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2.0 Framework Structural System


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2.0 Framework Structural System

  1. 1. izsd@yahoo.com2.0 FRAMEWORK STRUCTURAL SYSTEM
  2. 2. izsd@yahoo.comRecognize types and definition offramework structural systems: a. Column and beam b. Cantilever c. Truss d. Space Frame e. Geodesic Frame
  3. 3. izsd@yahoo.comCOLUMN & BEAM
  4. 4. DEFINITIONDEFINITION > COLUMN A rigid, relatively slender structural member designed primarily to support axial, compressive loads applied at the member ends.DEFINITION > BEAM A rigid structural member designed to carry & transfer transverse loads across space to supporting elements. POST & BEAM SYSTEM @ POST & LINTEL SYSTEM A simple construction method using a lintel, header, or architrave as the horizontal member over a building void supported at its ends by two vertical columns, pillars, or posts.
  5. 5. izsd@yahoo.comPOST AND BEAM STRUCTURES• Most architectural structures are of the post-and-beam type.• Post and beam buildings carry the weight of their structural components(and the weight of objects and people in them) by bearing on one another.• The weight of the roof and beams is carried by the posts down to the foundation and then into the ground. Horizontal beams are subject to bending loads, therefore the structural materials should be able of resisting both tension and compression.• We can further subdivide the post and beam structures into:
  6. 6. izsd@yahoo.comLOAD BEARING WALLS 6
  7. 7. izsd@yahoo.comLOAD BEARING WALLS
  8. 8. izsd@yahoo.comLOAD BEARING WALLS
  9. 9. izsd@yahoo.comSKELETON FRAME
  11. 11. izsd@yahoo.comEXAMPLES (nature) Tree branches
  12. 12. izsd@yahoo.comEXAMPLES (nature) Banyan tree
  13. 13. izsd@yahoo.comCANTILEVER
  14. 14. DEFINITION CANTILEVER A beam @ other rigid structuralmember extending beyond a fulcrum &supported by a balancing member @ a downward force behind the fulcrum. Diagram of loading
  15. 15. DEFINITION CANTILEVER BEAMA projecting beam supported at only one fixed end. Diagram of loading
  16. 16. izsd@yahoo.comEXAMPLES (nature) Cantilever Stone
  17. 17. izsd@yahoo.comEXAMPLES (nature) Oyster Mushroom
  18. 18. izsd@yahoo.comEXAMPLES (nature) Tree
  19. 19. izsd@yahoo.comTRUSS
  20. 20. DEFINITION A structural frame based on the geometric rigidity of the triangle & composed of linear members subject only to axial tension @ compression.1. PLANAR TRUSSDEFINITION:A truss all of whosemembers lie in a singleplane (two dimensionalplane).• E.g: roofs, bridges2. SPACE FRAMETRUSS
  21. 21. EXAMPLES (nature) Wing Bones of a BirdWarren TrussBridge
  22. 22. EXAMPLES (nature) Pelvic Bones of a BirdKingPostTruss
  23. 23. izsd@yahoo.comTYPES
  24. 24.
  25. 25. izsd@yahoo.comSPACE FRAME @ space structure
  26. 26. DEFINITION Three-dimensional framework of members pinned at their ends. • A tetrahedron shape is the simplest space truss, consisting of six members which meet at four joints.Simple tetrahedron Diagram of a planar space frame such as used for a roof
  27. 27. izsd@yahoo.comMaterial: structural steel pipe, tubing, channels, tees @ W-shapesConnectors: Members/struts nodes threadedwelded connection bolted connection connections
  28. 28. izsd@yahoo.comEXAMPLES (nature) Bone Structure
  29. 29. izsd@yahoo.com1. SKELETON TYPES FRAMEWORK (braced)• Number of bars interconnected at the nodes.• e.g. domes, barrel vaults, double and multiplier grids, braced
  30. 30. TYPES2. STRESSED-SKIN SYSTEMS• Thin sheet material +rigid frame = STRESSED SKIN• Used in aircraft, the space shuttle, unit body automobiles.• e.g. Stressed skin folded plates, stressed skin domes and barrel vaults, pneumatic structures.
  31. 31. TYPES3. SUSPENDED STRUCTURES (cable or membrane)• Form of long-span structure that is subject to tension and uses suspension cables for support.• e.g. Cable roofs. Material - PTFE-coatedfibreglass & PVC-coatedpolyester.Nature - spider web
  32. 32. izsd@yahoo.comGEODESIC FRAME
  33. 33. DEFINITION A steel dome having members which follow three principal sets of great circles intersecting at 60°, subdividing the dome surface into series of equilateral spherical triangles.The more complex this system of triangles, the more spherical the dome becomes.
  34. 34. izsd@yahoo.comTYPES 1. Struts: Struts are the force members in a geodesic dome that act in compressive and tensile forces to resist loading. 2. Pins: The pins are used at vertices to hold the struts together. 3. Substructure: The foundation transfers loads from the superstructure down into the earth.