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Pests of Green Manures
By
Dr. U. Pirithiraj, P.hD.
Assistant Professor (Entomology)
JSACAT
Affiliated to Tamil Nadu Agricultural University
Pests of Sunnhemp
Hairy caterpillar, Utethesia pulchella, Erebidae
(Arctiidae), Lepidoptera
1
Dr. U. Pirithiraj, P.hD. (Entomology)
Nature of damage
Larva feeds on leaves and also cause
severe damage by feeding on developing
pods
Symptom of damage
Defoliation of the plant
Distribution: Europe; Africa; India; Sri Lanka; Philippines; Thailand; Malaysia; New Guinea;
Australia
Eggs are white spheres with a
microscopic hexagonal grid on the
surface
Dorso-lateral side with black stripes and orange
patches. Body has long brownish hairs.
Pupates in the soil
Red and black spots on the white forewings
Dr. U. Pirithiraj, P.hD. (Entomology)
Hairy caterpillar, Argina astrea (A. cribraria),
A. syringa, Hypsidae (Arctiidae), Lepidoptera
2
Dr. U. Pirithiraj, P.hD. (Entomology)
Nature of damage
Larvae feeds on the leaves
Symptom of damage
Defoliation
It is found in eastern Africa, southern Asia of India, Sri Lanka, Maldives and Indo-Australia,
including the Pacific Islands and Australia
Yellowish eggs laid in clusters on the
undersurface of the leaves
Hairy caterpillar with black transverse
markings and white spots
Pupates on the plant or the
surface of the soil Dr. U. Pirithiraj, P.hD. (Entomology)
Argina astrea / A. cribraria has black
spots on yellowish wings
Argina syringa has black spots on
reddish brown wings
Dr. U. Pirithiraj, P.hD. (Entomology)
Flea beetle, Longitarsus belgaumensis,
Chrysomelidae (F), Alticinae (SF), Coleoptera
3
Dr. U. Pirithiraj, P.hD. (Entomology)
Nature of damage
Adult makes shot holes on leaves
Grub feeds on the roots by mining.
A cosmopolitan distribution
Sunhemp mirid, Ragmus importunitas, Miridae,
Hemiptera
4
Dr. U. Pirithiraj, P.hD. (Entomology)
Nature of damage
Nymphs and adults suck the sap from
tender leaves and shoots and cause
yellowing of leaves and in severe attack,
death of plants
Symptom of damage
Minute chlorotic spots, later coalescing to
cause yellowing of leaves
Widely distributed in southern India
Greenish bug
Stem borer, Leguminivora tricentra (Enarmonia
tricentra), Tortricidae (Eucosmidae), Lepidoptera
5
Dr. U. Pirithiraj, P.hD. (Entomology)
Nature of damage
Larvae bores into stem, swelling at
place of attack
Identification
Pale white larva with dark brown head
and pinkish red prothorax.
Adult – small greyish brown moth
Distribution: India, Myanmar, China, Japan, Europe
Enarmonia sp.
Pests of Sesbania
Sesbania stem borer, Azygophleps scalaris,
Cossidae, Lepidoptera
1
Dr. U. Pirithiraj, P.hD. (Entomology)
Nature of damage
Stoutly built larva bores into the stem and
feeds, the faecal matter getting
accumulated at the entrance hole
Symptom of damage
Drying of sesbania plants
Found in Pakistan, India, China, Sri Lanka, Myanmar, Thailand, Cambodia
Robust larva of 7 cm
length, light brown with a
reddish brown head
Pupa has spines anteriorly with
the help of which it moves up and
down inside the tunnel in the
stem
Sluggish yellowish brown
moth
Dr. U. Pirithiraj, P.hD. (Entomology)
Stem weevil, Alcidodes bubo, Curculionidae,
Coleoptera
2
Dr. U. Pirithiraj, P.hD. (Entomology)
Nature of damage
Grubs riddle into stem and cause thickenings on stem.
The growth and vigour of the plants are impaired to a
great extent
Symptom of damage
Drying of the terminal branches or whole plant
Affected stem with numerous bore holes and swelling
symptoms.
Presence of apodous grub inside the stem
Eggs - Laid on the stem
Apodous whitish grub
Reddish brown weevil with white
transverse markings on the elytra
Dr. U. Pirithiraj, P.hD. (Entomology)
Pests of Daincha
Stink bug, Piezodorus rubrofasciatus, Pentatomidae,
Hemiptera
1
Dr. U. Pirithiraj, P.hD. (Entomology)
Widely distributed in Asia and Africa
Damage
Feeding damage caused by
nymphs and adults to the leaves
and seed pods
Green semilooper, Pericyma glaucinans, Noctuidae,
Lepidoptera
2
Dr. U. Pirithiraj, P.hD. (Entomology)
Widely distributed in the arid and semi-arid zones of the Earth
Nature of damage
Caterpillar feeds on the
leaflets remaining along the
ribs of leaves
Symptom of damage
Defoliation of plants
preceding with leaflets
damage
Pale green, semilooper
with broad yellow
lateral stripes
Dark brown with black lines
Green looper, Semiothisa pervolgata, Geometridae,
Lepidoptera
3
Dr. U. Pirithiraj, P.hD. (Entomology)
Distribution: It is found in south-west Asia, including India, Sri Lanka and Taiwan
Nature of damage
Larvae feed on the leaves
Symptom of damage
Defoliation of plants preceding with
leaflets damage
White colour with dark lines and spots on the wings
Brown looper, Hyposidra talaca (Hyposidra
succesaria), Geometridae, Lepidoptera
4
Dr. U. Pirithiraj, P.hD. (Entomology)
From India to Indochina, Sundaland, Sulawesi, the Philippines, Sri Lanka, the Solomon
Islands, Thailand, Taiwan, New Guinea and Australia, where it has been recorded from
Queensland
Reddish in colour with faint lines
Reddish brown in colour with spots
Larvae feed on the leaves
Symptom
Defoliation
Leaf webber, Striglina scitaria, Thyrdidae,
Lepidoptera
5
Dr. U. Pirithiraj, P.hD. (Entomology)
Taiwan, Japan, India, Sri Lanka, Maldives, Myanmar, the Andamans, Borneo, New Guinea, Fiji
and Australia
Brown moth with oblique lines on wings
Nature of damage
In the early stage the larva twists the
terminal portion of the leaflet in the form of
a small cone and lives inside scraping the
green matter. As it grows, it webs together
the leaflets and lives inside the tunnel of
the web and ultimately pupates inside it
Symptom of damage
Webbing of terminal leaflets into conical
structures
Pierid/Sulphur butterflies, Eurema hecabe, Pieridae,
Lepidoptera
6
Dr. U. Pirithiraj, P.hD. (Entomology)
Distribution: Asia, Africa and Australia
Yellow coloured butterfly with black margins
Greenish caterpillar with white lateral lines
Symptom of damage
Defoliation of the leaflets
Mottled emigrant, Catopsilia pyranthe, C. crocale, C.
pomona, Pieridae, Lepidoptera
7
Dr. U. Pirithiraj, P.hD. (Entomology)
Found in south Asia, southeast Asia, and parts of Australia
Symptom of damage
Feed on young leaves
Female - Black margin around each wings and
brown specklets
Male - black tip present on the fore wing
Dr. U. Pirithiraj, P.hD. (Entomology)
Pests of Lucerne/ Alfalfa
(Forage crop)
Spotted alfalfa aphid, Therioaphis maculata,
Aphididae, Hemiptera
1
Dr. U. Pirithiraj, P.hD. (Entomology)
Spread throughout the alfalfa-growing areas of the United States
Nature of damage
Nymph and adult
suck the sap
Yellow coloured
aphids with
series of spots.
Lucerne weevil, Hypera variabblis, Curculionidae,
Coleoptera
2
Dr. U. Pirithiraj, P.hD. (Entomology)
It can be found in alfalfa fields throughout Europe and North America
Nature of damage
Grub and adult cause the
damage
Symptom of damage
Leaves with irregular holes.
Affected plants remain stunted
Pests of Subabul
Jumping lice, Heteropsylla cubana, Psyllidae,
Hemiptera
1
Dr. U. Pirithiraj, P.hD. (Entomology)
Indigenous to parts of tropical America but was introduced to Asia by the Spanish in the 1600s
Nature of damage
Nymph and adult cause the damage
Symptom of damage
Wilting of growing shoots resulting in
die back; plants unable to put forth new
growth. Honeydew deposition and sooty
mould development
Pale greenish yellow
Pests of Gliricidia
Aphid, Aphis craccivora, Aphididae, Hemiptera
1
Dr. U. Pirithiraj, P.hD. (Entomology)
Distribution. Aphis craccivora is believed to be Palearctic in origin but has expanded its range
so that now it is near cosmopolitan
Nature of damage
Nymph and adult cause the damage
Symptom of damage
Honeydew deposition and sooty mould
development
Weevil, Indozocladius asperulus, Curculionidae,
Coleoptera
2
Dr. U. Pirithiraj, P.hD. (Entomology)
Widely distributed in peninsular India
Symptoms
Larva feed and pupate inside the flower buds, making
them hollow. In severe attacks, the number of flowers
is reduced substantially
Ash weevil, Myllocerus spp., Curculionidae,
Coleoptera
Symptom of damage
Larva feeds on the
secondary roots
Adults feeds on leaves,
notching symptom
Adult
M. discolour
Myllocerus spp. Distribution: India, and Sri Lanka.
3
Management
Collect and destroy adults
Apply Neem cake @ 500 kg/ha at the
time of last ploughing
Dr. U. Pirithiraj, P.hD. (Entomology)

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  • 1. Pests of Green Manures By Dr. U. Pirithiraj, P.hD. Assistant Professor (Entomology) JSACAT Affiliated to Tamil Nadu Agricultural University
  • 3. Hairy caterpillar, Utethesia pulchella, Erebidae (Arctiidae), Lepidoptera 1 Dr. U. Pirithiraj, P.hD. (Entomology) Nature of damage Larva feeds on leaves and also cause severe damage by feeding on developing pods Symptom of damage Defoliation of the plant Distribution: Europe; Africa; India; Sri Lanka; Philippines; Thailand; Malaysia; New Guinea; Australia
  • 4. Eggs are white spheres with a microscopic hexagonal grid on the surface Dorso-lateral side with black stripes and orange patches. Body has long brownish hairs. Pupates in the soil Red and black spots on the white forewings Dr. U. Pirithiraj, P.hD. (Entomology)
  • 5. Hairy caterpillar, Argina astrea (A. cribraria), A. syringa, Hypsidae (Arctiidae), Lepidoptera 2 Dr. U. Pirithiraj, P.hD. (Entomology) Nature of damage Larvae feeds on the leaves Symptom of damage Defoliation It is found in eastern Africa, southern Asia of India, Sri Lanka, Maldives and Indo-Australia, including the Pacific Islands and Australia
  • 6. Yellowish eggs laid in clusters on the undersurface of the leaves Hairy caterpillar with black transverse markings and white spots Pupates on the plant or the surface of the soil Dr. U. Pirithiraj, P.hD. (Entomology)
  • 7. Argina astrea / A. cribraria has black spots on yellowish wings Argina syringa has black spots on reddish brown wings Dr. U. Pirithiraj, P.hD. (Entomology)
  • 8. Flea beetle, Longitarsus belgaumensis, Chrysomelidae (F), Alticinae (SF), Coleoptera 3 Dr. U. Pirithiraj, P.hD. (Entomology) Nature of damage Adult makes shot holes on leaves Grub feeds on the roots by mining. A cosmopolitan distribution
  • 9. Sunhemp mirid, Ragmus importunitas, Miridae, Hemiptera 4 Dr. U. Pirithiraj, P.hD. (Entomology) Nature of damage Nymphs and adults suck the sap from tender leaves and shoots and cause yellowing of leaves and in severe attack, death of plants Symptom of damage Minute chlorotic spots, later coalescing to cause yellowing of leaves Widely distributed in southern India Greenish bug
  • 10. Stem borer, Leguminivora tricentra (Enarmonia tricentra), Tortricidae (Eucosmidae), Lepidoptera 5 Dr. U. Pirithiraj, P.hD. (Entomology) Nature of damage Larvae bores into stem, swelling at place of attack Identification Pale white larva with dark brown head and pinkish red prothorax. Adult – small greyish brown moth Distribution: India, Myanmar, China, Japan, Europe Enarmonia sp.
  • 12. Sesbania stem borer, Azygophleps scalaris, Cossidae, Lepidoptera 1 Dr. U. Pirithiraj, P.hD. (Entomology) Nature of damage Stoutly built larva bores into the stem and feeds, the faecal matter getting accumulated at the entrance hole Symptom of damage Drying of sesbania plants Found in Pakistan, India, China, Sri Lanka, Myanmar, Thailand, Cambodia
  • 13. Robust larva of 7 cm length, light brown with a reddish brown head Pupa has spines anteriorly with the help of which it moves up and down inside the tunnel in the stem Sluggish yellowish brown moth Dr. U. Pirithiraj, P.hD. (Entomology)
  • 14. Stem weevil, Alcidodes bubo, Curculionidae, Coleoptera 2 Dr. U. Pirithiraj, P.hD. (Entomology) Nature of damage Grubs riddle into stem and cause thickenings on stem. The growth and vigour of the plants are impaired to a great extent Symptom of damage Drying of the terminal branches or whole plant Affected stem with numerous bore holes and swelling symptoms. Presence of apodous grub inside the stem
  • 15. Eggs - Laid on the stem Apodous whitish grub Reddish brown weevil with white transverse markings on the elytra Dr. U. Pirithiraj, P.hD. (Entomology)
  • 17. Stink bug, Piezodorus rubrofasciatus, Pentatomidae, Hemiptera 1 Dr. U. Pirithiraj, P.hD. (Entomology) Widely distributed in Asia and Africa Damage Feeding damage caused by nymphs and adults to the leaves and seed pods
  • 18. Green semilooper, Pericyma glaucinans, Noctuidae, Lepidoptera 2 Dr. U. Pirithiraj, P.hD. (Entomology) Widely distributed in the arid and semi-arid zones of the Earth Nature of damage Caterpillar feeds on the leaflets remaining along the ribs of leaves Symptom of damage Defoliation of plants preceding with leaflets damage Pale green, semilooper with broad yellow lateral stripes Dark brown with black lines
  • 19. Green looper, Semiothisa pervolgata, Geometridae, Lepidoptera 3 Dr. U. Pirithiraj, P.hD. (Entomology) Distribution: It is found in south-west Asia, including India, Sri Lanka and Taiwan Nature of damage Larvae feed on the leaves Symptom of damage Defoliation of plants preceding with leaflets damage White colour with dark lines and spots on the wings
  • 20. Brown looper, Hyposidra talaca (Hyposidra succesaria), Geometridae, Lepidoptera 4 Dr. U. Pirithiraj, P.hD. (Entomology) From India to Indochina, Sundaland, Sulawesi, the Philippines, Sri Lanka, the Solomon Islands, Thailand, Taiwan, New Guinea and Australia, where it has been recorded from Queensland Reddish in colour with faint lines Reddish brown in colour with spots Larvae feed on the leaves Symptom Defoliation
  • 21. Leaf webber, Striglina scitaria, Thyrdidae, Lepidoptera 5 Dr. U. Pirithiraj, P.hD. (Entomology) Taiwan, Japan, India, Sri Lanka, Maldives, Myanmar, the Andamans, Borneo, New Guinea, Fiji and Australia Brown moth with oblique lines on wings Nature of damage In the early stage the larva twists the terminal portion of the leaflet in the form of a small cone and lives inside scraping the green matter. As it grows, it webs together the leaflets and lives inside the tunnel of the web and ultimately pupates inside it Symptom of damage Webbing of terminal leaflets into conical structures
  • 22. Pierid/Sulphur butterflies, Eurema hecabe, Pieridae, Lepidoptera 6 Dr. U. Pirithiraj, P.hD. (Entomology) Distribution: Asia, Africa and Australia Yellow coloured butterfly with black margins Greenish caterpillar with white lateral lines Symptom of damage Defoliation of the leaflets
  • 23. Mottled emigrant, Catopsilia pyranthe, C. crocale, C. pomona, Pieridae, Lepidoptera 7 Dr. U. Pirithiraj, P.hD. (Entomology) Found in south Asia, southeast Asia, and parts of Australia Symptom of damage Feed on young leaves
  • 24. Female - Black margin around each wings and brown specklets Male - black tip present on the fore wing Dr. U. Pirithiraj, P.hD. (Entomology)
  • 25. Pests of Lucerne/ Alfalfa (Forage crop)
  • 26. Spotted alfalfa aphid, Therioaphis maculata, Aphididae, Hemiptera 1 Dr. U. Pirithiraj, P.hD. (Entomology) Spread throughout the alfalfa-growing areas of the United States Nature of damage Nymph and adult suck the sap Yellow coloured aphids with series of spots.
  • 27. Lucerne weevil, Hypera variabblis, Curculionidae, Coleoptera 2 Dr. U. Pirithiraj, P.hD. (Entomology) It can be found in alfalfa fields throughout Europe and North America Nature of damage Grub and adult cause the damage Symptom of damage Leaves with irregular holes. Affected plants remain stunted
  • 29. Jumping lice, Heteropsylla cubana, Psyllidae, Hemiptera 1 Dr. U. Pirithiraj, P.hD. (Entomology) Indigenous to parts of tropical America but was introduced to Asia by the Spanish in the 1600s Nature of damage Nymph and adult cause the damage Symptom of damage Wilting of growing shoots resulting in die back; plants unable to put forth new growth. Honeydew deposition and sooty mould development Pale greenish yellow
  • 31. Aphid, Aphis craccivora, Aphididae, Hemiptera 1 Dr. U. Pirithiraj, P.hD. (Entomology) Distribution. Aphis craccivora is believed to be Palearctic in origin but has expanded its range so that now it is near cosmopolitan Nature of damage Nymph and adult cause the damage Symptom of damage Honeydew deposition and sooty mould development
  • 32. Weevil, Indozocladius asperulus, Curculionidae, Coleoptera 2 Dr. U. Pirithiraj, P.hD. (Entomology) Widely distributed in peninsular India Symptoms Larva feed and pupate inside the flower buds, making them hollow. In severe attacks, the number of flowers is reduced substantially
  • 33. Ash weevil, Myllocerus spp., Curculionidae, Coleoptera Symptom of damage Larva feeds on the secondary roots Adults feeds on leaves, notching symptom Adult M. discolour Myllocerus spp. Distribution: India, and Sri Lanka. 3 Management Collect and destroy adults Apply Neem cake @ 500 kg/ha at the time of last ploughing Dr. U. Pirithiraj, P.hD. (Entomology)