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Chapter 10 
Internet Group 
Management Protocol 
Objectives 
Upon completion you will be able to: 
• Know the purpose of IGMP 
• Know the types of IGMP messages 
• Understand how a member joins a group and leaves a group 
• Understand membership monitoring 
• Understand how an IGMP message is encapsulated 
• Understand the interactions of the modules of an IGMP package 
TCP/IP Protocol Suite 1
Figure 10.1 Position of IGMP in the network layer 
TCP/IP Protocol Suite 2
10.1 GROUP MANAGEMENT 
IGMP is a protocol that manages group membership. The IGMP 
protocol gives the multicast routers information about the membership 
status of hosts (routers) connected to the network. . 
TCP/IP Protocol Suite 3
Note: 
IGMP is a group management 
protocol. It helps a multicast router 
create and update a list of loyal 
members related to each router 
interface. 
TCP/IP Protocol Suite 4
10.2 IGMP MESSAGES 
IGMP has three types of messages: the query, the membership report, 
and the leave report. There are two types of query messages, general and 
special. 
The topics discussed in this section include: 
Message Format 
TCP/IP Protocol Suite 5
Figure 10.2 IGMP message types 
TCP/IP Protocol Suite 6
Figure 10.3 IGMP message format 
TCP/IP Protocol Suite 7
Table 10.1 IGMP type field 
TCP/IP Protocol Suite 8
10.3 IGMP OPERATION 
A multicast router connected to a network has a list of multicast 
addresses of the groups with at least one loyal member in that network. 
For each group, there is one router that has the duty of distributing the 
multicast packets destined for that group. 
The topics discussed in this section include: 
Joining a Group 
Leaving a Group 
Monitoring Membership 
TCP/IP Protocol Suite 9
Figure 10.4 IGMP operation 
TCP/IP Protocol Suite 10
Figure 10.5 Membership report 
TCP/IP Protocol Suite 11
Note: 
In IGMP, a membership report is sent 
twice, one after the other. 
TCP/IP Protocol Suite 12
Figure 10.6 Leave report 
TCP/IP Protocol Suite 13
Note: 
The general query message does not 
define a particular group. 
TCP/IP Protocol Suite 14
Figure 10.7 General query message 
TCP/IP Protocol Suite 15
Example 1 
Imagine there are three hosts in a network as shown in Figure 
10.8. 
A query message was received at time 0; the random delay time 
(in tenths of seconds) for each group is shown next to the 
group address. Show the sequence of report messages. 
See Next Slide 
TCP/IP Protocol Suite 16
Figure 10.8 Example 1 
TCP/IP Protocol Suite 17
Solution 
Example 1 (Continued) 
The events occur in this sequence: 
a. Time 12: The timer for 228.42.0.0 in host A expires and a 
membership report is sent, which is received by the router and every 
host including host B which cancels its timer for 228.42.0.0. 
b. Time 30: The timer for 225.14.0.0 in host A expires and a 
membership report is sent, which is received by the router and every 
host including host C which cancels its timer for 225.14.0.0. 
c. Time 50: The timer for 238.71.0.0 in host B expires and a 
membership report is sent, which is received by the router and every 
host. 
See Next Slide 
TCP/IP Protocol Suite 18
Example 1 (Continued) 
d. Time 70: The timer for 230.43.0.0 in host C expires and a 
membership report is sent, which is received by the router and every 
host including host A which cancels its timerfor 230.43.0.0. 
Note that if each host had sent a report for every group in its 
list, there would have been seven reports; with this strategy 
only four reports are sent. 
TCP/IP Protocol Suite 19
10.4 ENCAPSULATION 
The IGMP message is encapsulated in an IP datagram, which is itself 
encapsulated in a frame. 
The topics discussed in this section include: 
IP Layer 
Data Link Layer 
Netstat Utility 
TCP/IP Protocol Suite 20
Figure 10.9 Encapsulation of IGMP packet 
TCP/IP Protocol Suite 21
Note: 
The IP packet that carries an IGMP 
packet has a value of 2 in its 
protocol field. 
TCP/IP Protocol Suite 22
Note: 
The IP packet that carries an IGMP 
packet has a value of 1 in its 
TTL field. 
TCP/IP Protocol Suite 23
Table 10.2 Destination IP addresses 
TCP/IP Protocol Suite 24
Figure 10.10 Mapping class D to Ethernet physical address 
TCP/IP Protocol Suite 25
Note: 
An Ethernet multicast physical 
address is in the range 
01:00:5E:00:00:00 
to 
01:00:5E:7F:FF:FF. 
TCP/IP Protocol Suite 26
Example 2 
Change the multicast IP address 230.43.14.7 to an Ethernet 
multicast physical 
Solution 
We can do this in two steps: 
a. We write the rightmost 23 bits of the IP address in hexadecimal. 
This can be done by changing the rightmost 3 bytes to hexadecimal 
and then subtracting 8 from the leftmost digit if it is greater than or 
equal to 8. In our example, the result is 2B:0E:07. 
b. We add the result of part a to the starting Ethernet multicast 
address, which is (01:00:5E:00:00:00). The result is 
01:00:5E:2B:0E:07 
TCP/IP Protocol Suite 27
Example 3 
Change the multicast IP address 238.212.24.9 to an Ethernet 
multicast address. 
Solution 
a. The right-most three bytes in hexadecimal are D4:18:09. We need 
to subtract 8 from the leftmost digit, resulting in 54:18:09.. 
b. We add the result of part a to the Ethernet multicast starting 
address. The result is 
01:00:5E:54:18:09 
TCP/IP Protocol Suite 28
Figure 10.11 Tunneling 
TCP/IP Protocol Suite 29
Example 4 
We use netstat with three options, -n, -r, and -a. The -n option gives the 
numeric versions of IP addresses, the -r option gives the routing table, and 
the -a option gives all addresses (unicast and multicast). Note that we show 
only the fields relative to our discussion. 
$ netstat -nra 
Kernel IP routing table 
Destination Gateway Mask Flags Iface 
153.18.16.0 0.0.0.0 255.255.240.0 U eth0 
169.254.0.0 0.0.0.0 255.255.0.0 U eth0 
127.0.0.0 0.0.0.0 255.0.0.0 U lo 
224.0.0.0 0.0.0.0 224.0.0.0 U eth0 
0.0.0.0 153.18.31.254 0.0.0.0 UG eth0 
Any packet with a multicast address from 224.0.0.0 to 239.255.255.255 is 
masked and delivered to the Ethernet interface. 
TCP/IP Protocol Suite 30
10.5 IGMP PACKAGE 
We can show how IGMP can handle the sending and receiving of IGMP 
packets through our simplified version of an IGMP package. In our 
design an IGMP package involves a group table, a set of timers, and four 
software modules. 
The topics discussed in this section include: 
Group Table 
Timers 
Group-Joining Module 
Group-Leaving Module 
Input Module 
Output Module 
TCP/IP Protocol Suite 31
Figure 10.12 IGMP package 
TCP/IP Protocol Suite 32
Figure 10.13 Group table 
TCP/IP Protocol Suite 33

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Chap 10 igmp

  • 1. Chapter 10 Internet Group Management Protocol Objectives Upon completion you will be able to: • Know the purpose of IGMP • Know the types of IGMP messages • Understand how a member joins a group and leaves a group • Understand membership monitoring • Understand how an IGMP message is encapsulated • Understand the interactions of the modules of an IGMP package TCP/IP Protocol Suite 1
  • 2. Figure 10.1 Position of IGMP in the network layer TCP/IP Protocol Suite 2
  • 3. 10.1 GROUP MANAGEMENT IGMP is a protocol that manages group membership. The IGMP protocol gives the multicast routers information about the membership status of hosts (routers) connected to the network. . TCP/IP Protocol Suite 3
  • 4. Note: IGMP is a group management protocol. It helps a multicast router create and update a list of loyal members related to each router interface. TCP/IP Protocol Suite 4
  • 5. 10.2 IGMP MESSAGES IGMP has three types of messages: the query, the membership report, and the leave report. There are two types of query messages, general and special. The topics discussed in this section include: Message Format TCP/IP Protocol Suite 5
  • 6. Figure 10.2 IGMP message types TCP/IP Protocol Suite 6
  • 7. Figure 10.3 IGMP message format TCP/IP Protocol Suite 7
  • 8. Table 10.1 IGMP type field TCP/IP Protocol Suite 8
  • 9. 10.3 IGMP OPERATION A multicast router connected to a network has a list of multicast addresses of the groups with at least one loyal member in that network. For each group, there is one router that has the duty of distributing the multicast packets destined for that group. The topics discussed in this section include: Joining a Group Leaving a Group Monitoring Membership TCP/IP Protocol Suite 9
  • 10. Figure 10.4 IGMP operation TCP/IP Protocol Suite 10
  • 11. Figure 10.5 Membership report TCP/IP Protocol Suite 11
  • 12. Note: In IGMP, a membership report is sent twice, one after the other. TCP/IP Protocol Suite 12
  • 13. Figure 10.6 Leave report TCP/IP Protocol Suite 13
  • 14. Note: The general query message does not define a particular group. TCP/IP Protocol Suite 14
  • 15. Figure 10.7 General query message TCP/IP Protocol Suite 15
  • 16. Example 1 Imagine there are three hosts in a network as shown in Figure 10.8. A query message was received at time 0; the random delay time (in tenths of seconds) for each group is shown next to the group address. Show the sequence of report messages. See Next Slide TCP/IP Protocol Suite 16
  • 17. Figure 10.8 Example 1 TCP/IP Protocol Suite 17
  • 18. Solution Example 1 (Continued) The events occur in this sequence: a. Time 12: The timer for 228.42.0.0 in host A expires and a membership report is sent, which is received by the router and every host including host B which cancels its timer for 228.42.0.0. b. Time 30: The timer for 225.14.0.0 in host A expires and a membership report is sent, which is received by the router and every host including host C which cancels its timer for 225.14.0.0. c. Time 50: The timer for 238.71.0.0 in host B expires and a membership report is sent, which is received by the router and every host. See Next Slide TCP/IP Protocol Suite 18
  • 19. Example 1 (Continued) d. Time 70: The timer for 230.43.0.0 in host C expires and a membership report is sent, which is received by the router and every host including host A which cancels its timerfor 230.43.0.0. Note that if each host had sent a report for every group in its list, there would have been seven reports; with this strategy only four reports are sent. TCP/IP Protocol Suite 19
  • 20. 10.4 ENCAPSULATION The IGMP message is encapsulated in an IP datagram, which is itself encapsulated in a frame. The topics discussed in this section include: IP Layer Data Link Layer Netstat Utility TCP/IP Protocol Suite 20
  • 21. Figure 10.9 Encapsulation of IGMP packet TCP/IP Protocol Suite 21
  • 22. Note: The IP packet that carries an IGMP packet has a value of 2 in its protocol field. TCP/IP Protocol Suite 22
  • 23. Note: The IP packet that carries an IGMP packet has a value of 1 in its TTL field. TCP/IP Protocol Suite 23
  • 24. Table 10.2 Destination IP addresses TCP/IP Protocol Suite 24
  • 25. Figure 10.10 Mapping class D to Ethernet physical address TCP/IP Protocol Suite 25
  • 26. Note: An Ethernet multicast physical address is in the range 01:00:5E:00:00:00 to 01:00:5E:7F:FF:FF. TCP/IP Protocol Suite 26
  • 27. Example 2 Change the multicast IP address 230.43.14.7 to an Ethernet multicast physical Solution We can do this in two steps: a. We write the rightmost 23 bits of the IP address in hexadecimal. This can be done by changing the rightmost 3 bytes to hexadecimal and then subtracting 8 from the leftmost digit if it is greater than or equal to 8. In our example, the result is 2B:0E:07. b. We add the result of part a to the starting Ethernet multicast address, which is (01:00:5E:00:00:00). The result is 01:00:5E:2B:0E:07 TCP/IP Protocol Suite 27
  • 28. Example 3 Change the multicast IP address 238.212.24.9 to an Ethernet multicast address. Solution a. The right-most three bytes in hexadecimal are D4:18:09. We need to subtract 8 from the leftmost digit, resulting in 54:18:09.. b. We add the result of part a to the Ethernet multicast starting address. The result is 01:00:5E:54:18:09 TCP/IP Protocol Suite 28
  • 29. Figure 10.11 Tunneling TCP/IP Protocol Suite 29
  • 30. Example 4 We use netstat with three options, -n, -r, and -a. The -n option gives the numeric versions of IP addresses, the -r option gives the routing table, and the -a option gives all addresses (unicast and multicast). Note that we show only the fields relative to our discussion. $ netstat -nra Kernel IP routing table Destination Gateway Mask Flags Iface 153.18.16.0 0.0.0.0 255.255.240.0 U eth0 169.254.0.0 0.0.0.0 255.255.0.0 U eth0 127.0.0.0 0.0.0.0 255.0.0.0 U lo 224.0.0.0 0.0.0.0 224.0.0.0 U eth0 0.0.0.0 153.18.31.254 0.0.0.0 UG eth0 Any packet with a multicast address from 224.0.0.0 to 239.255.255.255 is masked and delivered to the Ethernet interface. TCP/IP Protocol Suite 30
  • 31. 10.5 IGMP PACKAGE We can show how IGMP can handle the sending and receiving of IGMP packets through our simplified version of an IGMP package. In our design an IGMP package involves a group table, a set of timers, and four software modules. The topics discussed in this section include: Group Table Timers Group-Joining Module Group-Leaving Module Input Module Output Module TCP/IP Protocol Suite 31
  • 32. Figure 10.12 IGMP package TCP/IP Protocol Suite 32
  • 33. Figure 10.13 Group table TCP/IP Protocol Suite 33