SlideShare a Scribd company logo
Carbon
and its
compounds
● Earth’s crust has 0.02% of carbon in the form of
minerals (like carbonates, hydrogen carbonates,
coal and petroleum)
● Atmosphere has 0.03% of carbon dioxide.
● The branch of chemistry that deals with the study
of carbon and its compounds ( except for oxides
of carbon, carbonate and bicarbonate) is known
as Organic Chemistry.
Properties of carbon compounds
● Most carbon compounds are poor conductors
of electricity.
● Bonding in these compounds does not give
rise to any ions.
● Force of attraction between the molecules is
not very strong.
Vital force theory
● In 1815 AD, a Swedish chemist J.J. Berzelius put forward vital force theory to
explain the origin of organic compound.
● According to this theory, organic compound are formed and synthesized only
within living species( plants and animals ). The word ‘vital’ is derives from
Latin term ‘vita’ which means life. This theory does not account synthesis of
organic compounds in laboratory.
● However, in 1828 AD, a German chemist Friedrich Wohler synthesized
organic compound ‘urea’ from simple inorganic compound ammonium
cyanate. This theory defied the vital force theory.
Bonding in Carbon compounds
● Carbon could gain four electrons to form C4- anion. But it
will be difficult for the nucleus with six protons to hold on
to the ten electrons,ie, the extra four electrons.
● Carbon could lose four electrons and form C4+ cation. But
it requires large amount of Ionisation energy to remove
four electrons leaving behind a carbon with six protons in
its nucleus holding on to just two electrons
Covalent Bonding
A chemical bond formed by sharing of valence shell electrons so that each atoms
acquires the nearest noble gas configuration is known as covalent bond and
compounds formed by sharing of electrons are known as covalent compounds.
Eg: Formation of methane
Bonding in hydrogen Bonding in oxygen Bonding in nitrogen
Single bond Double bond Triple bond
Electron dot structure for methane
● Methane is widely used as a fuel
● Major component of biogas and CNG
Lewis electron dot structure - CO2 and S8 molecules
Water
Carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) Benzene (C6H6)
Characteristic of covalently bonded compounds
● Covalently bonded molecules have strong bonds within
the molecule but intermolecular forces are small. This give
rise to low MP and BP.
● Since electrons are shared between atoms, no charged
particles are formed. Such covalent compounds are
generally poor conductors of electricity.
● Covalent compounds are generally insoluble in water.
Allotrope
● Property of some chemical elements to exist in two or more different forms, in
the same physical state, is called allotropy and each state is known as an
allotrope. Eg: Carbon - Graphite, Diamond, Buckminsterfullerene (C-60).
● They have different physical properties but have same chemical properties.
Graphite Diamond Buckminsterfullerene (C-60)
Versatile nature of Carbon
● More than 3 million compounds of carbon are
known to the chemist.
● Carbon form enormous number of compounds
due to
- Catenation
- Tetravalency
1. Catenation
● Carbon has unique ability to form bonds with other atoms
of carbon.
● These compounds can be long chained, branched or
rings.
● Carbon atoms may be linked by single, double or triple
bonds.
● Carbon compounds with only single bonds between
carbon atoms are called saturated compounds.
● Carbon compounds with double or triple bond between
carbon atoms are called unsaturated compounds.
2. Tetravalency
● Carbon has four valence with which it forms bond with
other atoms of carbon or atoms of some monovalent
element.
● Compounds of carbon are formed with Oxygen, Nitrogen,
Hydrogen, Sulphur, Chlorine and many other elements
giving rise to compounds with specific properties, which
depend on elements other than carbon present in the
molecule.
Other reasons
● Bonds formed between carbon and atoms of other
elements are exceptionally strong and stable.
● Strong bonds are formed due to the small size of the
carbon, which enables the nucleus to hold on to the
shared pair of electrons strongly.
Hydrocarbons
● Compounds of carbon having only carbon and hydrogen
are called hydrocarbons.
● Oil reserves in sedimentary rocks are the source of
hydrocarbons for the energy, transport and petrochemical
industries.
● Economically important hydrocarbons include fossil fuels
such as coal, petroleum and natural gas, and its
derivatives such as plastics, paraffin, waxes, solvents and
oils.
Chain
Saturated Hydrocarbons - Alkanes
● Hydrocarbons in which the carbon atoms are
connected by only single bond is called a
saturated hydrocarbon or alkanes
● The names of all saturated hydrocarbons ends
with ‘ane’
● The general formula of saturated hydrocarbons
or alkanes is CnH2n+2 , where n represents the
number of carbon atoms in the molecule.
Names of the first ten members of the alkane family and their structures
Unsaturated Hydrocarbons
● A hydrocarbon in which the two carbon atoms are
connected by a double or a triple bond is called an
unsaturated hydrocarbon.
● Unsaturated hydrocarbons are of two types
a. Alkenes
b. Alkynes
Alkenes
● The unsaturated hydrocarbons in which the two
carbon atoms are connected by a double bond is
called an alkene.
● The general formula alkenes are CnH2n , where n
represents the number of carbon atoms in the
molecule.
● There is no alkene with one carbon atom.
Isomerism
● The organic compounds having same molecular formula but different
structures are known as isomers. This phenomenon is known as isomerism.
● Isomers of butane
Isomers of pentane
Isomers of hexane
Isomerism in alkenes
Geometrical isomers of alkenes
Characteristics of isomers
● Same molecular formula
● Different structural formula
● All the physical and chemical properties of isomers of a
compound differ from each other.
Alkynes
● An unsaturated hydrocarbon in which two carbon atoms
are connected by a triple bond is called an alkyne.
● They are represented by the general formula CnH2n-2.
● Alkenes and alkynes are chemically more reactive than
alkanes.
● Arrangement in terms of decreasing order of stability,
Alkanes > Alkenes > Alkynes.
Alkyl Group (CnH2n+1)
● The group formed by the removal of one hydrogen atom
from an alkane molecule is called an alkyl group.
● The free line indicates that one valency is free in the alkyl
group.
Cyclic Hydrocarbons
● The hydrocarbons in which the carbon atoms are
arranged in the form of a ring are called cyclic
hydrocarbons.
● It can be saturated or unsaturated.
● Saturated hydrocarbons are called cyclo alkanes
● Cyclo alkanes are represented by the general formula
CnH2n
● The first member starts with 3 carbon atoms.
Cyclo alkanes ( Alicyclic compounds)
Aromatic hydrocarbons - Arenes
Arenes are compounds contains one or more benzene ring as a part of their
structure. The double bonds are delocalized.
They are called aromatic because of their fragrant smell.
Simplest aromatic hydrocarbon - Benzene
● Benzene is an unsaturated cyclic hydrocarbon.
● It has 3 (C-C)
● 3 (C=C)
● 6 (C-H)
Homologous Series
● A series of closely related members with same functional
group, having similar structure and chemical properties, in
which the successive members differ by a >CH2 group.
● The various organic compounds of the homologous series
are called homologue.
Homologous series of alkanes and alkenes
Functional Groups
● The hydrogen atom in a hydrocarbon
can be replaced by a heteroatom.
● These heteroatoms and groups
containing these confer specific
properties to the compounds,
regardless of the length and nature of
the carbon chain and hence are
called functional groups.
● It is a group that determines the chemical nature of an
organic compound.
Functional group memorising tricks
Structural isomers of bromopentane
Chemical properties of carbon compounds
1. Combustion - Carbon burns in oxygen to give carbon
dioxide along with the release of heat and light.
Test for unsaturation - 1
● Saturated hydrocarbons will give a clean flame when
introduced into the flame.
● Unsaturated hydrocarbons will give a yellow flame with a
lots of black smoke, because the percentage of carbon is
comparatively higher than alkanes, which does not burn
completely in air.
● Limiting the supply of air results in incomplete combustion
of even unsaturated hydrocarbons giving a sooty flame.
● Flame is only produced when gaseous substance burns.
Important points to remember.
● If a mixture of acetylene (ethyne) and pure oxygen is
burned, acetylene burns completely producing a blue
flame. The oxygen acetylene flame (oxyacetylene flame)
is extremely hot and produces very high temperature
which is used for welding metals.
● LPG (ethane + Propane + Butane(main component)) is an
excellent fuel because the burns in air to produce a lot of
heat energy.
Oxidation reaction
Oxidation is the reaction in which carbon compounds take up
oxygen in presence of oxidising agents to give another
carbon compound.
Eg : Alcohols are oxidised to acids in the presence of alkaline
potassium permanganate or acidified potassium dichromate
(Oxidising agents).
Addition reaction ( Catalytic hydrogenation)
● Unsaturated hydrocarbons add hydrogen in presence of Ni,Pt or Pd catalyst
to produce saturated hydrocarbons.
● It is commonly used in the hydrogenation of vegetable oils using Ni catalyst.
● Vegetable oils are generally long unsaturated carbon chains while animal fats
have saturated carbon chain.
Test for unsaturation - 2
Add few drops of bromine water to unsaturated compound. If
it gets decolourised it is an unsaturated compound.
Substitution reaction
● Saturated hydrocarbons are fairly unreactive and inert in the presence of
most reagents.
● In a substitution reaction, an atom or a group of atoms present in a compound
is replaced by another atom or a group without the compound undergoing any
change in its structure. If substitution takes place by using halogens it is
called halogenation reaction.
● Eg: In presence of sunlight chlorine is added to hydrocarbons, H is
substituted by Cl and methyl chloride is formed. If the substitution takes place
by chlorine, it is also called chlorination.
Chloromethane Dichloromethane
Trichloromethane(Chloroform)
Ethanol (C2H5OH) - Ethyl alcohol
● Colourless liquid with a pleasant smell and a burning taste
.It is an active ingredient in all alcoholic drinks.
● It is volatile and has low boiling point (78oC)
● Highly soluble in water.
● It is neutral and has no effect on any litmus solution.
● Ethanol containing 5% water is called rectified spirit
(Commercial alcohol)
● 100% pure ethanol is called absolute alcohol.
● It is a good solvent and hence used in many medicines
like tincture of iodine, cough syrups and many tonics.
Chemical properties of ethanol
● Reaction with sodium - Ethanol reacts with sodium to
produce sodium ethoxide and hydrogen gas.
Reaction to form unsaturated hydrocarbons
Heating ethanol at 443K with excess concentrated sulphuric
acid results in the dehydration of ethanol to give ethene.
Conc. Sulphuric acid is used as a dehydrating agent which
removes water from ethanol.
Chemical reactions of ethanol
Alcohol as fuel
● Sugarcane juice is used to prepare molasses which is
fermented to give alcohol (ethanol).
● Some countries now use alcohol as an additive in petrol
since it is a cleaner fuel which gives rise to only carbon
dioxide and water on burning in sufficient air (oxygen).
Denatured alcohol or methylated spirit
Denatured alcohol, also called methylated spirits or
denatured rectified spirit, is ethanol that has additives to
make it poisonous, bad tasting, foul smelling or nauseating,
to discourage recreational consumption. In some cases it is
also dyed.
Ethanoic acid - CH3-COOH (Acetic acid)
● Belongs to the family of carboxylic acid. It is a weak acid.
That is it do not completely ionise in solution.
● 5-8% solution of acetic acid in water is called vinegar
which is widely used as preservative in pickles.
● The melting point of pure ethanoic acid is 290K and often
freezes during winter in cold climates. Hence called
Glacial acetic acid.
Reactions of ethanoic acid
Esterification reaction - Ethanoic acid
reacts with ethanol in presence of acid
catalyst to form esters.
Ethyl ethanoate
● Esters are sweet smelling substances.
● They are used in making perfumes and as flavouring
agents.
● On treating with NaOH, esters are converted back to
alcohol and sodium salt of carboxylic acid. This reaction is
called Saponification reaction because it is used in the
preparation of soap.
2. Reaction with a base.
● Ethanoic acid reacts with a base like NaOH to give a
salt(Sodium ethanoate or sodium acetate) and water.
3. Reaction with Carbonates and Bicarbonates
Ethanoic acid reacts with carbonates and hydrogen
carbonates to give rise to salt, water and carbon dioxide. The
salt produced is sodium acetate.
Esters - R-COOR’
IUPAC - Alkyl alkanoate
Cleansing action of soap
Cleansing action of soaps
Detergents
● Hardness of water is due to the presence of bicarbonates, chlorides or
sulphates of Ca2+ and Mg2+ ions.
● Soap reacts with hard water and produces insoluble precipitates called Scum.
● Detergents are generally ammonium or sulphonate salts of long chain
carboxylic acids.
● The charged ends of these compounds do not form insoluble precipitates with
the calcium and magnesium ions in hard water. Thus, they remain effective in
hard water.
● Detergents are usually used to make shampoos and products for cleaning
clothes.

More Related Content

What's hot

Carbon and its compounds ncert shashikumar b s
Carbon and its compounds ncert shashikumar b sCarbon and its compounds ncert shashikumar b s
Carbon and its compounds ncert shashikumar b sghsykhalli
 
Periodic Classification of Elements
Periodic Classification of ElementsPeriodic Classification of Elements
Periodic Classification of ElementsPawan Kumar Sahu
 
Alcohols,phenols, ethers
Alcohols,phenols, ethersAlcohols,phenols, ethers
Alcohols,phenols, etherssarvesh_cute23
 
Chapter 3.metals and non metals priya jha
Chapter 3.metals and non metals priya jhaChapter 3.metals and non metals priya jha
Chapter 3.metals and non metals priya jhaPriya Jha
 
Xii aldehydes, ketones, carboxylic acid
Xii aldehydes, ketones, carboxylic acidXii aldehydes, ketones, carboxylic acid
Xii aldehydes, ketones, carboxylic acidpranavgalgale1
 
Carbon and its compounds
Carbon and its compoundsCarbon and its compounds
Carbon and its compoundssonia -
 
The Language of Chemistry
The Language of ChemistryThe Language of Chemistry
The Language of ChemistryUlfa Dewanti
 
Chapter - 5, Periodic Classification of Elements, Science, Class 10
Chapter - 5, Periodic Classification of Elements, Science, Class 10Chapter - 5, Periodic Classification of Elements, Science, Class 10
Chapter - 5, Periodic Classification of Elements, Science, Class 10Shivam Parmar
 
Some Basic concepts of chemistry
Some Basic concepts of chemistrySome Basic concepts of chemistry
Some Basic concepts of chemistryKalpaDihingia
 
Carbon and Its compounds. [ Class- X ]
Carbon and Its compounds. [ Class- X ] Carbon and Its compounds. [ Class- X ]
Carbon and Its compounds. [ Class- X ] Soumita69
 
aldehydes , ketones & carboxylic acids.pptx
aldehydes , ketones & carboxylic acids.pptxaldehydes , ketones & carboxylic acids.pptx
aldehydes , ketones & carboxylic acids.pptxanonymous
 

What's hot (20)

Carbon and its compounds ncert shashikumar b s
Carbon and its compounds ncert shashikumar b sCarbon and its compounds ncert shashikumar b s
Carbon and its compounds ncert shashikumar b s
 
Periodic Classification of Elements
Periodic Classification of ElementsPeriodic Classification of Elements
Periodic Classification of Elements
 
Alcohols,phenols, ethers
Alcohols,phenols, ethersAlcohols,phenols, ethers
Alcohols,phenols, ethers
 
Carbon and Its Compounds
Carbon and Its CompoundsCarbon and Its Compounds
Carbon and Its Compounds
 
Carbon
CarbonCarbon
Carbon
 
Chapter 3.metals and non metals priya jha
Chapter 3.metals and non metals priya jhaChapter 3.metals and non metals priya jha
Chapter 3.metals and non metals priya jha
 
Unit 16 Carbon Chemistry
Unit 16 Carbon ChemistryUnit 16 Carbon Chemistry
Unit 16 Carbon Chemistry
 
Carbon and Its Compound
Carbon and Its CompoundCarbon and Its Compound
Carbon and Its Compound
 
Xii aldehydes, ketones, carboxylic acid
Xii aldehydes, ketones, carboxylic acidXii aldehydes, ketones, carboxylic acid
Xii aldehydes, ketones, carboxylic acid
 
Carbon and its compounds
Carbon and its compoundsCarbon and its compounds
Carbon and its compounds
 
The Language of Chemistry
The Language of ChemistryThe Language of Chemistry
The Language of Chemistry
 
Chapter - 5, Periodic Classification of Elements, Science, Class 10
Chapter - 5, Periodic Classification of Elements, Science, Class 10Chapter - 5, Periodic Classification of Elements, Science, Class 10
Chapter - 5, Periodic Classification of Elements, Science, Class 10
 
Some Basic concepts of chemistry
Some Basic concepts of chemistrySome Basic concepts of chemistry
Some Basic concepts of chemistry
 
IGCSE Electricity
IGCSE ElectricityIGCSE Electricity
IGCSE Electricity
 
Carbon and Its compounds. [ Class- X ]
Carbon and Its compounds. [ Class- X ] Carbon and Its compounds. [ Class- X ]
Carbon and Its compounds. [ Class- X ]
 
S block elements
S block elementsS block elements
S block elements
 
The periodic table
The periodic tableThe periodic table
The periodic table
 
Carbon
CarbonCarbon
Carbon
 
aldehydes , ketones & carboxylic acids.pptx
aldehydes , ketones & carboxylic acids.pptxaldehydes , ketones & carboxylic acids.pptx
aldehydes , ketones & carboxylic acids.pptx
 
Carbon and its compounds
Carbon and   its compoundsCarbon and   its compounds
Carbon and its compounds
 

Similar to L.05 carbon and its compounds gr 10, 2019-20

Advanced practical organic chemistry
Advanced practical organic chemistryAdvanced practical organic chemistry
Advanced practical organic chemistrybrettnmanda
 
Lecturenote10 13
Lecturenote10 13Lecturenote10 13
Lecturenote10 13dustinjohn
 
C15 hydrocarbons
C15 hydrocarbonsC15 hydrocarbons
C15 hydrocarbonsdean dundas
 
Carbon and its compounds
Carbon and its compounds Carbon and its compounds
Carbon and its compounds LOHITH M S
 
C15 hydrocarbons
C15 hydrocarbonsC15 hydrocarbons
C15 hydrocarbonsChemrcwss
 
Organic Compounds and Functional Groups..pptx
Organic Compounds and Functional Groups..pptxOrganic Compounds and Functional Groups..pptx
Organic Compounds and Functional Groups..pptxkriselcello
 
Org chem introduction (seu)
Org chem introduction (seu)Org chem introduction (seu)
Org chem introduction (seu)asraf sohel
 
Organic Chemistry Introduction and Orbital Design
Organic Chemistry Introduction and Orbital DesignOrganic Chemistry Introduction and Orbital Design
Organic Chemistry Introduction and Orbital DesignPharmacy Universe
 
organic_chemistry.pptx__1_.pdf
organic_chemistry.pptx__1_.pdforganic_chemistry.pptx__1_.pdf
organic_chemistry.pptx__1_.pdfAnif fatmawati
 
Organic compound
Organic compoundOrganic compound
Organic compoundAhura1
 
organic chemistry presentation.pptx
 organic chemistry presentation.pptx organic chemistry presentation.pptx
organic chemistry presentation.pptxKawalyasteven
 
Class 10 chemistry Carbon and its compounds.pdf
Class 10 chemistry Carbon and its compounds.pdfClass 10 chemistry Carbon and its compounds.pdf
Class 10 chemistry Carbon and its compounds.pdfankitrajak629
 
Functional-Grou-WPS-Office.pptx
Functional-Grou-WPS-Office.pptxFunctional-Grou-WPS-Office.pptx
Functional-Grou-WPS-Office.pptxNicoPleta1
 

Similar to L.05 carbon and its compounds gr 10, 2019-20 (20)

Advanced practical organic chemistry
Advanced practical organic chemistryAdvanced practical organic chemistry
Advanced practical organic chemistry
 
Advanced practical organic chemistry
Advanced practical organic chemistryAdvanced practical organic chemistry
Advanced practical organic chemistry
 
Lecturenote10 13
Lecturenote10 13Lecturenote10 13
Lecturenote10 13
 
C15 hydrocarbons
C15 hydrocarbonsC15 hydrocarbons
C15 hydrocarbons
 
C15 hydrocarbons
C15 hydrocarbonsC15 hydrocarbons
C15 hydrocarbons
 
Carbon and its compounds
Carbon and its compounds Carbon and its compounds
Carbon and its compounds
 
Hydrocarbons
HydrocarbonsHydrocarbons
Hydrocarbons
 
Unit 4ale
Unit 4aleUnit 4ale
Unit 4ale
 
Unit 4
Unit 4Unit 4
Unit 4
 
C15 hydrocarbons
C15 hydrocarbonsC15 hydrocarbons
C15 hydrocarbons
 
Organic Compounds and Functional Groups..pptx
Organic Compounds and Functional Groups..pptxOrganic Compounds and Functional Groups..pptx
Organic Compounds and Functional Groups..pptx
 
Org chem introduction (seu)
Org chem introduction (seu)Org chem introduction (seu)
Org chem introduction (seu)
 
Organic Chemistry Introduction and Orbital Design
Organic Chemistry Introduction and Orbital DesignOrganic Chemistry Introduction and Orbital Design
Organic Chemistry Introduction and Orbital Design
 
16363.pptx
16363.pptx16363.pptx
16363.pptx
 
organic_chemistry.pptx__1_.pdf
organic_chemistry.pptx__1_.pdforganic_chemistry.pptx__1_.pdf
organic_chemistry.pptx__1_.pdf
 
Notes
NotesNotes
Notes
 
Organic compound
Organic compoundOrganic compound
Organic compound
 
organic chemistry presentation.pptx
 organic chemistry presentation.pptx organic chemistry presentation.pptx
organic chemistry presentation.pptx
 
Class 10 chemistry Carbon and its compounds.pdf
Class 10 chemistry Carbon and its compounds.pdfClass 10 chemistry Carbon and its compounds.pdf
Class 10 chemistry Carbon and its compounds.pdf
 
Functional-Grou-WPS-Office.pptx
Functional-Grou-WPS-Office.pptxFunctional-Grou-WPS-Office.pptx
Functional-Grou-WPS-Office.pptx
 

More from MhdAfz

Surface Chemistry - Class 12
Surface Chemistry - Class 12Surface Chemistry - Class 12
Surface Chemistry - Class 12MhdAfz
 
Skeletal System and the Nervous System CBSE
Skeletal System and the Nervous System CBSESkeletal System and the Nervous System CBSE
Skeletal System and the Nervous System CBSEMhdAfz
 
Coal and Petroleum Grade 8 CBSE
Coal and Petroleum Grade 8 CBSE Coal and Petroleum Grade 8 CBSE
Coal and Petroleum Grade 8 CBSE MhdAfz
 
Upcoming science topics
Upcoming science topicsUpcoming science topics
Upcoming science topicsMhdAfz
 
Falcon 9 - The Revolution of Space Industry
Falcon 9 - The Revolution of Space IndustryFalcon 9 - The Revolution of Space Industry
Falcon 9 - The Revolution of Space IndustryMhdAfz
 
Thermodynamics class 11 physics
Thermodynamics class 11 physicsThermodynamics class 11 physics
Thermodynamics class 11 physicsMhdAfz
 
CHAP 3 ATOMS AND MOLECULES GR 9 2020-21
CHAP 3 ATOMS AND MOLECULES GR 9 2020-21CHAP 3 ATOMS AND MOLECULES GR 9 2020-21
CHAP 3 ATOMS AND MOLECULES GR 9 2020-21MhdAfz
 
GRADE 7 CBSE CHAPTER 10 RESPIRATION IN ORGANISMS
GRADE 7 CBSE CHAPTER 10 RESPIRATION IN ORGANISMSGRADE 7 CBSE CHAPTER 10 RESPIRATION IN ORGANISMS
GRADE 7 CBSE CHAPTER 10 RESPIRATION IN ORGANISMSMhdAfz
 
Periodic classification of elements gr10, 2020-21
Periodic classification of elements gr10, 2020-21Periodic classification of elements gr10, 2020-21
Periodic classification of elements gr10, 2020-21MhdAfz
 
TOP 10 FUN FACTS OF VENUS
TOP 10 FUN FACTS OF VENUSTOP 10 FUN FACTS OF VENUS
TOP 10 FUN FACTS OF VENUSMhdAfz
 
WHAT IS A MIRAGE ?
WHAT IS A MIRAGE ?WHAT IS A MIRAGE ?
WHAT IS A MIRAGE ?MhdAfz
 
THE 8 PLANETS OF THE SOLAR SYSTEM
THE 8 PLANETS OF THE SOLAR SYSTEMTHE 8 PLANETS OF THE SOLAR SYSTEM
THE 8 PLANETS OF THE SOLAR SYSTEMMhdAfz
 
THE CORONAVIRUS STORY: COVID - 19 PANDEMIC OUTBREAK SERIES I Episode 2 I Str...
THE CORONAVIRUS STORY:  COVID - 19 PANDEMIC OUTBREAK SERIES I Episode 2 I Str...THE CORONAVIRUS STORY:  COVID - 19 PANDEMIC OUTBREAK SERIES I Episode 2 I Str...
THE CORONAVIRUS STORY: COVID - 19 PANDEMIC OUTBREAK SERIES I Episode 2 I Str...MhdAfz
 
TOP 10 FUN FACTS OF GOLD
TOP 10 FUN FACTS OF GOLDTOP 10 FUN FACTS OF GOLD
TOP 10 FUN FACTS OF GOLDMhdAfz
 
Top 20 fun facts of stars
Top 20 fun facts of starsTop 20 fun facts of stars
Top 20 fun facts of starsMhdAfz
 
IS MARS REALLY RED ?
IS MARS REALLY RED ?IS MARS REALLY RED ?
IS MARS REALLY RED ?MhdAfz
 
TOP 10 FUN FACTS OF MARS
TOP 10 FUN FACTS OF MARS TOP 10 FUN FACTS OF MARS
TOP 10 FUN FACTS OF MARS MhdAfz
 
WHY ARE AURORAS FORMED ?
WHY ARE AURORAS FORMED ? WHY ARE AURORAS FORMED ?
WHY ARE AURORAS FORMED ? MhdAfz
 
WHY COMETS HAVE TAILS ?
WHY COMETS HAVE TAILS ?WHY COMETS HAVE TAILS ?
WHY COMETS HAVE TAILS ?MhdAfz
 
TOP 10 FUN FACTS OF SOLAR SYSTEM
TOP 10 FUN FACTS OF SOLAR SYSTEMTOP 10 FUN FACTS OF SOLAR SYSTEM
TOP 10 FUN FACTS OF SOLAR SYSTEMMhdAfz
 

More from MhdAfz (20)

Surface Chemistry - Class 12
Surface Chemistry - Class 12Surface Chemistry - Class 12
Surface Chemistry - Class 12
 
Skeletal System and the Nervous System CBSE
Skeletal System and the Nervous System CBSESkeletal System and the Nervous System CBSE
Skeletal System and the Nervous System CBSE
 
Coal and Petroleum Grade 8 CBSE
Coal and Petroleum Grade 8 CBSE Coal and Petroleum Grade 8 CBSE
Coal and Petroleum Grade 8 CBSE
 
Upcoming science topics
Upcoming science topicsUpcoming science topics
Upcoming science topics
 
Falcon 9 - The Revolution of Space Industry
Falcon 9 - The Revolution of Space IndustryFalcon 9 - The Revolution of Space Industry
Falcon 9 - The Revolution of Space Industry
 
Thermodynamics class 11 physics
Thermodynamics class 11 physicsThermodynamics class 11 physics
Thermodynamics class 11 physics
 
CHAP 3 ATOMS AND MOLECULES GR 9 2020-21
CHAP 3 ATOMS AND MOLECULES GR 9 2020-21CHAP 3 ATOMS AND MOLECULES GR 9 2020-21
CHAP 3 ATOMS AND MOLECULES GR 9 2020-21
 
GRADE 7 CBSE CHAPTER 10 RESPIRATION IN ORGANISMS
GRADE 7 CBSE CHAPTER 10 RESPIRATION IN ORGANISMSGRADE 7 CBSE CHAPTER 10 RESPIRATION IN ORGANISMS
GRADE 7 CBSE CHAPTER 10 RESPIRATION IN ORGANISMS
 
Periodic classification of elements gr10, 2020-21
Periodic classification of elements gr10, 2020-21Periodic classification of elements gr10, 2020-21
Periodic classification of elements gr10, 2020-21
 
TOP 10 FUN FACTS OF VENUS
TOP 10 FUN FACTS OF VENUSTOP 10 FUN FACTS OF VENUS
TOP 10 FUN FACTS OF VENUS
 
WHAT IS A MIRAGE ?
WHAT IS A MIRAGE ?WHAT IS A MIRAGE ?
WHAT IS A MIRAGE ?
 
THE 8 PLANETS OF THE SOLAR SYSTEM
THE 8 PLANETS OF THE SOLAR SYSTEMTHE 8 PLANETS OF THE SOLAR SYSTEM
THE 8 PLANETS OF THE SOLAR SYSTEM
 
THE CORONAVIRUS STORY: COVID - 19 PANDEMIC OUTBREAK SERIES I Episode 2 I Str...
THE CORONAVIRUS STORY:  COVID - 19 PANDEMIC OUTBREAK SERIES I Episode 2 I Str...THE CORONAVIRUS STORY:  COVID - 19 PANDEMIC OUTBREAK SERIES I Episode 2 I Str...
THE CORONAVIRUS STORY: COVID - 19 PANDEMIC OUTBREAK SERIES I Episode 2 I Str...
 
TOP 10 FUN FACTS OF GOLD
TOP 10 FUN FACTS OF GOLDTOP 10 FUN FACTS OF GOLD
TOP 10 FUN FACTS OF GOLD
 
Top 20 fun facts of stars
Top 20 fun facts of starsTop 20 fun facts of stars
Top 20 fun facts of stars
 
IS MARS REALLY RED ?
IS MARS REALLY RED ?IS MARS REALLY RED ?
IS MARS REALLY RED ?
 
TOP 10 FUN FACTS OF MARS
TOP 10 FUN FACTS OF MARS TOP 10 FUN FACTS OF MARS
TOP 10 FUN FACTS OF MARS
 
WHY ARE AURORAS FORMED ?
WHY ARE AURORAS FORMED ? WHY ARE AURORAS FORMED ?
WHY ARE AURORAS FORMED ?
 
WHY COMETS HAVE TAILS ?
WHY COMETS HAVE TAILS ?WHY COMETS HAVE TAILS ?
WHY COMETS HAVE TAILS ?
 
TOP 10 FUN FACTS OF SOLAR SYSTEM
TOP 10 FUN FACTS OF SOLAR SYSTEMTOP 10 FUN FACTS OF SOLAR SYSTEM
TOP 10 FUN FACTS OF SOLAR SYSTEM
 

Recently uploaded

Richard's entangled aventures in wonderland
Richard's entangled aventures in wonderlandRichard's entangled aventures in wonderland
Richard's entangled aventures in wonderlandRichard Gill
 
Microbial bio Synthesis of nanoparticles.pptx
Microbial bio Synthesis of nanoparticles.pptxMicrobial bio Synthesis of nanoparticles.pptx
Microbial bio Synthesis of nanoparticles.pptxCherry
 
mixotrophy in cyanobacteria: a dual nutritional strategy
mixotrophy in cyanobacteria: a dual nutritional strategymixotrophy in cyanobacteria: a dual nutritional strategy
mixotrophy in cyanobacteria: a dual nutritional strategyMansiBishnoi1
 
THE IMPORTANCE OF MARTIAN ATMOSPHERE SAMPLE RETURN.
THE IMPORTANCE OF MARTIAN ATMOSPHERE SAMPLE RETURN.THE IMPORTANCE OF MARTIAN ATMOSPHERE SAMPLE RETURN.
THE IMPORTANCE OF MARTIAN ATMOSPHERE SAMPLE RETURN.Sérgio Sacani
 
Mitosis...............................pptx
Mitosis...............................pptxMitosis...............................pptx
Mitosis...............................pptxCherry
 
Hemoglobin metabolism: C Kalyan & E. Muralinath
Hemoglobin metabolism: C Kalyan & E. MuralinathHemoglobin metabolism: C Kalyan & E. Muralinath
Hemoglobin metabolism: C Kalyan & E. Muralinathmuralinath2
 
Erythropoiesis- Dr.E. Muralinath-C Kalyan
Erythropoiesis- Dr.E. Muralinath-C KalyanErythropoiesis- Dr.E. Muralinath-C Kalyan
Erythropoiesis- Dr.E. Muralinath-C Kalyanmuralinath2
 
GBSN - Microbiology (Lab 2) Compound Microscope
GBSN - Microbiology (Lab 2) Compound MicroscopeGBSN - Microbiology (Lab 2) Compound Microscope
GBSN - Microbiology (Lab 2) Compound MicroscopeAreesha Ahmad
 
INSIGHT Partner Profile: Tampere University
INSIGHT Partner Profile: Tampere UniversityINSIGHT Partner Profile: Tampere University
INSIGHT Partner Profile: Tampere UniversitySteffi Friedrichs
 
Climate extremes likely to drive land mammal extinction during next supercont...
Climate extremes likely to drive land mammal extinction during next supercont...Climate extremes likely to drive land mammal extinction during next supercont...
Climate extremes likely to drive land mammal extinction during next supercont...Sérgio Sacani
 
METHODS OF TRANSCRIPTOME ANALYSIS....pptx
METHODS OF TRANSCRIPTOME ANALYSIS....pptxMETHODS OF TRANSCRIPTOME ANALYSIS....pptx
METHODS OF TRANSCRIPTOME ANALYSIS....pptxCherry
 
Plasmapheresis - Dr. E. Muralinath - Kalyan . C.pptx
Plasmapheresis - Dr. E. Muralinath - Kalyan . C.pptxPlasmapheresis - Dr. E. Muralinath - Kalyan . C.pptx
Plasmapheresis - Dr. E. Muralinath - Kalyan . C.pptxmuralinath2
 
Structures and textures of metamorphic rocks
Structures and textures of metamorphic rocksStructures and textures of metamorphic rocks
Structures and textures of metamorphic rockskumarmathi863
 
GBSN - Microbiology (Lab 1) Microbiology Lab Safety Procedures
GBSN -  Microbiology (Lab  1) Microbiology Lab Safety ProceduresGBSN -  Microbiology (Lab  1) Microbiology Lab Safety Procedures
GBSN - Microbiology (Lab 1) Microbiology Lab Safety ProceduresAreesha Ahmad
 
Multi-source connectivity as the driver of solar wind variability in the heli...
Multi-source connectivity as the driver of solar wind variability in the heli...Multi-source connectivity as the driver of solar wind variability in the heli...
Multi-source connectivity as the driver of solar wind variability in the heli...Sérgio Sacani
 
Constraints on Neutrino Natal Kicks from Black-Hole Binary VFTS 243
Constraints on Neutrino Natal Kicks from Black-Hole Binary VFTS 243Constraints on Neutrino Natal Kicks from Black-Hole Binary VFTS 243
Constraints on Neutrino Natal Kicks from Black-Hole Binary VFTS 243Sérgio Sacani
 
Structural annotation................pptx
Structural annotation................pptxStructural annotation................pptx
Structural annotation................pptxCherry
 
Gliese 12 b: A Temperate Earth-sized Planet at 12 pc Ideal for Atmospheric Tr...
Gliese 12 b: A Temperate Earth-sized Planet at 12 pc Ideal for Atmospheric Tr...Gliese 12 b: A Temperate Earth-sized Planet at 12 pc Ideal for Atmospheric Tr...
Gliese 12 b: A Temperate Earth-sized Planet at 12 pc Ideal for Atmospheric Tr...Sérgio Sacani
 
Phytogeography........................pptx
Phytogeography........................pptxPhytogeography........................pptx
Phytogeography........................pptxCherry
 
Pests of sugarcane_Binomics_IPM_Dr.UPR.pdf
Pests of sugarcane_Binomics_IPM_Dr.UPR.pdfPests of sugarcane_Binomics_IPM_Dr.UPR.pdf
Pests of sugarcane_Binomics_IPM_Dr.UPR.pdfPirithiRaju
 

Recently uploaded (20)

Richard's entangled aventures in wonderland
Richard's entangled aventures in wonderlandRichard's entangled aventures in wonderland
Richard's entangled aventures in wonderland
 
Microbial bio Synthesis of nanoparticles.pptx
Microbial bio Synthesis of nanoparticles.pptxMicrobial bio Synthesis of nanoparticles.pptx
Microbial bio Synthesis of nanoparticles.pptx
 
mixotrophy in cyanobacteria: a dual nutritional strategy
mixotrophy in cyanobacteria: a dual nutritional strategymixotrophy in cyanobacteria: a dual nutritional strategy
mixotrophy in cyanobacteria: a dual nutritional strategy
 
THE IMPORTANCE OF MARTIAN ATMOSPHERE SAMPLE RETURN.
THE IMPORTANCE OF MARTIAN ATMOSPHERE SAMPLE RETURN.THE IMPORTANCE OF MARTIAN ATMOSPHERE SAMPLE RETURN.
THE IMPORTANCE OF MARTIAN ATMOSPHERE SAMPLE RETURN.
 
Mitosis...............................pptx
Mitosis...............................pptxMitosis...............................pptx
Mitosis...............................pptx
 
Hemoglobin metabolism: C Kalyan & E. Muralinath
Hemoglobin metabolism: C Kalyan & E. MuralinathHemoglobin metabolism: C Kalyan & E. Muralinath
Hemoglobin metabolism: C Kalyan & E. Muralinath
 
Erythropoiesis- Dr.E. Muralinath-C Kalyan
Erythropoiesis- Dr.E. Muralinath-C KalyanErythropoiesis- Dr.E. Muralinath-C Kalyan
Erythropoiesis- Dr.E. Muralinath-C Kalyan
 
GBSN - Microbiology (Lab 2) Compound Microscope
GBSN - Microbiology (Lab 2) Compound MicroscopeGBSN - Microbiology (Lab 2) Compound Microscope
GBSN - Microbiology (Lab 2) Compound Microscope
 
INSIGHT Partner Profile: Tampere University
INSIGHT Partner Profile: Tampere UniversityINSIGHT Partner Profile: Tampere University
INSIGHT Partner Profile: Tampere University
 
Climate extremes likely to drive land mammal extinction during next supercont...
Climate extremes likely to drive land mammal extinction during next supercont...Climate extremes likely to drive land mammal extinction during next supercont...
Climate extremes likely to drive land mammal extinction during next supercont...
 
METHODS OF TRANSCRIPTOME ANALYSIS....pptx
METHODS OF TRANSCRIPTOME ANALYSIS....pptxMETHODS OF TRANSCRIPTOME ANALYSIS....pptx
METHODS OF TRANSCRIPTOME ANALYSIS....pptx
 
Plasmapheresis - Dr. E. Muralinath - Kalyan . C.pptx
Plasmapheresis - Dr. E. Muralinath - Kalyan . C.pptxPlasmapheresis - Dr. E. Muralinath - Kalyan . C.pptx
Plasmapheresis - Dr. E. Muralinath - Kalyan . C.pptx
 
Structures and textures of metamorphic rocks
Structures and textures of metamorphic rocksStructures and textures of metamorphic rocks
Structures and textures of metamorphic rocks
 
GBSN - Microbiology (Lab 1) Microbiology Lab Safety Procedures
GBSN -  Microbiology (Lab  1) Microbiology Lab Safety ProceduresGBSN -  Microbiology (Lab  1) Microbiology Lab Safety Procedures
GBSN - Microbiology (Lab 1) Microbiology Lab Safety Procedures
 
Multi-source connectivity as the driver of solar wind variability in the heli...
Multi-source connectivity as the driver of solar wind variability in the heli...Multi-source connectivity as the driver of solar wind variability in the heli...
Multi-source connectivity as the driver of solar wind variability in the heli...
 
Constraints on Neutrino Natal Kicks from Black-Hole Binary VFTS 243
Constraints on Neutrino Natal Kicks from Black-Hole Binary VFTS 243Constraints on Neutrino Natal Kicks from Black-Hole Binary VFTS 243
Constraints on Neutrino Natal Kicks from Black-Hole Binary VFTS 243
 
Structural annotation................pptx
Structural annotation................pptxStructural annotation................pptx
Structural annotation................pptx
 
Gliese 12 b: A Temperate Earth-sized Planet at 12 pc Ideal for Atmospheric Tr...
Gliese 12 b: A Temperate Earth-sized Planet at 12 pc Ideal for Atmospheric Tr...Gliese 12 b: A Temperate Earth-sized Planet at 12 pc Ideal for Atmospheric Tr...
Gliese 12 b: A Temperate Earth-sized Planet at 12 pc Ideal for Atmospheric Tr...
 
Phytogeography........................pptx
Phytogeography........................pptxPhytogeography........................pptx
Phytogeography........................pptx
 
Pests of sugarcane_Binomics_IPM_Dr.UPR.pdf
Pests of sugarcane_Binomics_IPM_Dr.UPR.pdfPests of sugarcane_Binomics_IPM_Dr.UPR.pdf
Pests of sugarcane_Binomics_IPM_Dr.UPR.pdf
 

L.05 carbon and its compounds gr 10, 2019-20

  • 2. ● Earth’s crust has 0.02% of carbon in the form of minerals (like carbonates, hydrogen carbonates, coal and petroleum) ● Atmosphere has 0.03% of carbon dioxide. ● The branch of chemistry that deals with the study of carbon and its compounds ( except for oxides of carbon, carbonate and bicarbonate) is known as Organic Chemistry.
  • 3. Properties of carbon compounds ● Most carbon compounds are poor conductors of electricity. ● Bonding in these compounds does not give rise to any ions. ● Force of attraction between the molecules is not very strong.
  • 4. Vital force theory ● In 1815 AD, a Swedish chemist J.J. Berzelius put forward vital force theory to explain the origin of organic compound. ● According to this theory, organic compound are formed and synthesized only within living species( plants and animals ). The word ‘vital’ is derives from Latin term ‘vita’ which means life. This theory does not account synthesis of organic compounds in laboratory. ● However, in 1828 AD, a German chemist Friedrich Wohler synthesized organic compound ‘urea’ from simple inorganic compound ammonium cyanate. This theory defied the vital force theory.
  • 5. Bonding in Carbon compounds ● Carbon could gain four electrons to form C4- anion. But it will be difficult for the nucleus with six protons to hold on to the ten electrons,ie, the extra four electrons. ● Carbon could lose four electrons and form C4+ cation. But it requires large amount of Ionisation energy to remove four electrons leaving behind a carbon with six protons in its nucleus holding on to just two electrons
  • 6. Covalent Bonding A chemical bond formed by sharing of valence shell electrons so that each atoms acquires the nearest noble gas configuration is known as covalent bond and compounds formed by sharing of electrons are known as covalent compounds. Eg: Formation of methane Bonding in hydrogen Bonding in oxygen Bonding in nitrogen Single bond Double bond Triple bond
  • 7. Electron dot structure for methane ● Methane is widely used as a fuel ● Major component of biogas and CNG
  • 8. Lewis electron dot structure - CO2 and S8 molecules
  • 10. Characteristic of covalently bonded compounds ● Covalently bonded molecules have strong bonds within the molecule but intermolecular forces are small. This give rise to low MP and BP. ● Since electrons are shared between atoms, no charged particles are formed. Such covalent compounds are generally poor conductors of electricity. ● Covalent compounds are generally insoluble in water.
  • 11. Allotrope ● Property of some chemical elements to exist in two or more different forms, in the same physical state, is called allotropy and each state is known as an allotrope. Eg: Carbon - Graphite, Diamond, Buckminsterfullerene (C-60). ● They have different physical properties but have same chemical properties. Graphite Diamond Buckminsterfullerene (C-60)
  • 12. Versatile nature of Carbon ● More than 3 million compounds of carbon are known to the chemist. ● Carbon form enormous number of compounds due to - Catenation - Tetravalency
  • 13. 1. Catenation ● Carbon has unique ability to form bonds with other atoms of carbon. ● These compounds can be long chained, branched or rings. ● Carbon atoms may be linked by single, double or triple bonds. ● Carbon compounds with only single bonds between carbon atoms are called saturated compounds. ● Carbon compounds with double or triple bond between carbon atoms are called unsaturated compounds.
  • 14. 2. Tetravalency ● Carbon has four valence with which it forms bond with other atoms of carbon or atoms of some monovalent element. ● Compounds of carbon are formed with Oxygen, Nitrogen, Hydrogen, Sulphur, Chlorine and many other elements giving rise to compounds with specific properties, which depend on elements other than carbon present in the molecule.
  • 15. Other reasons ● Bonds formed between carbon and atoms of other elements are exceptionally strong and stable. ● Strong bonds are formed due to the small size of the carbon, which enables the nucleus to hold on to the shared pair of electrons strongly.
  • 16. Hydrocarbons ● Compounds of carbon having only carbon and hydrogen are called hydrocarbons. ● Oil reserves in sedimentary rocks are the source of hydrocarbons for the energy, transport and petrochemical industries. ● Economically important hydrocarbons include fossil fuels such as coal, petroleum and natural gas, and its derivatives such as plastics, paraffin, waxes, solvents and oils.
  • 17. Chain
  • 18. Saturated Hydrocarbons - Alkanes ● Hydrocarbons in which the carbon atoms are connected by only single bond is called a saturated hydrocarbon or alkanes ● The names of all saturated hydrocarbons ends with ‘ane’ ● The general formula of saturated hydrocarbons or alkanes is CnH2n+2 , where n represents the number of carbon atoms in the molecule.
  • 19. Names of the first ten members of the alkane family and their structures
  • 20. Unsaturated Hydrocarbons ● A hydrocarbon in which the two carbon atoms are connected by a double or a triple bond is called an unsaturated hydrocarbon. ● Unsaturated hydrocarbons are of two types a. Alkenes b. Alkynes
  • 21. Alkenes ● The unsaturated hydrocarbons in which the two carbon atoms are connected by a double bond is called an alkene. ● The general formula alkenes are CnH2n , where n represents the number of carbon atoms in the molecule. ● There is no alkene with one carbon atom.
  • 22.
  • 23.
  • 24. Isomerism ● The organic compounds having same molecular formula but different structures are known as isomers. This phenomenon is known as isomerism. ● Isomers of butane
  • 29. Characteristics of isomers ● Same molecular formula ● Different structural formula ● All the physical and chemical properties of isomers of a compound differ from each other.
  • 30. Alkynes ● An unsaturated hydrocarbon in which two carbon atoms are connected by a triple bond is called an alkyne. ● They are represented by the general formula CnH2n-2. ● Alkenes and alkynes are chemically more reactive than alkanes. ● Arrangement in terms of decreasing order of stability, Alkanes > Alkenes > Alkynes.
  • 31.
  • 32. Alkyl Group (CnH2n+1) ● The group formed by the removal of one hydrogen atom from an alkane molecule is called an alkyl group. ● The free line indicates that one valency is free in the alkyl group.
  • 33. Cyclic Hydrocarbons ● The hydrocarbons in which the carbon atoms are arranged in the form of a ring are called cyclic hydrocarbons. ● It can be saturated or unsaturated. ● Saturated hydrocarbons are called cyclo alkanes ● Cyclo alkanes are represented by the general formula CnH2n ● The first member starts with 3 carbon atoms.
  • 34. Cyclo alkanes ( Alicyclic compounds)
  • 35. Aromatic hydrocarbons - Arenes Arenes are compounds contains one or more benzene ring as a part of their structure. The double bonds are delocalized. They are called aromatic because of their fragrant smell.
  • 36. Simplest aromatic hydrocarbon - Benzene ● Benzene is an unsaturated cyclic hydrocarbon. ● It has 3 (C-C) ● 3 (C=C) ● 6 (C-H)
  • 37.
  • 38. Homologous Series ● A series of closely related members with same functional group, having similar structure and chemical properties, in which the successive members differ by a >CH2 group. ● The various organic compounds of the homologous series are called homologue.
  • 39. Homologous series of alkanes and alkenes
  • 40.
  • 41. Functional Groups ● The hydrogen atom in a hydrocarbon can be replaced by a heteroatom. ● These heteroatoms and groups containing these confer specific properties to the compounds, regardless of the length and nature of the carbon chain and hence are called functional groups. ● It is a group that determines the chemical nature of an organic compound.
  • 42.
  • 43.
  • 45. Structural isomers of bromopentane
  • 46. Chemical properties of carbon compounds 1. Combustion - Carbon burns in oxygen to give carbon dioxide along with the release of heat and light.
  • 47. Test for unsaturation - 1 ● Saturated hydrocarbons will give a clean flame when introduced into the flame. ● Unsaturated hydrocarbons will give a yellow flame with a lots of black smoke, because the percentage of carbon is comparatively higher than alkanes, which does not burn completely in air. ● Limiting the supply of air results in incomplete combustion of even unsaturated hydrocarbons giving a sooty flame. ● Flame is only produced when gaseous substance burns.
  • 48. Important points to remember. ● If a mixture of acetylene (ethyne) and pure oxygen is burned, acetylene burns completely producing a blue flame. The oxygen acetylene flame (oxyacetylene flame) is extremely hot and produces very high temperature which is used for welding metals. ● LPG (ethane + Propane + Butane(main component)) is an excellent fuel because the burns in air to produce a lot of heat energy.
  • 49. Oxidation reaction Oxidation is the reaction in which carbon compounds take up oxygen in presence of oxidising agents to give another carbon compound. Eg : Alcohols are oxidised to acids in the presence of alkaline potassium permanganate or acidified potassium dichromate (Oxidising agents).
  • 50. Addition reaction ( Catalytic hydrogenation) ● Unsaturated hydrocarbons add hydrogen in presence of Ni,Pt or Pd catalyst to produce saturated hydrocarbons. ● It is commonly used in the hydrogenation of vegetable oils using Ni catalyst. ● Vegetable oils are generally long unsaturated carbon chains while animal fats have saturated carbon chain.
  • 51. Test for unsaturation - 2 Add few drops of bromine water to unsaturated compound. If it gets decolourised it is an unsaturated compound.
  • 52. Substitution reaction ● Saturated hydrocarbons are fairly unreactive and inert in the presence of most reagents. ● In a substitution reaction, an atom or a group of atoms present in a compound is replaced by another atom or a group without the compound undergoing any change in its structure. If substitution takes place by using halogens it is called halogenation reaction. ● Eg: In presence of sunlight chlorine is added to hydrocarbons, H is substituted by Cl and methyl chloride is formed. If the substitution takes place by chlorine, it is also called chlorination.
  • 54. Ethanol (C2H5OH) - Ethyl alcohol ● Colourless liquid with a pleasant smell and a burning taste .It is an active ingredient in all alcoholic drinks. ● It is volatile and has low boiling point (78oC) ● Highly soluble in water. ● It is neutral and has no effect on any litmus solution. ● Ethanol containing 5% water is called rectified spirit (Commercial alcohol) ● 100% pure ethanol is called absolute alcohol. ● It is a good solvent and hence used in many medicines like tincture of iodine, cough syrups and many tonics.
  • 55. Chemical properties of ethanol ● Reaction with sodium - Ethanol reacts with sodium to produce sodium ethoxide and hydrogen gas.
  • 56.
  • 57. Reaction to form unsaturated hydrocarbons Heating ethanol at 443K with excess concentrated sulphuric acid results in the dehydration of ethanol to give ethene. Conc. Sulphuric acid is used as a dehydrating agent which removes water from ethanol.
  • 59. Alcohol as fuel ● Sugarcane juice is used to prepare molasses which is fermented to give alcohol (ethanol). ● Some countries now use alcohol as an additive in petrol since it is a cleaner fuel which gives rise to only carbon dioxide and water on burning in sufficient air (oxygen).
  • 60. Denatured alcohol or methylated spirit Denatured alcohol, also called methylated spirits or denatured rectified spirit, is ethanol that has additives to make it poisonous, bad tasting, foul smelling or nauseating, to discourage recreational consumption. In some cases it is also dyed.
  • 61. Ethanoic acid - CH3-COOH (Acetic acid) ● Belongs to the family of carboxylic acid. It is a weak acid. That is it do not completely ionise in solution. ● 5-8% solution of acetic acid in water is called vinegar which is widely used as preservative in pickles. ● The melting point of pure ethanoic acid is 290K and often freezes during winter in cold climates. Hence called Glacial acetic acid.
  • 62. Reactions of ethanoic acid Esterification reaction - Ethanoic acid reacts with ethanol in presence of acid catalyst to form esters. Ethyl ethanoate
  • 63. ● Esters are sweet smelling substances. ● They are used in making perfumes and as flavouring agents. ● On treating with NaOH, esters are converted back to alcohol and sodium salt of carboxylic acid. This reaction is called Saponification reaction because it is used in the preparation of soap.
  • 64. 2. Reaction with a base. ● Ethanoic acid reacts with a base like NaOH to give a salt(Sodium ethanoate or sodium acetate) and water.
  • 65. 3. Reaction with Carbonates and Bicarbonates Ethanoic acid reacts with carbonates and hydrogen carbonates to give rise to salt, water and carbon dioxide. The salt produced is sodium acetate.
  • 66. Esters - R-COOR’ IUPAC - Alkyl alkanoate
  • 67.
  • 70.
  • 71. Detergents ● Hardness of water is due to the presence of bicarbonates, chlorides or sulphates of Ca2+ and Mg2+ ions. ● Soap reacts with hard water and produces insoluble precipitates called Scum. ● Detergents are generally ammonium or sulphonate salts of long chain carboxylic acids. ● The charged ends of these compounds do not form insoluble precipitates with the calcium and magnesium ions in hard water. Thus, they remain effective in hard water. ● Detergents are usually used to make shampoos and products for cleaning clothes.