face each other in dedicated lobby. Consistent floor plate on all rises permits standardisation of office layout. Tea room incorporated into core - can be converted to a communication/server room or storage. Dedicated goods lift servicing all floors and basement areas. Two dedicated risers are located in the north side of the core. Fig: 3 Escalator in Melbourne tower
  • 51. Melbourne central tower Floor layout: Straight perimeter walls. Column free. Core to wall North 11.5m / South 11.5 / East 10.2M / West 10.2M Ceilings and Lighting: Ceiling height 2,00mm. Tenant zone 250mm. Two way exposed grid, with ceiling tiles of 00mm x 00mm. Light intensity 450lux. Lights 2 x 3W PL. fluorescent units. Low brightness diffusers. Air conditioning System type: central plant, variable air volume system with a CV skin system in the perimeter. 23 variable air volume zones per floor minimum. Capacities: lighting 1W/m2, population density of one person/10m2. Tenant equipment 35W/m2, population density of one person/10m2. Condenser water 25W/m2. 11 22 33 44 55 66 77 8 HH GG FF EE DD CC BB AA Fig: 5 Floor layout plan Fig: 6 Entry of Melbourne tower Fig: 7 Birds eye view
  • 52. Melbourne central tower Emergency Power: Standby diesel generators for 100% tenant load or 50% total building load. Standby DG Power is provided to Fire & Lift Safety systems, Firemans lifts, 50% of lifts (In Blackout Mode and 100% in Brownout Mode) 50% chiller capacity, public stair lighting, 50% public lighting, Security System in addition standby power generator circuits are provided to each floor of 80 kw (Average). Power to tenanted area is provided on the basis of 5w/m2 of net lettable area. Load Shed contactors are provided on each Proprietor & Tenant Switchboards to control non-essential circuits. When required these contactors may open automatically to shed load. CCTV, Access Control and Building Automation: CCTV and Access Control Systems was upgraded to the latest state-of-the-art technology, with the access control system using proximity cards. In addition the BAS is being upgraded. Fenestration: The unique "crystal cut" image of the Office Tower arises from the use of the basic square plan, from which two corners have been cut. It means that from every point in the city people will be able to enjoy a changing shape and image of the building. Fig: 10 Use truss in main entry Fig: 11 Glass in exterior
  • 53. Melbourne central tower Emergency Power: Standby diesel generators for 100% tenant load or 50% total building load. Standby DG Power is provided to Fire & Lift Safety systems, Firemans lifts, 50% of lifts (In Blackout Mode and 100% in Brownout Mode) 50% chiller capacity, public stair lighting, 50% public lighting, Security System in addition standby power generator circuits are provided to each floor of 80 kw (Average). Power to tenanted area is provided on the basis of 5w/m2 of net lettable area. Load Shed contactors are provided on each Proprietor & Tenant Switchboards to control non-essential circuits. When required these contactors may open automatically to shed load. CCTV, Access Control and Building Automation: CCTV and Access Control Systems was upgraded to the latest state-of-the-art technology, with the access control system using proximity cards. In addition the BAS is being upgraded. Fenestration: The unique "crystal cut" image of the Office Tower arises from the use of the basic square plan, from which two corners have been cut. It means that from every point in the city people will be able to enjoy a changing shape and image of the building. Fig: 10 Use truss in main entry Fig: 11 Glass in exterior
  • 54. B el tower Location: Road# 1,Dhanmondi # R/A, Dhaka-1205, Bangladesh. Clint: Beximco Group. Chief Consultant & Architect: Arch. Nahas Ahmed Khalil. Structure design Eng.Taraq Mahamud. Electrical engineer Eng.(Sorif, Sallauddin, Moinul Haque). Year of completion: September, 200 Property Line: 7000 sft Built Area: 5411 sft (Each floor) approx. Number of floor: 15 (Fifteen) Fig: Roof garden. Fig: Front view of Bel Tower from road. Bel Tower
  • 55. B el tower Architectural system: Each floor is divided into 4-different levels at 2-4 difference The lift lobby and the services are at one level rest of the usable floor areas are connected by the central stair The emergency fire exit is located at the back of the service area, which is accessible from any other levels. And the fire exit is in a distance which is not more than 80from any distance corner of the building. At 1: 5 ratios, ramp starts 1.5 meters or 4- ft distance from road. Floor to floor height: 10-0 ft. There is no finished ceiling in the interior space (floor area) without lift core area. There is one prayer room in 8th floor. Centre Air conditioning system. Vertical zoning: Flower garden at roof level. Foyer, lobby, lounge, display area, information booth, maintenance office and general store, electric board and pump house provided at ground level. Central core located on the north east segment of the structure which houses 2 elevators, the main staircase, fire exit, toilets and store room. Auditoriums at top level with split-level stages are provided at the south-east entrance block. The typical floors are used in office spaces. Usable floor areas Services and lift core area Fire Exit Duct channel for split system Duct channel for fire-hose- system Circulation passage to fire exit
  • 56. B el tower Building type : High-rise Commercial office building for Beximco Group. Structural system: The structural system is post slab (Flat plate). The Building is in simple rectangular grid expected the shift of columns to meet the inclination of the site line at the north-east side. The lift cores are a built of centric, shifted to the west side of the building. To meet this shift of span the shapes and directions of columns are changed according to the structural requirements. The total envelop of the building is built with non-load bearing R.C.C walls with start cladding and certain glass at the round shaped corners. Column span: Maximum span-20- C/C Minimum span- 15-0 C/C Column size- 2-0X3-4 Plinth: 2-4 Fig: 6 Long section (Sec-X-X)-parking. Fig: 4 Long sections (Sec-X-X) Fig: 5 Typical floor plan (Structural plan).
  • 57. B el tower Number of Basement: 02 (two) basement (3 level). Number of entry: 02 (Office, Basement) Number of Lift: 02 (Office) Stair: 01 stair from ground to fifteen & the stair only use for offices. Floor height: Floor to floor 10-0 Fig: 7 No natural light in Lift core Fig: 8 Basement car parking Fig: 9 Main stairs (Split level floor) Fig: 10 Main entries from road. Main entry
  • 58. B el tower Fire escape: 1 GF to Roof & 1 Basement to GF. Glass type: Single layer glass. Prayer room: Only one in 8th floor. Fig: 11 8th Floor-Prayer rooms. Fig: 12 Reception with lobby, lounge. Fig: 14 Fire fighting stair Fig: 15 15th Floors-Conference Hall. Fig: 13 Single layer glasses.
  • 59. B el tower Chiller room: On 15th floor, proportion of the room is well & natural lighted. Lift machine: On 15th floor Generator room: 2nd Basement floor Water Pump room: Basement 2 Fig: 16 Chiller room on 2nd basement Fig: 19 Lift machineFig: 18 water pumpFig: 17 Lift machine
  • 60. B el tower Cooling tower: 02 (two), on the top of roof. Centre Air conditioning system Electrical room: GF (where 11000 volt electricity substation) Fig: 20 Cooling tower Fig: 21 Cooling tower Fig: 22 Mechanical room Fig: 23 Cooling tower with pipe
  • 61. B el tower Fire safety: Fire safety equipments on every floor. Car-parking : Basement 1 & 2 Fig: 24 Fire box Fig: 25 Fire box Fig: 27 Basement car parking Fig: 28 Parking entry
  • 62. B el tower Merits: 24 hours secured. 24 hours standby generator & air condition system Modern fire fighting system. Superior quality lifts. Flower garden at roof level. Each floor is divided into 4-different levels at 2-4 difference. Fig: 30 Wrong approach of entry Fig: 31 Roof gardening
  • 63. B el tower Demerits: Lift is not shown from entry. Lift core is too small than its office area. Car parking lot is wrong. Basement parking is too wrong. Pedestrian & Vehicular entry approach is wrong. Fire fighting stair is not proportioned. At 1: 5 ratios, ramp starts 1.5 meters or 4- ft distance from road. No serf ace parking and they have used surface parking on road. Sanitary line Narrow Fire Stair