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PRESENTED
BY
RICHARD OPOKU ASARE
M.Ed (Health education), B.Ed (Hons)(Health sciences) , RN (Dip)-MN,
Cert.Ed.
asareor@yahoo.com © 2015 1
PSYCHOSOCIAL DEVELOPMENT
This theory of personality was developed by Erik
Erikson (1902-1994) who believed that human beings
go through psychosocial stages of development, in
contrast to Freud’s psychosexual stages of
development. He became interested in how young
people acquire a personal identity and how society
helps shape it. Because his theory integrates
personal, emotional and social development, it is
often called psychosocial theory of personality
development.
asareor@yahoo.com © 2015 2
PSYCHOSOCIAL DEVELOPMENT –
Cont’d
Erikson divided the human life-span into eight (8) stages,
and each with two possible outcomes, and described at the
time that an individual experiences a psychological challenge
as a crisis. A positive resolution of a crisis means a favorable
ratio of positive to negative psychosocial traits emerges (i.e.,
the more an individual resolves the crisis successfully, the
healthier development will be). A negative resolution results
in individuals seeing the world as unpredictable and
threatening (i.e., failure to successfully complete a stage can
result in a reduced ability to complete further stages and
therefore a more unhealthy personality and sense of self).
asareor@yahoo.com © 2015 3
PSYCHOSOCIAL DEVELOPMENT –
Cont’d
This does not mean that people who
successfully resolve the crisis never have
negative thoughts or distrust another
person. In general, they see the best in
others and have a positive orientation
towards life.
asareor@yahoo.com © 2015 4
Erikson’s work is based on five
assumptions:
1. People, in general have the same basic needs.
2. Personal development occurs in response to
these needs.
3. Development proceeds in stages.
4. Movement through the stages reflects changes in
an individual’s motivation.
5. Each stage is characterized by a psychosocial
challenge that presents opportunities for
development.
asareor@yahoo.com © 2015 5
ERIKSON’S
EIGHT STAGES OF
PSYCHOSOCIAL
DEVELOPMENT
asareor@yahoo.com © 2015 6
Trust versus Mistrust (Infancy)
(Birth – 1 year)
From ages of birth to one year, infants begin to
learn the ability to trust others based upon the
consistency of their parents/caregivers. A sense
of trust requires a feeling of physical comfort and
minimal amount of fear and apprehension about
the future. If infant’s basic needs, such as food,
clothes, quick changing of soiled diapers, etc.,
are met by responsive, sensitive
parents/caregivers, it leads to sound
attachments.
asareor@yahoo.com © 2015 7
Trust versus Mistrust (Infancy)
(Birth – 1 year) – Cont’d
Infants therefore develop an optimistic,
trusting attitude toward the world by having a
life-long expectation that the world will be
good and pleasant to live. Hence, sense of
trust. However, if children’s basic needs are
not met, or poorly taken care of, it may result
in anxiety, a more distrusting and insecure
personality, and over feeling of mistrust in the
world around them. Hence, sense of mistrust.
asareor@yahoo.com © 2015 8
Autonomy versus Shame and Doubt
(Toddlerhood) (1 – 3 years)
This occurs in late infancy and toddlerhood when
parents begin toilet training and other efforts to
regulate their children. Between the ages of one
and three, children begin to discover that their
behaviour is their own by taking some personal
responsibility. They assert their independence by
walking away from their mother, picking which
toy(s) to play with, and making choices about
what they like to wear, to eat, bath, and so forth.
asareor@yahoo.com © 2015 9
Autonomy versus Shame and Doubt
(Toddlerhood) (1 year – 3 years) – Cont’d
If all goes on well when they are given the
needed encouragement and support to
increase their independence, children
become more confident and secure in their
own ability to survive in the world. Children,
therefore, acquire as sense of self-sufficiency
and start to assert their sense of
independence by realizing their will; hence
autonomy.
asareor@yahoo.com © 2015 10
Autonomy versus Shame and Doubt
(Toddlerhood) (1 year – 3 years) – Cont’d
But if parents/caregivers are never satisfied with
children’s efforts, criticised, and restrained or
overly-controlled them too much, or not given the
children the opportunity to assert themselves, or
punished too harshly resulting in constant
parents-children conflict, they (children) begin to
feel inadequate in their ability to survive, and may
then become overly dependent on others, lack self-
esteem, and develop a sense of personal shame
and self-doubt in their own abilities.
asareor@yahoo.com © 2015 11
Initiative versus Guilt (Early
childhood) (3 – 5 years)
This occurs during the preschool years, where
children widen their social world and are
faced with challenges to function socially,
within their families. Children are asked to
assume responsibility for their bodies, their
toys, their pets, and other belongings
entrusted to them. They begin to plan
activities, make up games, and initiate other
activities.
asareor@yahoo.com © 2015 12
Initiative versus Guilt (Early
childhood) (3 – 5 years) – Cont’d
If children are given this opportunity, they
develop a sense of initiate, and feel secure in
their ability to lead others and make
decisions. Conversely, if this tendency is
suppressed or quenched, either though
criticism or control, children develop a sense
of guilt. They may feel like a nuisance to
others and will therefore remain followers,
lacking in self-initiative.
asareor@yahoo.com © 2015 13
Initiative versus Guilt (Early
childhood) (3 – 5 years) – Cont’d
More so, if children think only of their own
needs and desires, family members may begin
to instill feelings of guilt, and self-esteem may
suffer. Besides, if children are irresponsible
and are made to feel too anxious,
uncomfortable guilt feelings may arise. But if
they learn to get along well with siblings and
parents, a sense of self-confidence should
begin to grow.
asareor@yahoo.com © 2015 14
Industry versus Inferiority (Middle & late
childhood) (6 – 12 years/Puberty)
This occurs approximately in their elementary
school years, where children are faced with
the challenges of learning to function socially
that is beyond the family to the broader realm
of the neighborhood and school. They begin
to develop a sense of pride in their
accomplishments as a result of their
initiatives that bring them in contact with a
wealth of new experiences.
asareor@yahoo.com © 2015 15
Industry versus Inferiority (Middle & late
childhood) (6 – 12 years/Puberty) – Cont’d
They direct their energy toward mastering
knowledge and intellectual skills. They initiate
projects, see them through to completion, and
feel good about what they have achieved. This
increases their competencies in academic skills
and social interactions. If children are
encouraged and reinforced for their initiative,
they begin to feel and develop a sense of industry
and feel confident in their ability to achieve goals.
asareor@yahoo.com © 2015 16
Industry versus Inferiority (Middle & late
childhood) (6 – 12 years/Puberty) – Cont’d
In contrast, if this initiative is not encouraged,
if it is restricted by parents, teachers or peers,
it may result in difficulties in this stage that
could lead to feelings of failure, inadequacy,
and unproductive. Children may doubt their
own abilities and therefore may not reach
their potential. They develop a sense of
inferiority.
asareor@yahoo.com © 2015 17
Identity versus Role/Identity Confusion
(Adolescence) (12 – 20 years)
This is experienced during the adolescent
years, where the transition from childhood to
adulthood is most important. Adolescents are
faced with finding out who they are, what
they are all about, and where they are going in
life. They are faced with major decisions to
make about their identity – a term known as
identity crisis.
asareor@yahoo.com © 2015 18
Identity versus Role/Identity Confusion
(Adolescence) (12 – 20 years) – Cont’d
They also become more independent, and begin
to look at the future in terms of career,
relationships, families, housing, and so forth.
Adolescents at this stage are confronted with
many new roles and adult statuses, such as
vocation or career development, and issues of
romance. If adolescents explore such roles in a
healthy manner and arrive at a positive path to
follow in life, then a positive identity will be
achieved.
asareor@yahoo.com © 2015 19
Identity versus Role/Identity Confusion
(Adolescence) (12 – 20 years) – Cont’d
If an identity is pushed on adolescents
by parents, hindering their sense of who
they are, and adolescents do not
adequately consider alternative
possibilities, then a sense of identity
confusion (“I don’t know what I want to
be when I grow up”) and their role in the
world result.
asareor@yahoo.com © 2015 20
Intimacy versus Isolation (Early
adulthood) (20 – 40 years)
A person with a firm sense of identity is
prepared for intimacy, or giving the self over
to another. This is experienced during the
early or young adulthood years. At this stage,
we begin to share ourselves more intimately
with others. Young adults seek to make long
term commitments to others than a family
member.
asareor@yahoo.com © 2015 21
Intimacy versus Isolation (Early
adulthood) (20 – 40 years) – Cont’d
Successful completion can lead to
comfortable and secure relationships
and a sense of commitment, safety, and
care within that relationship (provided
young adults are able to form a healthy
friendship and intimate close relations
with other persons).
asareor@yahoo.com © 2015 22
Intimacy versus Isolation (Early
adulthood) (20 – 40 years) – Cont’d
If they are unsuccessful and avoid
intimacy, fear commitment and
relationships, it can lead to emotional
isolation, loneliness and sometimes
depression. The young adults therefore
develop a sense of isolation and self-
absorption will result.
asareor@yahoo.com © 2015 23
Generativity versus Stagnation
(Middle adulthood) (40 – 65 years)
This is the period of middle adulthood where we have
established our careers, settled down within a
relationship, began our own families and developed a
sense of being a part of the bigger picture of the society.
We give back to society through raising our children,
being productive at work, and becoming involved in
community activities and organizations. This stage also
marks the period where individuals acquire a genuine
concern for the welfare of the future generations, which
results in providing unselfish guidance to younger
people.
asareor@yahoo.com © 2015 24
Generativity versus Stagnation (Middle
adulthood) (40 – 65 years) – Cont’d
The chief challenge or task is to assist the
younger generation in developing and leading
useful lives. This is termed generativity.
Generative adults try to contribute to the
betterment of society by working for
principles such as a clean physical
environment, a safe and drug-free social
world and adherence to the principles of
freedom and dignity for individuals.
asareor@yahoo.com © 2015 25
Generativity versus Stagnation (Middle
adulthood) (40 – 65 years) – Cont’d
The key characteristics of generativity are
creativity, productivity, and concern for and
commitment to guiding the next generation.
By failing to achieve these key objectives, the
feeling of having done nothing to help the
next generation, and experiencing a sense of
personal impoverishment, we become
stagnant and feel unproductive, apathy,
pseudo-intimacy, or self-absorption.
asareor@yahoo.com © 2015 26
Ego Integrity versus Despair (Late
adulthood) (65 years to death)
This phase occurs during late adulthood or
old age and is focused on reflecting back
on life. We evaluate what we have done
with our lives. Those who feel proud of
their accomplishments will feel a sense of
integrity. Successfully completing this
phase means looking back with few regrets
and a general feeling of satisfaction.
asareor@yahoo.com © 2015 27
Ego Integrity versus Despair (Late
adulthood) (65 years to death) – Cont’d
These individuals will attain wisdom,
even when confronting death. They
accept responsibility for the way they
have lived and accept the finality of
death. People who accept themselves,
conclude that they only have one life to
live, live it as well as possible and have
few regrets are seen as having integrity.
asareor@yahoo.com © 2015 28
Ego Integrity versus Despair (Late
adulthood) (65 years to death) – Cont’d
Those who are unsuccessful during this
phase will feel that their life has been
wasted and will experience many regrets
and guilt feelings. The individual will be
left with feelings of bitterness and
despair, often leading to depression and
hopelessness.
asareor@yahoo.com © 2015 29
THE END – THANK YOU
asareor@yahoo.com © 2015 30

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Erikson’s stage theory

  • 1. PRESENTED BY RICHARD OPOKU ASARE M.Ed (Health education), B.Ed (Hons)(Health sciences) , RN (Dip)-MN, Cert.Ed. asareor@yahoo.com © 2015 1
  • 2. PSYCHOSOCIAL DEVELOPMENT This theory of personality was developed by Erik Erikson (1902-1994) who believed that human beings go through psychosocial stages of development, in contrast to Freud’s psychosexual stages of development. He became interested in how young people acquire a personal identity and how society helps shape it. Because his theory integrates personal, emotional and social development, it is often called psychosocial theory of personality development. asareor@yahoo.com © 2015 2
  • 3. PSYCHOSOCIAL DEVELOPMENT – Cont’d Erikson divided the human life-span into eight (8) stages, and each with two possible outcomes, and described at the time that an individual experiences a psychological challenge as a crisis. A positive resolution of a crisis means a favorable ratio of positive to negative psychosocial traits emerges (i.e., the more an individual resolves the crisis successfully, the healthier development will be). A negative resolution results in individuals seeing the world as unpredictable and threatening (i.e., failure to successfully complete a stage can result in a reduced ability to complete further stages and therefore a more unhealthy personality and sense of self). asareor@yahoo.com © 2015 3
  • 4. PSYCHOSOCIAL DEVELOPMENT – Cont’d This does not mean that people who successfully resolve the crisis never have negative thoughts or distrust another person. In general, they see the best in others and have a positive orientation towards life. asareor@yahoo.com © 2015 4
  • 5. Erikson’s work is based on five assumptions: 1. People, in general have the same basic needs. 2. Personal development occurs in response to these needs. 3. Development proceeds in stages. 4. Movement through the stages reflects changes in an individual’s motivation. 5. Each stage is characterized by a psychosocial challenge that presents opportunities for development. asareor@yahoo.com © 2015 5
  • 7. Trust versus Mistrust (Infancy) (Birth – 1 year) From ages of birth to one year, infants begin to learn the ability to trust others based upon the consistency of their parents/caregivers. A sense of trust requires a feeling of physical comfort and minimal amount of fear and apprehension about the future. If infant’s basic needs, such as food, clothes, quick changing of soiled diapers, etc., are met by responsive, sensitive parents/caregivers, it leads to sound attachments. asareor@yahoo.com © 2015 7
  • 8. Trust versus Mistrust (Infancy) (Birth – 1 year) – Cont’d Infants therefore develop an optimistic, trusting attitude toward the world by having a life-long expectation that the world will be good and pleasant to live. Hence, sense of trust. However, if children’s basic needs are not met, or poorly taken care of, it may result in anxiety, a more distrusting and insecure personality, and over feeling of mistrust in the world around them. Hence, sense of mistrust. asareor@yahoo.com © 2015 8
  • 9. Autonomy versus Shame and Doubt (Toddlerhood) (1 – 3 years) This occurs in late infancy and toddlerhood when parents begin toilet training and other efforts to regulate their children. Between the ages of one and three, children begin to discover that their behaviour is their own by taking some personal responsibility. They assert their independence by walking away from their mother, picking which toy(s) to play with, and making choices about what they like to wear, to eat, bath, and so forth. asareor@yahoo.com © 2015 9
  • 10. Autonomy versus Shame and Doubt (Toddlerhood) (1 year – 3 years) – Cont’d If all goes on well when they are given the needed encouragement and support to increase their independence, children become more confident and secure in their own ability to survive in the world. Children, therefore, acquire as sense of self-sufficiency and start to assert their sense of independence by realizing their will; hence autonomy. asareor@yahoo.com © 2015 10
  • 11. Autonomy versus Shame and Doubt (Toddlerhood) (1 year – 3 years) – Cont’d But if parents/caregivers are never satisfied with children’s efforts, criticised, and restrained or overly-controlled them too much, or not given the children the opportunity to assert themselves, or punished too harshly resulting in constant parents-children conflict, they (children) begin to feel inadequate in their ability to survive, and may then become overly dependent on others, lack self- esteem, and develop a sense of personal shame and self-doubt in their own abilities. asareor@yahoo.com © 2015 11
  • 12. Initiative versus Guilt (Early childhood) (3 – 5 years) This occurs during the preschool years, where children widen their social world and are faced with challenges to function socially, within their families. Children are asked to assume responsibility for their bodies, their toys, their pets, and other belongings entrusted to them. They begin to plan activities, make up games, and initiate other activities. asareor@yahoo.com © 2015 12
  • 13. Initiative versus Guilt (Early childhood) (3 – 5 years) – Cont’d If children are given this opportunity, they develop a sense of initiate, and feel secure in their ability to lead others and make decisions. Conversely, if this tendency is suppressed or quenched, either though criticism or control, children develop a sense of guilt. They may feel like a nuisance to others and will therefore remain followers, lacking in self-initiative. asareor@yahoo.com © 2015 13
  • 14. Initiative versus Guilt (Early childhood) (3 – 5 years) – Cont’d More so, if children think only of their own needs and desires, family members may begin to instill feelings of guilt, and self-esteem may suffer. Besides, if children are irresponsible and are made to feel too anxious, uncomfortable guilt feelings may arise. But if they learn to get along well with siblings and parents, a sense of self-confidence should begin to grow. asareor@yahoo.com © 2015 14
  • 15. Industry versus Inferiority (Middle & late childhood) (6 – 12 years/Puberty) This occurs approximately in their elementary school years, where children are faced with the challenges of learning to function socially that is beyond the family to the broader realm of the neighborhood and school. They begin to develop a sense of pride in their accomplishments as a result of their initiatives that bring them in contact with a wealth of new experiences. asareor@yahoo.com © 2015 15
  • 16. Industry versus Inferiority (Middle & late childhood) (6 – 12 years/Puberty) – Cont’d They direct their energy toward mastering knowledge and intellectual skills. They initiate projects, see them through to completion, and feel good about what they have achieved. This increases their competencies in academic skills and social interactions. If children are encouraged and reinforced for their initiative, they begin to feel and develop a sense of industry and feel confident in their ability to achieve goals. asareor@yahoo.com © 2015 16
  • 17. Industry versus Inferiority (Middle & late childhood) (6 – 12 years/Puberty) – Cont’d In contrast, if this initiative is not encouraged, if it is restricted by parents, teachers or peers, it may result in difficulties in this stage that could lead to feelings of failure, inadequacy, and unproductive. Children may doubt their own abilities and therefore may not reach their potential. They develop a sense of inferiority. asareor@yahoo.com © 2015 17
  • 18. Identity versus Role/Identity Confusion (Adolescence) (12 – 20 years) This is experienced during the adolescent years, where the transition from childhood to adulthood is most important. Adolescents are faced with finding out who they are, what they are all about, and where they are going in life. They are faced with major decisions to make about their identity – a term known as identity crisis. asareor@yahoo.com © 2015 18
  • 19. Identity versus Role/Identity Confusion (Adolescence) (12 – 20 years) – Cont’d They also become more independent, and begin to look at the future in terms of career, relationships, families, housing, and so forth. Adolescents at this stage are confronted with many new roles and adult statuses, such as vocation or career development, and issues of romance. If adolescents explore such roles in a healthy manner and arrive at a positive path to follow in life, then a positive identity will be achieved. asareor@yahoo.com © 2015 19
  • 20. Identity versus Role/Identity Confusion (Adolescence) (12 – 20 years) – Cont’d If an identity is pushed on adolescents by parents, hindering their sense of who they are, and adolescents do not adequately consider alternative possibilities, then a sense of identity confusion (“I don’t know what I want to be when I grow up”) and their role in the world result. asareor@yahoo.com © 2015 20
  • 21. Intimacy versus Isolation (Early adulthood) (20 – 40 years) A person with a firm sense of identity is prepared for intimacy, or giving the self over to another. This is experienced during the early or young adulthood years. At this stage, we begin to share ourselves more intimately with others. Young adults seek to make long term commitments to others than a family member. asareor@yahoo.com © 2015 21
  • 22. Intimacy versus Isolation (Early adulthood) (20 – 40 years) – Cont’d Successful completion can lead to comfortable and secure relationships and a sense of commitment, safety, and care within that relationship (provided young adults are able to form a healthy friendship and intimate close relations with other persons). asareor@yahoo.com © 2015 22
  • 23. Intimacy versus Isolation (Early adulthood) (20 – 40 years) – Cont’d If they are unsuccessful and avoid intimacy, fear commitment and relationships, it can lead to emotional isolation, loneliness and sometimes depression. The young adults therefore develop a sense of isolation and self- absorption will result. asareor@yahoo.com © 2015 23
  • 24. Generativity versus Stagnation (Middle adulthood) (40 – 65 years) This is the period of middle adulthood where we have established our careers, settled down within a relationship, began our own families and developed a sense of being a part of the bigger picture of the society. We give back to society through raising our children, being productive at work, and becoming involved in community activities and organizations. This stage also marks the period where individuals acquire a genuine concern for the welfare of the future generations, which results in providing unselfish guidance to younger people. asareor@yahoo.com © 2015 24
  • 25. Generativity versus Stagnation (Middle adulthood) (40 – 65 years) – Cont’d The chief challenge or task is to assist the younger generation in developing and leading useful lives. This is termed generativity. Generative adults try to contribute to the betterment of society by working for principles such as a clean physical environment, a safe and drug-free social world and adherence to the principles of freedom and dignity for individuals. asareor@yahoo.com © 2015 25
  • 26. Generativity versus Stagnation (Middle adulthood) (40 – 65 years) – Cont’d The key characteristics of generativity are creativity, productivity, and concern for and commitment to guiding the next generation. By failing to achieve these key objectives, the feeling of having done nothing to help the next generation, and experiencing a sense of personal impoverishment, we become stagnant and feel unproductive, apathy, pseudo-intimacy, or self-absorption. asareor@yahoo.com © 2015 26
  • 27. Ego Integrity versus Despair (Late adulthood) (65 years to death) This phase occurs during late adulthood or old age and is focused on reflecting back on life. We evaluate what we have done with our lives. Those who feel proud of their accomplishments will feel a sense of integrity. Successfully completing this phase means looking back with few regrets and a general feeling of satisfaction. asareor@yahoo.com © 2015 27
  • 28. Ego Integrity versus Despair (Late adulthood) (65 years to death) – Cont’d These individuals will attain wisdom, even when confronting death. They accept responsibility for the way they have lived and accept the finality of death. People who accept themselves, conclude that they only have one life to live, live it as well as possible and have few regrets are seen as having integrity. asareor@yahoo.com © 2015 28
  • 29. Ego Integrity versus Despair (Late adulthood) (65 years to death) – Cont’d Those who are unsuccessful during this phase will feel that their life has been wasted and will experience many regrets and guilt feelings. The individual will be left with feelings of bitterness and despair, often leading to depression and hopelessness. asareor@yahoo.com © 2015 29
  • 30. THE END – THANK YOU asareor@yahoo.com © 2015 30