Erik Erikson:Eight Stages ofDevelopmentRocky 20123529Dan 20082449
ContentsWho is Erik Erikson? - BackgroundStages of Development 1 – 4 (Rocky)Stages of Development 5 – 8 (Dan)Additional Works and Criticisms11223344
Erik Erikson: The Father ofPsychosocial Development“Children love and want to be loved andthey very much prefer the joy ofaccomplishment to the triumph of hatefulfailure. Do not mistake a child for hissymptom”- Erik Erikson
Erik Erikson’s Biography• Born June 15,1902 Frankfurt, Germany• Died May 12, 1994 Massachusetts, USA• Nationality American/ German• Fields Developmental Psychology• Influences Sigmund Freud/ Anna Freud• Coined the term Lifespan Development• Key Idea Theories of SocialPsychological DevelopmentErik Erikson 1902-1994
Erik Erikson’s Biography• He was an artist and a teacher in the late 1920s when he met Anna Freud,an Austrian psychoanalyst. With Anna’s encouragement, he began to studychild psychoanalysis at the Vienna Psychoanalytic Institute.• He immigrated to the US in 1933 and taught at Yale and Harvard University.• It was at this point in his life that he became interested in the influence ofsociety and culture on child development. To satisfy his curiosity, hestudied groups of American Indian Children to help formulate histheories. Studying these children enabled him to correlate personalitygrowth with parental and societal values.
Field of Research• He studied groups of Aboriginal children to learn about the influence ofsociety and culture on child development. From this, he developed anumber of theories, the most famous being his psychosocial development.• He believed that humans have to resolve different conflicts as they progressthrough each stage of development in the life cycle.• Erikson’s theory consists of eight stages of development. Each stage ischaracterized by a different conflict that must be resolved by theindividual. If a person is unable to resolve a conflict at a particularstage, they will be confront and struggle with it later in life.
Ego Identity• Ego identity is developed by humaninteraction and how an individualbecomes more conscious of themselvesand their surrounding.
Ego Strength• Ego strength deals with an individualbecoming competent in different areas oflife, by becoming competent in life theyfeel more important.
Conflict• Conflict is a turning point during which anindividual struggles to attain somepsychological quality. Sometimes referredto as a psychosocial crisis, this can be atime of both vulnerability and strength,as the individual works towardsuccess or failure.
Erik Erikson and the8 Stages of Development• Best known theories of personality anddevelopment.• Personality develops in a series ofpredetermined stages.• Psychosocial, and not psychosexual.• In each stage of developmentconflicts acts as turning points in life.
Personality• Personality consists of all the relativelystable and distinctive styles of thought,behavior, and emotional responses thatcharacterize a person’s adaptations tosurrounding situations
Why Study Personality?• Identify patterns in the way peoplebehave.• Explain the differences betweenpeople.• Explore how people function in life (Thegood and bad).• How to improve life.
Psychosexual Stages ofDevelopment-Sigmund Freud• Oral Stage (Birth to 1) Sucking/Pleasure With Mouth• Anal Stage (1 to 3)• Controlling Bowel Movements• Phallic Stage (3 to 6)• Discovery of reproductive organs• Latency Period (6 to 13)• Cognitive skills learned while interest in sexuality isin the background• Genital Phase (adolescence)• Sexual interests arise
Psychosocial Development• Refers to the emotional and psychologicalchanges across the life cycle that occursin the context of the individual’s socialenvironment.
Psychosocial Development• According to Erikson- Each part of thepersonality has a particular time in the lifespan when it must develop, if it is going todevelop at all. If it failed to developed onschedule, the rest of the development isunfavorably altered. The individual isthen hindered from dealing effectivelywith reality.
Psychosocial Stages• Stage 1- Trust vs. Mistrust• Stage 2- Autonomy vs. Shame & Doubt• Stage 3- Initiative vs. Guilt• Stage 4- Industry vs. Inferiority• Stage 5- Identity vs. Role Confusion• Stage 6- Intimacy vs. Isolation• Stage 7- Generativity vs. Stagnation• Stage 8- Integrity vs. Despair
Stage 1-Trust vs. Mistrust• Age- Birth to 18 months• Conflict- Trust vs. Mistrust• Relationship- Mother• Strength- Hopes• Question- Can I trust the world?• Key Event- Feeding
Stage 1-Trust vs. Mistrust• Children are completely dependent on others• Trust: Established when babies givenadequate warmth, touching, love, andphysical care-Dependable & Reliable.• Mistrust: Caused by inadequate orunpredictable care and by cold,indifferent, and rejecting parents-Undependable, Unpredictable &Dangerous.
Stage 2-Autonomy vs. Shame & Doubt• Age- 18 month to 3 years• Conflict- Autonomy vs. Shame• Relationship- Parents• Strength- Will• Question- Is it ok to be me?• Key Event- Toilet Training
Stage 2-Autonomy vs. Shame & Doubt• Autonomy: Doing things for themselvessuch as body control & making choices.- Secure and confident self.• Shame: Overprotective or ridiculing parentsmay cause children to doubt abilitiesand feel shameful about theiractions- Inadequacy & self doubt.
Stage 3- Initiative vs. Guilt• Age- 3 years to 6 years• Conflict- Initiative vs. Guilt• Relationship- Family• Strength- Purpose• Question- Is it okay for me to do,move & act?• Key Event- Independence
Stage 3- Initiative vs. Guilt• Initiative: Parents reinforce via givingchildren freedom to play, use imagination,and ask questions- Creative, Constructive.• Guilt: May occur if parents criticize,prevent play, or discourage a child’squestions- Always being wrong, Failedto explore world.• Initiative and Guilt should be balancedin order to have moral judgment.
Stage 4- Industry vs. Inferiority• Age- 6 years to 12 years• Conflict- Industry vs. Inferiority• Relationship- Neighbors, School• Strength- Competence• Question- Can I make it in the worldof people and things?• Key Event- School
Stage 4- Industry vs. Inferiority• Childrens have to cope with new socialand academic demands• Industry: Occurs when child is praised forproductive activities, such as painting andbuilding- Sense of competence• Inferiority: Occurs if child’s efforts areregarded as messy or inadequate-Weak sense of self, Incapable to takeresponsibility
Stage 5-Identity vs. Role Confusion• Age- 12 years to 18 years• Conflict- Identity vs. Role Confusion• Relationship- Peers, Role Model• Strength- Fidelity• Question- Who am I? what can I be?• Key Event- Peer relationships
Stage 5-Identity vs. Role Confusion• Children learn a number of different roles.• Identity: One’s organization of individualdrives, abilities, beliefs, and experienceinto consistent image of self. Who we are.• Role Confusion: Failure to establishan individual identity separate fromthe family and having no peerrelationships and plans for anoccupation- Ego diffusion
Stage 6-Intimacy vs. Isolation• Age- 19 years to 40 years• Conflict- Intimacy vs. Isolation• Relationship- Friends, Partners• Strength- Love• Question- Can I love?• Key Event- Love relationships
Stage 6-Intimacy vs. Isolation• Start of families• Intimacy: Ability to care about others andto share experiences with them-Strong relationship• Isolation: Feeling alone and uncaredfor in life- Loneliness
Stage 7-Generativity vs. Stagnation• Age- 40 years to 65 years• Conflict- Generativity vs. Stagnation• Relationship- Household, Workmates• Strength- Care• Question- Can I make my life count?• Key Event- Parenting
Stage 7-Generativity vs. Stagnation• Primary developmental task is one ofcontributing to society and helping toguide future generation.• Generativity: Interest in guiding the nextgeneration- Social involvement, Parenting• Stagnation: When one is onlyconcerned with one’s own needs andcomforts- Material possession,Physical well being, Non productive
Stage 8-Integrity vs. Despair• Age- 65 years to Death• Conflict- Integrity vs. Despair• Relationship- Mankind, My kind• Strength- Wisdom• Question- Is it ok to have been me?• Key Event-Reflecting on andacceptance of one’s life
Stage 8-Integrity vs. Despair• In the last stages of life individuals lookback over their lives and judge them.• Integrity: Self-respect; developed whenpeople have lived richly and responsibly-Feeling of wisdom and meaning• Despair: Occurs when previous lifeevents are viewed with regret;experiences heartache and remorse-Regret, Bitterness
Erikson’sPsychosocial DevelopmentAge(Years)Stage PsychosocialCrisisPsychosocialStrengthEnvironmentalInfluence1 Infancy Trust vs. Mistrust Hope Maternal2-3 Early childhood Autonomy vs.Shame and DoubtWillpower Both parents oradult substitutes4-5 Preschool Initiative vs. Guilt Purpose Parents, family andfriends6-11 Middle Childhood Industry vs.InferiorityCompetence School12-18 Adolescence Identity vs. RoleconfusionFidelity Peers18-35 Young adulthood Intimacy vs.IsolationLove Spouse, lover,friends35-65 Middle age Generativity vs.StagnationCare Family, societyOver 65 Old age Integrity vs. Despair Wisdom All humans
Assessment in Erikson’s Theory• Psycho historical Analysis– Application of lifespan theory to lives ofhistorical figures• Psychological Tests:– Instruments based on crisis in stages
Research in Erikson’s Theory• Generativity– Evokes need to feel closer to others– Correlated with extraversion, openness tonew experiences– Likely to be involved in community, socialrelationships
Research in Erikson’s Theory• Maturity– High ego integrity: spent much time reviewingtheir lives• Ethnic Identity– Ethnic minorities: ethnic identity significantfactor in determining sense of self
Erikson’s Contributions• He made major contributions in the area of child development bystudying groups of Native American children and developed theconcept of identity crisis.• He was concerned with the relationship between society/culture andchild development, which he termed “psychosocial development”.• This interest led him to develop the Eight Stages of Development.• In each stage, the individual encounters a developmental crisis.• In order to move on to the next stage, the individual must resolvethe crisis.
Criticisms of Erikson• Ambiguous terms and concepts• Lack of precision• Some terms are not easily measuredempirically• Experiences in stage may only apply tomales• Identity crisis may only apply to thoseaffluent enough to explore identities