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Effective use of Teaching Aids
Mrs. Melissa Roach, Internship Instructor
CTE 4145 ~ Summer 2009
Learning Outcomes
By the end of this session, you should be able to:
• Choose the most appropriate visual aid for your
purpose and context,
• Use the black-/white-board effectively,
• Make the most of the overhead projector,
• Produce a basic presentation with MS
PowerPoint,
• Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of
other media.
Why use Teaching Aids?
Teaching/Instructional aids are useful to:
• reinforce what you are saying and summarize
key concepts,
• ensure that your point is understood,
• signal what is important/essential,
• enable students to visualize or experience
something that is impractical to see or do in real
life,
• engage or stimulate students’ other senses in
the learning process,
• facilitate different learning styles.
Instructional/Teaching Aids
must be:
 Well prepared
 Well presented
 Readable
• Legible
• Visible to all
• Appropriate format for room and audience size
 Relevant
• Pertinent to topic
• Up-to-date
• Consistent with local protocols
Advantages vs. Disadvantages
Advantages:
• Causes more than one
sense to be involved in
the learning process
• Allows for more rapid
presentation of material
• Often results in more
rapid initial understanding
• Promotes increased
retention
• Facilitates learning
process for a variety of
student learning styles
simultaneously
Disadvantages:
• No permanent record of
what was written
• Instructor’s back to
audience
• Limitations on portability
& audience size
• Must write legibly
• Cannot talk while facing
board
• Involve the students
• Have plenty of
chalk/markers & recap
markers
Teaching Aid Examples
In this presentation:
• Chalkboard/Whiteboard
• Flipcharts
• Overhead Projector/Transparencies
• Power Point
• Data Projectors/Smart Board
• Audiotapes/CDs
• Videotapes/DVDs
• Podcasts
Chalkboard/Whiteboard
CONSTRUCTION:
• Colored chalk and markers can enhance the
presentation
• Using students as “recorders” can increase
involvement and free instructor’s hands
PROPER USE:
Reliable:
• Dependable format
• Should evoke consistent responses
Repetitious:
• Should support presentation
• Stress the important points
• Summarize and reinforce key points
Chalkboard/Whiteboard
Advantages:
• No advanced preparation
required,
• except when displaying a
complex table/chart/
diagram.
• Technology is not
dependent on electricity
or other possible glitches.
• Can be used by students
for problem-solving, etc.
Disadvantages:
• Time-consuming if you
have a lot to write.
• Handwriting may be
difficult to read (legibility,
size, glare, etc.).
• Turn your back on
audience.
• Cleaning the board (chalk
dust, permanent marker,
etc.)
• Can’t go back to
something you’ve erased.
Flipcharts
When to USE:
• if electricity is unavailable,
• to enable students to illustrate group reports,
• to provide a written record of points made by
students.
Tips for using Flipcharts:
• Check the room and equipment beforehand.
• Get your own pad of newsprint.
• Write out important pages in advance.
• Don’t put too much on a page.
• Carry a collection of felt-tip pens and check that they
haven’t dried out.
Flip charts
CONSTRUCTION:
• Commercially available
• Needs a stand
• Can make your own
PROPER USE:
• Complicated or time consuming illustrations should be
done ahead of time
• Do not walk with back to audience
• Writing should be legible
• Involve students
• If illustrations pre-drawn, staple 2 pages together, so
cannot show through
• Write notes to self in pencil at edge – audience cannot
see
Flipcharts
Advantages:
•Inexpensive – can be made
from butcher paper
•Reasonably portable
•Can be saved
•Dependable
•Encourage spontaneity
•Room lights left on
Disadvantages:
•Limited writing space
•Changes are messy
•Instructor’s back to
audience
•Limitations on size of room
and audience
Overhead
Projector/Transparencies
PROPER USE:
• Prepare complicated transparencies ahead of time, by
hand, computer, printing, printer or photocopier
• Arrange in order – use something to keep in order –
number them
• Cover unwanted portions until ready for audience to see
• Leave on long enough for audience to read, take notes,
etc.
• Highlight/point-out key concepts
• Involve students
Overhead
Projector/Transparencies
CONSTRUCTION:
• Focus Projector!
• Make sure font size is large enough to be readable
• Use non-permanent pens for spontaneous additions
• Highlight permanent parts with different colors
• Create on computer, etc.
• Use clip art or other graphics
• Run through copy machine to put on transparency – make
sure using right machine and blank transparencies
• Set machine at right length away from screen
• Do not use a full typewritten page – only bullets or outline
type
• Draw as you go for best effect
• Turn off if not using – fan, light, etc. distracting
Overhead
Projector/Transparencies
Advantages:
• Attention getting
• Relatively inexpensive
• Easy to prepare
• Instructor can face
audience
• Permanent and non-
permanent
• Reasonably portable
• Can sometimes leave
room lights on
• Fairly reliable machinery
• Can write on while talking
Disadvantages:
• Requires equipment
• Must know how to use
equipment and
troubleshoot (change
bulbs, etc.)
• Limitations on room and
audience size
• Can be blinding to
instructor
• Can be noisy
• Can drop group of
transparencies – out of
order
Overhead
Projector/Transparencies
Advantages
• Allows you to prepare all
your slides in advance.
• Particularly suited for
complex diagrams, charts
and illustrations.
• Can build up information
point-by-point through the
use of overlays.
• Don’t have to turn your
back on the audience.
Disadvantages
• A blown bulb or power
failure can spoil all your
hard work.
• Image quality can also be
a problem.
• Can be disorienting to
manipulate
transparencies on
projector plate.
Power Point Presentations
PROPER USE:
• Make certain that projector is focused
• Leave word slides on longer than action slides
• Use to reinforce and highlight
• Know how to change bulbs, troubleshoot, etc.
Power Point Presentations
CONSTRUCTION:
• Use colored background – darker for computer–
generated slides – lights can be brighter in room
• Keep slides simple – should only take a moment
to figure out what slide is about
• Use graphics and images when appropriate
• No more than seven to ten words to a line and
seven lines to a slide
• Use short sentences and bullet lists – not
complete sentences
• Use full screen
• Use colored background – darker for computer–
generated slides – lights can be brighter in room
Power Point Presentations
CONSTRUCTION (continued):
• Keep slides simple – should only take a
moment to figure out what slide is about
• Use graphics and images when appropriate
• No more than seven to ten words to a line and
seven lines to a slide
• Use short sentences and bullet lists – not
complete sentences
• Make sure the screen and the image are large
enough for all to see
• Sit in the worst seat in the room and make
sure you can see the slides
Power Point Presentations
CONSTRUCTION (continued):
• Have back up notes in case the slide projector
or computer quit
• One idea per slide
• Charts and graphs are great
• No more than 3 colors per slide
Power Point Presentations
ADVANTAGES:
• Good for large rooms and
audiences
• Can be action oriented or
words oriented
• Allows for reference back
to previous slide
DISADVANTAGES:
• Expensive
• Can be difficult to
produce – easier with
computer graphics
• Room must be darkened
somewhat
• Requires equipment and
knowledge of that
equipment
• Relatively portable
• Order easily arranged
• Can be very creative
Data Projectors/Smart Board
• Smart Boards are rapidly being integrated into
classrooms around the world and are
essentially enhanced whiteboards that are used
in conjunction with projectors and laptops.
• This allows access to a wide variety of
computer-based multi-media content on the
board in front of the class.
• The teacher or student is able to touch the
surface of the board to control applications,
write notes and manipulate objects.
Data Projectors/Smart Board
ADVANTAGES:
• Good for large rooms and
audiences
• Can be student oriented
• Allows for reference
back/info. can be saved
for later
• Lights can be on
• Lots of websites with free
resources
DISADVANTAGES:
• Very expensive – many
students/teachers don’t
have access to this type
of technology
• Requires equipment and
knowledge of that
equipment
• Not portable!
• Can be very creative
Audiotapes/CDs
TIPS
• Check the room and
equipment beforehand.
• Can it be heard from the
back of the room?
• Find the right spot on the
tape/CD and queue it up in
advance.
• Don’t play more than a few
minutes of audio at one
time.
• Break up longer clips into
segments, interspersed
with discussion or other
activities.
When to USE:
• Particularly suited for
language learning, media
studies, English
literature, etc.
• Valuable when referring
to recorded historical
events (e.g. Martin Luther
King’s “I have a dream”
speech).
• Background music can
also be played before
class starts and during
group activities.
Videotapes/DVDs
TIPS
Same as for CDs/audio
tapes
• Check equipment
beforehand.
• Can images be seen
from the back of the
room?
• Queue up the tape in
advance.
• Break viewing into short
segments, interspersed
with discussion or
activities.
When to USE:
• Adds a dimension not
available through audio
alone - helps students to
visualise.
• Essential when
illustrating things that are
impractical to do in real
life.
• Particularly suited for
language learning, media
studies, engineering, etc.
• Valuable when referring
to recorded historical
events.
Podcasts
A series of digital media files, usually digital,
audio, or video, that is made available for
download via web
Possibilities: Lessons could be downloaded on iPod,
iPhone, mP3 player, etc.
Advantages: For those students who are very tech savvy
Disadvantages: Podcast software will be needed which is
expensive, also training might be needed to use the
program.
Thank you for your time!

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Effective Use of Teaching Aids

  • 1. Effective use of Teaching Aids Mrs. Melissa Roach, Internship Instructor CTE 4145 ~ Summer 2009
  • 2. Learning Outcomes By the end of this session, you should be able to: • Choose the most appropriate visual aid for your purpose and context, • Use the black-/white-board effectively, • Make the most of the overhead projector, • Produce a basic presentation with MS PowerPoint, • Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of other media.
  • 3. Why use Teaching Aids? Teaching/Instructional aids are useful to: • reinforce what you are saying and summarize key concepts, • ensure that your point is understood, • signal what is important/essential, • enable students to visualize or experience something that is impractical to see or do in real life, • engage or stimulate students’ other senses in the learning process, • facilitate different learning styles.
  • 4. Instructional/Teaching Aids must be:  Well prepared  Well presented  Readable • Legible • Visible to all • Appropriate format for room and audience size  Relevant • Pertinent to topic • Up-to-date • Consistent with local protocols
  • 5. Advantages vs. Disadvantages Advantages: • Causes more than one sense to be involved in the learning process • Allows for more rapid presentation of material • Often results in more rapid initial understanding • Promotes increased retention • Facilitates learning process for a variety of student learning styles simultaneously Disadvantages: • No permanent record of what was written • Instructor’s back to audience • Limitations on portability & audience size • Must write legibly • Cannot talk while facing board • Involve the students • Have plenty of chalk/markers & recap markers
  • 6. Teaching Aid Examples In this presentation: • Chalkboard/Whiteboard • Flipcharts • Overhead Projector/Transparencies • Power Point • Data Projectors/Smart Board • Audiotapes/CDs • Videotapes/DVDs • Podcasts
  • 7. Chalkboard/Whiteboard CONSTRUCTION: • Colored chalk and markers can enhance the presentation • Using students as “recorders” can increase involvement and free instructor’s hands PROPER USE: Reliable: • Dependable format • Should evoke consistent responses Repetitious: • Should support presentation • Stress the important points • Summarize and reinforce key points
  • 8. Chalkboard/Whiteboard Advantages: • No advanced preparation required, • except when displaying a complex table/chart/ diagram. • Technology is not dependent on electricity or other possible glitches. • Can be used by students for problem-solving, etc. Disadvantages: • Time-consuming if you have a lot to write. • Handwriting may be difficult to read (legibility, size, glare, etc.). • Turn your back on audience. • Cleaning the board (chalk dust, permanent marker, etc.) • Can’t go back to something you’ve erased.
  • 9. Flipcharts When to USE: • if electricity is unavailable, • to enable students to illustrate group reports, • to provide a written record of points made by students. Tips for using Flipcharts: • Check the room and equipment beforehand. • Get your own pad of newsprint. • Write out important pages in advance. • Don’t put too much on a page. • Carry a collection of felt-tip pens and check that they haven’t dried out.
  • 10. Flip charts CONSTRUCTION: • Commercially available • Needs a stand • Can make your own PROPER USE: • Complicated or time consuming illustrations should be done ahead of time • Do not walk with back to audience • Writing should be legible • Involve students • If illustrations pre-drawn, staple 2 pages together, so cannot show through • Write notes to self in pencil at edge – audience cannot see
  • 11. Flipcharts Advantages: •Inexpensive – can be made from butcher paper •Reasonably portable •Can be saved •Dependable •Encourage spontaneity •Room lights left on Disadvantages: •Limited writing space •Changes are messy •Instructor’s back to audience •Limitations on size of room and audience
  • 12. Overhead Projector/Transparencies PROPER USE: • Prepare complicated transparencies ahead of time, by hand, computer, printing, printer or photocopier • Arrange in order – use something to keep in order – number them • Cover unwanted portions until ready for audience to see • Leave on long enough for audience to read, take notes, etc. • Highlight/point-out key concepts • Involve students
  • 13. Overhead Projector/Transparencies CONSTRUCTION: • Focus Projector! • Make sure font size is large enough to be readable • Use non-permanent pens for spontaneous additions • Highlight permanent parts with different colors • Create on computer, etc. • Use clip art or other graphics • Run through copy machine to put on transparency – make sure using right machine and blank transparencies • Set machine at right length away from screen • Do not use a full typewritten page – only bullets or outline type • Draw as you go for best effect • Turn off if not using – fan, light, etc. distracting
  • 14. Overhead Projector/Transparencies Advantages: • Attention getting • Relatively inexpensive • Easy to prepare • Instructor can face audience • Permanent and non- permanent • Reasonably portable • Can sometimes leave room lights on • Fairly reliable machinery • Can write on while talking Disadvantages: • Requires equipment • Must know how to use equipment and troubleshoot (change bulbs, etc.) • Limitations on room and audience size • Can be blinding to instructor • Can be noisy • Can drop group of transparencies – out of order
  • 15. Overhead Projector/Transparencies Advantages • Allows you to prepare all your slides in advance. • Particularly suited for complex diagrams, charts and illustrations. • Can build up information point-by-point through the use of overlays. • Don’t have to turn your back on the audience. Disadvantages • A blown bulb or power failure can spoil all your hard work. • Image quality can also be a problem. • Can be disorienting to manipulate transparencies on projector plate.
  • 16. Power Point Presentations PROPER USE: • Make certain that projector is focused • Leave word slides on longer than action slides • Use to reinforce and highlight • Know how to change bulbs, troubleshoot, etc.
  • 17. Power Point Presentations CONSTRUCTION: • Use colored background – darker for computer– generated slides – lights can be brighter in room • Keep slides simple – should only take a moment to figure out what slide is about • Use graphics and images when appropriate • No more than seven to ten words to a line and seven lines to a slide • Use short sentences and bullet lists – not complete sentences • Use full screen • Use colored background – darker for computer– generated slides – lights can be brighter in room
  • 18. Power Point Presentations CONSTRUCTION (continued): • Keep slides simple – should only take a moment to figure out what slide is about • Use graphics and images when appropriate • No more than seven to ten words to a line and seven lines to a slide • Use short sentences and bullet lists – not complete sentences • Make sure the screen and the image are large enough for all to see • Sit in the worst seat in the room and make sure you can see the slides
  • 19. Power Point Presentations CONSTRUCTION (continued): • Have back up notes in case the slide projector or computer quit • One idea per slide • Charts and graphs are great • No more than 3 colors per slide
  • 20. Power Point Presentations ADVANTAGES: • Good for large rooms and audiences • Can be action oriented or words oriented • Allows for reference back to previous slide DISADVANTAGES: • Expensive • Can be difficult to produce – easier with computer graphics • Room must be darkened somewhat • Requires equipment and knowledge of that equipment • Relatively portable • Order easily arranged • Can be very creative
  • 21. Data Projectors/Smart Board • Smart Boards are rapidly being integrated into classrooms around the world and are essentially enhanced whiteboards that are used in conjunction with projectors and laptops. • This allows access to a wide variety of computer-based multi-media content on the board in front of the class. • The teacher or student is able to touch the surface of the board to control applications, write notes and manipulate objects.
  • 22. Data Projectors/Smart Board ADVANTAGES: • Good for large rooms and audiences • Can be student oriented • Allows for reference back/info. can be saved for later • Lights can be on • Lots of websites with free resources DISADVANTAGES: • Very expensive – many students/teachers don’t have access to this type of technology • Requires equipment and knowledge of that equipment • Not portable! • Can be very creative
  • 23. Audiotapes/CDs TIPS • Check the room and equipment beforehand. • Can it be heard from the back of the room? • Find the right spot on the tape/CD and queue it up in advance. • Don’t play more than a few minutes of audio at one time. • Break up longer clips into segments, interspersed with discussion or other activities. When to USE: • Particularly suited for language learning, media studies, English literature, etc. • Valuable when referring to recorded historical events (e.g. Martin Luther King’s “I have a dream” speech). • Background music can also be played before class starts and during group activities.
  • 24. Videotapes/DVDs TIPS Same as for CDs/audio tapes • Check equipment beforehand. • Can images be seen from the back of the room? • Queue up the tape in advance. • Break viewing into short segments, interspersed with discussion or activities. When to USE: • Adds a dimension not available through audio alone - helps students to visualise. • Essential when illustrating things that are impractical to do in real life. • Particularly suited for language learning, media studies, engineering, etc. • Valuable when referring to recorded historical events.
  • 25. Podcasts A series of digital media files, usually digital, audio, or video, that is made available for download via web Possibilities: Lessons could be downloaded on iPod, iPhone, mP3 player, etc. Advantages: For those students who are very tech savvy Disadvantages: Podcast software will be needed which is expensive, also training might be needed to use the program.
  • 26. Thank you for your time!