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Change Management
Understanding, Initiating and Managing Organizational Change
By Catherine Adenle
http://catherinescareercorner.com
2
Aim
By Catherine Adenle
http://catherinescareercorner.com
This presentation is a collection of ideas,
approaches, tips and resources for leaders at
all levels leading and driving organizational
change or transformation.
It lays out a clear roadmap for initiating, driving
and achieving change.
Leaders see, they feel, they change.
3
What happens during change and what should be
done?
Agenda
What is change and why change?
How can change be introduced and managed?
Managing resistance and facilitating ‘buy-in’ during
organizational change
Best practice and the don’ts of change management
Summary, resources and further readings
By Catherine Adenle
http://catherinescareercorner.com
Change management is a structured
approach to transitioning individuals, teams,
and organizations from a current state to a
desired future state.
4
What is change management?
By Catherine Adenle
http://catherinescareercorner.com
• “It is not the strongest species that survive, nor the
most intelligent, but the ones who are most
responsive to change”
• Charles Darwin
• “Change your thoughts and you change your world”
• Norman Vincent Peale
5
Change quotes
By Catherine Adenle
http://catherinescareercorner.com
• Environment – internal or
external factors
• Systems
• Processes
• Culture
• Things could be better
• Mergers
• Acquisitions
• Continuous improvement
• Take over
• Competition
• Innovation
• Upgrades
• New strategy
• Outsourcing
• Off-shoring
• Economy
• New technology
• Centralization
• Restructuring
6
Why change?
No change is without a purpose
By Catherine Adenle
http://catherinescareercorner.com
7
Few changes over the years
Nobody can go back and start a new beginning, but anyone can start
today and make a new ending.
By Catherine Adenle
http://catherinescareercorner.com
8
A changing perspective
By Catherine Adenle
http://catherinescareercorner.com
Copyright 20099
Change process
Adapted from Kurt Lewin’s Model
Unfreeze
Stability
Refreeze
Stability
Unfreezing/Change
Chaos
Unpredictability
No control
Confusion
Loss-Attachment
Fear
Shock
Anger
Desired
Situation
Undesired
Situation
By Catherine Adenle
http://catherinescareercorner.com
10
Change curve
…and 3 support stages
Information/Communication Emotional support Guidance/Directions
By Catherine Adenle
http://catherinescareercorner.com
11
5 phases of change
Only if change managers
understand these phases of
change, and only if they act
accordingly, they will be able
to successfully manage
change processes without
obliterating peoples
motivation and commitment.
By Catherine Adenle
http://catherinescareercorner.com
Facts about change
Different people react differently to change.
Change often involves a loss, and people go through the "loss curve."
Most change succeeds or fails on the cooperation of the people who
must implement the change.
The key question asked or unasked on everybody’s mind about change
is “What’s in it for me?” (known by many as WIIFM.)
A “few” people and groups are almost always pivotal to a smooth and
effective change implementation.
Leadership is the key to successful change management
Everyone has fundamental needs that have to be met .
A clear plan of action is needed for each group/individual who needs to
move up in their support level for the change in order for it to succeed.
Communication and support are key ingredients when implementing
change.
By Catherine Adenle
http://catherinescareercorner.com
• What do we need to achieve?
• Why?
• How?
• When?
• Who will be affected?
• How will they react?
• How do we support the people affected?
• Do we have the resources to manage the change?
• How do we communicate the change and facilitate buy in?
• How do we deal with resistance?
• What part of the change do we need help with?
• How do we know what success is and how is it going to be
measured?
• After the change, then what?
13
Questions to ask before change
By Catherine Adenle
http://catherinescareercorner.com
1
• Build trust – be open and honest
2
• Build a compelling, logical case for organizational change
3
• Match actions and words
4 • Involve the people affected
5
•Communicate a sense of confidence
6
• Repeat your main messages
14
Introducing change?
By Catherine Adenle
http://catherinescareercorner.com
Assemble the puzzle and walk your way through
15
8 Steps to a successful change
1. Establish a sense of urgency
2. Create a guiding coalition
3. Develop a vision and strategy
4. Communicate the change vision
5. Empower broad-based action
6. Generate short-term wins
7. Consolidate gains and produce more change
8. Anchor new approaches in the culture
By Catherine Adenle
http://catherinescareercorner.com
• Step 1: People start telling each other, “let’s go, we need to change things!”
• Step 2: A group powerful enough to guide a big change is formed and they
start to work together well.
• Step 3: The guiding team develops the right vision and strategy for the
change effort.
• Step 4: People begin to buy into the change and this shows in their
behaviour.
• Step 5: More people feel able to act, and do act, on the vision.
• Step 6: Momentum builds, as more and more people try to fulfill the vision,
while fewer and fewer resist change.
• Step 7: People make wave after wave of changes until the vision is fulfilled.
• Step 8: People keep behaving in new ways despite the pull of tradition,
turnover of change leaders, etc.
Each of those steps will help create a new behavior toward change
16
Following the steps: Behaviours
By Catherine Adenle
http://catherinescareercorner.com
• Do you have a clear definition and vision of what needs to change, why,
how and what the benefits of change will be?
• Have you assemble your change management team?
• Do you have the resources (technical and leadership
capacity/bandwidth)to carry through and lead the change?
• Have you planned the communication to all stakeholders?
Communication becomes critical.
• - Communicate only what you know to be true
• (not what you speculate).
• - Be sure your management approves of what you are communicating before you
start communicating.
• - Communicate what you do know as soon as you know
• - Communicate with your audience in mind. Tailor communications (same facts
different emphasis) to each affected group.
• - Communicate using multiple mediums (one on one, small group, large group,
phone conference, written information, etc.) through focus groups, discussions,
presentations, blogs, postings, videos, intranet etc..
• - Be prepared to answer questions. Significant communication should be scripted
accompanied by a companion set of questions and answers for all presenters.
• - Once you start the communication, cycle back to listening.
• - The more resistance, the more you must listen and communicate.
17
Are you ready?
By Catherine Adenle
http://catherinescareercorner.com
1. Understand the psychology of organizational
change.
2. Think strategically and make your messages
clear.
3. Listen.
4. Build engagement.
5. Get the right message to the right audience.
6. Communicate, communicate, communicate.
7. Use the right communication channels.
8. Use story-telling to paint a picture.
9. Make it easy for managers to communicate
effectively.
10. Measure results and celebrate success.
More on change communication
10 steps to minimize negativity and resistance
By Catherine Adenle
http://catherinescareercorner.com
19
Change communication model
By Catherine Adenle
http://catherinescareercorner.com
Questions to increase engagement
• What do you think about this change?
• How do you feel about this change?
• What do you see your role as in this change?
• What is your opinion about this change?
• What is your experience with this type of change?
• What are you working on and how will you be impacted by this
change?
• What are your ideas about this change?
• Would you change anything about this change?
• Why do you think this change is needed (or not)?
Important note… Ask these questions and listen. No interruptions. No, “yeah,
but…” Nothing. Nada. Zip it. Listen authentically. The group or person you are
talking WITH will recognize your sincere intent which establishes connection —
the foundation of any successful change.
Melissa Dutmers, FAST COMPANY
Ask your staff these questions:
By Catherine Adenle
http://catherinescareercorner.com
CHANGE
• External
• Organisational
• Quicker
• More visible
• More predictable
• Physical
• Tangible
• Internal
• Personal
• Slower
• Less visible
• Less predictable
• Psychological
• Intangible
TRANSITION
21
Change vs. Transition
Change is the shift, transition is the process of one state of being to another
By Catherine Adenle
http://catherinescareercorner.com
Barriers and resistance to change
• Fear
• Anger
• Habits
• Negative thinking
• Attitude
• Culture
• Subjectivity
• People
• Emotions
• Poor planning
22
(1)Parochial self interest
(2)Misunderstanding
(3)Low tolerance of change
(4)Genuine Disagreement
By Catherine Adenle
http://catherinescareercorner.com
“The normal reaction to change is resistance.”
Overcome Resistance: 1 method, 5 tools
23
Education
Facilitation Cooptation
Participation
Coercion
Negotiation
By Catherine Adenle
http://catherinescareercorner.com
Change
Management
Best
Practice
Business
Case
Be Specific
Be
Assertive
Bring in an
Expert
24
5 B’s of executive buy-in
By Catherine Adenle
http://catherinescareercorner.com
Best Practice of change management
25
By Catherine Adenle
http://catherinescareercorner.com
• Have a reason for change, build a business case
• Have a roadmap, set stage for change – plan
• Be open, honest and transparent – don’t hide bad news
• Be generous with the time and effort on handling change
correctly
• Plan your communications properly : keep the information flow
frequent to all stakeholders and listen
• Form a steering committee comprising of representatives of all the
parties to be affected by the change and involve them in its
planning and implementation at the earliest stages
• Leverage employee knowledge and empower
• Visible leadership, out of the boardroom to the shop floor, be
available and keep an open door policy
• Explore resistance to change and derive solutions accordingly
• Motivate and gain commitment
• Coach and support people
• Recognise and reward achievements
• Make change stick - Incorporate new values and attitudes and
weave into culture
• Lack of proactive leadership or strategy
• Not managing the people side of change or change resistance
• Lack of consistent leadership
• Poor communication, planning, support and monitoring
• Insensitive, brash approach and lack of recognition or reward
• Apathy
• De-motivated staff kept in the dark
• Lack of time, capacity, budget etc.
• Short-term approach to change, stressed out staff
• Lack of staff buy-in
• Lack of initiative to “do something different”.
These factors for failure then lead to the ‘tread-mill effect’,
setting up a vicious circle
• No time for reflection, planning and learning
• No improvement in idea, design and implementation
• Increasing need to do something
• Increasing failure and unplanned consequences
26
Factors for failure
By Catherine Adenle
http://catherinescareercorner.com
27
Don'ts of change management
Don’t just think that
change will
automatically
happen – it needs
work.
Don’t ignore
rationale concerns,
address and derive
solutions.
Do not do a
management high
up selling alone. You
need to sell change
to all your staff and
stakeholders.
Don’t start any
change
management
without a business
case and a
roadmap.
Don’t do it on your
own, you need
supporters!
By Catherine Adenle
http://catherinescareercorner.com
Don’t ignore
communication and
support. You need
both for change to
stick.
28
Change management summary
Change is difficult
because of
emotions
People will react
differently but
generally follow
the same pattern
Accept that fear,
denial, anger,
resistance is normal
and do things to
help (yourself or
your staff)
Carefully look for
the opportunities:
they will be there
Focus on removing
fear: most other
behaviours seems to
stem from this
Good information
and communication
is essential: people
are good at dealing
with change if they
know what is
changing
By Catherine Adenle
http://catherinescareercorner.com
29
Resources and further readings
By Catherine Adenle
http://catherinescareercorner.com
• Fast Company Change Management and Organizational Change
Read the latest in content related to Change Management and
Organizational Change from Fast Company magazine.
• AHS Communication plan and example:
http://www.ahscommunications.com/images/Communication_Plan_T
emplate_and_Example.pdf
• AHS Change Communication, key messages and persuations:
http://www.ahscommunications.com/images/Communication_Brief_1
0-08_.pdf
• Making sense of change management: a complete guide to the
models, ...Esther Cameron, Mike Green -
• Change management: the people side of change Jeff Hiatt, Timothy
J. Creasey
• Change Management: A Guide to Effective Implementation Rob
Paton, James McCalman
• Change management excellence: using the four intelligences for ...
Sarah Cook, Steve Macaulay, Hilary Coldicott
• Change Management Stella Louise Cowan
30
Resources and further readings
contd.
Leading Change : Overcoming the Ideology of Comfort and the Tyranny of
Custom, by James O'Toole, 302pp., Jossey-Bass, April 1995
Leading Change: Why Transformation Efforts Fail, by John P. Kotter, 187pp.,
Harvard Business School Press, September 1996
The Heart of Change: Real-Life Stories of How People Change Their
Organizations, by John P. Kotter and Dan S. Cohen, 208pp., Harvard Business
School Press, August 2002
The First 90 Days: Critical Success Strategies for New Leaders at All Levels, by
Michael Watkins, Harvard Business School Press, 2003
Good to Great: Why Some Companies Make the Leap, and Others Don't, By Jim
Collins, 320pp., Harper Collins Publishers, Incorporated, October 2002
Useful website with free tools:
http://www.businessballs.com/changemanagement.htm
http://www.changr-management-toolbook.com
sign up for its free monthly newsletter!
By Catherine Adenle
http://catherinescareercorner.com
31 Copyright 2009
Questions?
By Catherine Adenle
http://catherinescareercorner.com
catherinescareercorner

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Understanding, Initiating and Managing Change by Catherine Adenle

  • 1. Change Management Understanding, Initiating and Managing Organizational Change By Catherine Adenle http://catherinescareercorner.com
  • 2. 2 Aim By Catherine Adenle http://catherinescareercorner.com This presentation is a collection of ideas, approaches, tips and resources for leaders at all levels leading and driving organizational change or transformation. It lays out a clear roadmap for initiating, driving and achieving change. Leaders see, they feel, they change.
  • 3. 3 What happens during change and what should be done? Agenda What is change and why change? How can change be introduced and managed? Managing resistance and facilitating ‘buy-in’ during organizational change Best practice and the don’ts of change management Summary, resources and further readings By Catherine Adenle http://catherinescareercorner.com
  • 4. Change management is a structured approach to transitioning individuals, teams, and organizations from a current state to a desired future state. 4 What is change management? By Catherine Adenle http://catherinescareercorner.com
  • 5. • “It is not the strongest species that survive, nor the most intelligent, but the ones who are most responsive to change” • Charles Darwin • “Change your thoughts and you change your world” • Norman Vincent Peale 5 Change quotes By Catherine Adenle http://catherinescareercorner.com
  • 6. • Environment – internal or external factors • Systems • Processes • Culture • Things could be better • Mergers • Acquisitions • Continuous improvement • Take over • Competition • Innovation • Upgrades • New strategy • Outsourcing • Off-shoring • Economy • New technology • Centralization • Restructuring 6 Why change? No change is without a purpose By Catherine Adenle http://catherinescareercorner.com
  • 7. 7 Few changes over the years Nobody can go back and start a new beginning, but anyone can start today and make a new ending. By Catherine Adenle http://catherinescareercorner.com
  • 8. 8 A changing perspective By Catherine Adenle http://catherinescareercorner.com
  • 9. Copyright 20099 Change process Adapted from Kurt Lewin’s Model Unfreeze Stability Refreeze Stability Unfreezing/Change Chaos Unpredictability No control Confusion Loss-Attachment Fear Shock Anger Desired Situation Undesired Situation By Catherine Adenle http://catherinescareercorner.com
  • 10. 10 Change curve …and 3 support stages Information/Communication Emotional support Guidance/Directions By Catherine Adenle http://catherinescareercorner.com
  • 11. 11 5 phases of change Only if change managers understand these phases of change, and only if they act accordingly, they will be able to successfully manage change processes without obliterating peoples motivation and commitment. By Catherine Adenle http://catherinescareercorner.com
  • 12. Facts about change Different people react differently to change. Change often involves a loss, and people go through the "loss curve." Most change succeeds or fails on the cooperation of the people who must implement the change. The key question asked or unasked on everybody’s mind about change is “What’s in it for me?” (known by many as WIIFM.) A “few” people and groups are almost always pivotal to a smooth and effective change implementation. Leadership is the key to successful change management Everyone has fundamental needs that have to be met . A clear plan of action is needed for each group/individual who needs to move up in their support level for the change in order for it to succeed. Communication and support are key ingredients when implementing change. By Catherine Adenle http://catherinescareercorner.com
  • 13. • What do we need to achieve? • Why? • How? • When? • Who will be affected? • How will they react? • How do we support the people affected? • Do we have the resources to manage the change? • How do we communicate the change and facilitate buy in? • How do we deal with resistance? • What part of the change do we need help with? • How do we know what success is and how is it going to be measured? • After the change, then what? 13 Questions to ask before change By Catherine Adenle http://catherinescareercorner.com
  • 14. 1 • Build trust – be open and honest 2 • Build a compelling, logical case for organizational change 3 • Match actions and words 4 • Involve the people affected 5 •Communicate a sense of confidence 6 • Repeat your main messages 14 Introducing change? By Catherine Adenle http://catherinescareercorner.com
  • 15. Assemble the puzzle and walk your way through 15 8 Steps to a successful change 1. Establish a sense of urgency 2. Create a guiding coalition 3. Develop a vision and strategy 4. Communicate the change vision 5. Empower broad-based action 6. Generate short-term wins 7. Consolidate gains and produce more change 8. Anchor new approaches in the culture By Catherine Adenle http://catherinescareercorner.com
  • 16. • Step 1: People start telling each other, “let’s go, we need to change things!” • Step 2: A group powerful enough to guide a big change is formed and they start to work together well. • Step 3: The guiding team develops the right vision and strategy for the change effort. • Step 4: People begin to buy into the change and this shows in their behaviour. • Step 5: More people feel able to act, and do act, on the vision. • Step 6: Momentum builds, as more and more people try to fulfill the vision, while fewer and fewer resist change. • Step 7: People make wave after wave of changes until the vision is fulfilled. • Step 8: People keep behaving in new ways despite the pull of tradition, turnover of change leaders, etc. Each of those steps will help create a new behavior toward change 16 Following the steps: Behaviours By Catherine Adenle http://catherinescareercorner.com
  • 17. • Do you have a clear definition and vision of what needs to change, why, how and what the benefits of change will be? • Have you assemble your change management team? • Do you have the resources (technical and leadership capacity/bandwidth)to carry through and lead the change? • Have you planned the communication to all stakeholders? Communication becomes critical. • - Communicate only what you know to be true • (not what you speculate). • - Be sure your management approves of what you are communicating before you start communicating. • - Communicate what you do know as soon as you know • - Communicate with your audience in mind. Tailor communications (same facts different emphasis) to each affected group. • - Communicate using multiple mediums (one on one, small group, large group, phone conference, written information, etc.) through focus groups, discussions, presentations, blogs, postings, videos, intranet etc.. • - Be prepared to answer questions. Significant communication should be scripted accompanied by a companion set of questions and answers for all presenters. • - Once you start the communication, cycle back to listening. • - The more resistance, the more you must listen and communicate. 17 Are you ready? By Catherine Adenle http://catherinescareercorner.com
  • 18. 1. Understand the psychology of organizational change. 2. Think strategically and make your messages clear. 3. Listen. 4. Build engagement. 5. Get the right message to the right audience. 6. Communicate, communicate, communicate. 7. Use the right communication channels. 8. Use story-telling to paint a picture. 9. Make it easy for managers to communicate effectively. 10. Measure results and celebrate success. More on change communication 10 steps to minimize negativity and resistance By Catherine Adenle http://catherinescareercorner.com
  • 19. 19 Change communication model By Catherine Adenle http://catherinescareercorner.com
  • 20. Questions to increase engagement • What do you think about this change? • How do you feel about this change? • What do you see your role as in this change? • What is your opinion about this change? • What is your experience with this type of change? • What are you working on and how will you be impacted by this change? • What are your ideas about this change? • Would you change anything about this change? • Why do you think this change is needed (or not)? Important note… Ask these questions and listen. No interruptions. No, “yeah, but…” Nothing. Nada. Zip it. Listen authentically. The group or person you are talking WITH will recognize your sincere intent which establishes connection — the foundation of any successful change. Melissa Dutmers, FAST COMPANY Ask your staff these questions: By Catherine Adenle http://catherinescareercorner.com
  • 21. CHANGE • External • Organisational • Quicker • More visible • More predictable • Physical • Tangible • Internal • Personal • Slower • Less visible • Less predictable • Psychological • Intangible TRANSITION 21 Change vs. Transition Change is the shift, transition is the process of one state of being to another By Catherine Adenle http://catherinescareercorner.com
  • 22. Barriers and resistance to change • Fear • Anger • Habits • Negative thinking • Attitude • Culture • Subjectivity • People • Emotions • Poor planning 22 (1)Parochial self interest (2)Misunderstanding (3)Low tolerance of change (4)Genuine Disagreement By Catherine Adenle http://catherinescareercorner.com “The normal reaction to change is resistance.”
  • 23. Overcome Resistance: 1 method, 5 tools 23 Education Facilitation Cooptation Participation Coercion Negotiation By Catherine Adenle http://catherinescareercorner.com
  • 24. Change Management Best Practice Business Case Be Specific Be Assertive Bring in an Expert 24 5 B’s of executive buy-in By Catherine Adenle http://catherinescareercorner.com
  • 25. Best Practice of change management 25 By Catherine Adenle http://catherinescareercorner.com • Have a reason for change, build a business case • Have a roadmap, set stage for change – plan • Be open, honest and transparent – don’t hide bad news • Be generous with the time and effort on handling change correctly • Plan your communications properly : keep the information flow frequent to all stakeholders and listen • Form a steering committee comprising of representatives of all the parties to be affected by the change and involve them in its planning and implementation at the earliest stages • Leverage employee knowledge and empower • Visible leadership, out of the boardroom to the shop floor, be available and keep an open door policy • Explore resistance to change and derive solutions accordingly • Motivate and gain commitment • Coach and support people • Recognise and reward achievements • Make change stick - Incorporate new values and attitudes and weave into culture
  • 26. • Lack of proactive leadership or strategy • Not managing the people side of change or change resistance • Lack of consistent leadership • Poor communication, planning, support and monitoring • Insensitive, brash approach and lack of recognition or reward • Apathy • De-motivated staff kept in the dark • Lack of time, capacity, budget etc. • Short-term approach to change, stressed out staff • Lack of staff buy-in • Lack of initiative to “do something different”. These factors for failure then lead to the ‘tread-mill effect’, setting up a vicious circle • No time for reflection, planning and learning • No improvement in idea, design and implementation • Increasing need to do something • Increasing failure and unplanned consequences 26 Factors for failure By Catherine Adenle http://catherinescareercorner.com
  • 27. 27 Don'ts of change management Don’t just think that change will automatically happen – it needs work. Don’t ignore rationale concerns, address and derive solutions. Do not do a management high up selling alone. You need to sell change to all your staff and stakeholders. Don’t start any change management without a business case and a roadmap. Don’t do it on your own, you need supporters! By Catherine Adenle http://catherinescareercorner.com Don’t ignore communication and support. You need both for change to stick.
  • 28. 28 Change management summary Change is difficult because of emotions People will react differently but generally follow the same pattern Accept that fear, denial, anger, resistance is normal and do things to help (yourself or your staff) Carefully look for the opportunities: they will be there Focus on removing fear: most other behaviours seems to stem from this Good information and communication is essential: people are good at dealing with change if they know what is changing By Catherine Adenle http://catherinescareercorner.com
  • 29. 29 Resources and further readings By Catherine Adenle http://catherinescareercorner.com • Fast Company Change Management and Organizational Change Read the latest in content related to Change Management and Organizational Change from Fast Company magazine. • AHS Communication plan and example: http://www.ahscommunications.com/images/Communication_Plan_T emplate_and_Example.pdf • AHS Change Communication, key messages and persuations: http://www.ahscommunications.com/images/Communication_Brief_1 0-08_.pdf • Making sense of change management: a complete guide to the models, ...Esther Cameron, Mike Green - • Change management: the people side of change Jeff Hiatt, Timothy J. Creasey • Change Management: A Guide to Effective Implementation Rob Paton, James McCalman • Change management excellence: using the four intelligences for ... Sarah Cook, Steve Macaulay, Hilary Coldicott • Change Management Stella Louise Cowan
  • 30. 30 Resources and further readings contd. Leading Change : Overcoming the Ideology of Comfort and the Tyranny of Custom, by James O'Toole, 302pp., Jossey-Bass, April 1995 Leading Change: Why Transformation Efforts Fail, by John P. Kotter, 187pp., Harvard Business School Press, September 1996 The Heart of Change: Real-Life Stories of How People Change Their Organizations, by John P. Kotter and Dan S. Cohen, 208pp., Harvard Business School Press, August 2002 The First 90 Days: Critical Success Strategies for New Leaders at All Levels, by Michael Watkins, Harvard Business School Press, 2003 Good to Great: Why Some Companies Make the Leap, and Others Don't, By Jim Collins, 320pp., Harper Collins Publishers, Incorporated, October 2002 Useful website with free tools: http://www.businessballs.com/changemanagement.htm http://www.changr-management-toolbook.com sign up for its free monthly newsletter! By Catherine Adenle http://catherinescareercorner.com
  • 31. 31 Copyright 2009 Questions? By Catherine Adenle http://catherinescareercorner.com catherinescareercorner

Editor's Notes

  1. Compare the attention paid to change in the 1990 to the attention in 2000 up until now
  2. First stage represents the status quo which is unfreeze.Second stage attempts to install the change.Third stage is refreezing desired change.
  3. Shockand SurpriseConfrontation with unexpected situations - This can happen ‘by accident’ (e.g. losses in particular business units) or planned events (e.g. workshops for personal development and team performance improvement). These situations make people realize that their own patterns of doing things are not suitable for new conditions any more. Thus, their perceived own competence decreases. Denial and DepressionPeople activate values as support for their conviction that change is not necessary. Hence, they believe there is no need for change; their perceived competency increases again.Resignation, Rational UnderstandingPeople realize the need for change. According to this insight, their perceived competence decreases again. People focus on finding short term solutions, thus they only cure symptoms. There is no willingness to change own patterns of behavior. Emotional AcceptanceThis phase, which is also called ‘crisis’ is the most important one. Only if management succeeds to create a willingness for changing values, beliefs, and behaviors, the organization will be able to exploit their real potentials. In the worst case, however, change processes will be stopped or slowed down here. Exercising and LearningThe new acceptance of change creates a new willingness for learning. People start to try new behaviors and processes. They will experience success and failure during this phase. It is the change managers task to create some early wins (e.g. by starting with easier projects). This will lead to an increase in peoples perceived own competence.Realization, Acceptance and Letting Go.People gather more information by learning and exercising. This knowledge has a feedback-effect. People understand which behavior is effective in which situation. This, in turn, opens up their minds for new experiences. These extended patterns of behavior increase organizational flexibility. Perceived competency has reached a higher level than prior to change. New BeginningPeople totally integrate their newly acquired patterns of thinking and acting. The new behaviors become routine.
  4. It takes time to build employees’ trust but only moments to destroy it. Signs that trust has been erodedinclude lower productivity, poor morale, resistance to change, a strong rumor mill and good staff leaving.To build trust, you need to be honest and open.Even when your employees trust you, they won’t change unless you give them a compelling, logicalreason to. Miss this chance and employees will concoct their own – usually less flattering – reasons for the change‘Walk the talk’ and make sure all managers do the same. Actions speak louder than words.Involve people who are directly affected. Don’t assume that negative people will necessarily sabotageyour project. They will if you let them, but it’s your job to win them over. Converts can become yourgreatest allies. You may not like some of the messages they tell you, especially during the denial andresistance stages. However, acknowledging people’s fears is one way to minimize their anxiety.Accentuate the positive and eliminate the negative (or at least keep it to a minimum).Repetition is a powerful tool. People hear a message when they are ready to hear it. Many people whoare constantly bombarded with information become good at screening out “noise”. So, repeat your mainmessages until everyone gets them. Match your messages to the groups affected and to how staff arefeeling at each stage of the project.
  5. According to Lewin, successful change requires unfreezing the status quo, changing to a new state, and refreezing the change to make it permanent. In the relatively calm environment of the 1950s through the early 1970s, Lewin’s model may have been workable. Given chaotic change and the global village, however, this metaphor is declining. Now change must be a constant state of best-in-class firms.In this new environment, the role of the leader is crucial. He must carefully plan the change through:Scanning the environmentUnderstanding the impact on the five basic elements of the firmDefining his rolesHe must assess the “topology” of the firm and the field where he is going to play by:Mapping the Influence LandscapeIdentifying the Type of ResistanceHe then prepares the change by:Leveraging Negotiation &amp; Overcoming ResistanceAnd finally he implements the change by following the eight steps:Step 1: Establish a sense of urgency; Step 2: Create a guiding coalition; Step 3: Develop a new vision and strategy; Step 4: Communicate the change vision; Step 5: Empower broad-based action; Step 6: Generate short-term wins; Step 7: Consolidate gains and generate more change; Step 8: Anchor new approaches in the cultureNow let’s assemble the puzzle for the actions that we need to take--------Once there is the awareness that change is needed, most leaders establish a sense of urgency to overcome the complacency of employees. A leader needs to put together a winning team that will act as missionaries and implementers of change. They must be empowered enough to lead the change and be a real team. Without direction, change is going nowhere. The leader must develop a shared vision: a general statement of the organization’s intended direction that evokes emotional feelings in the members of the organization. Once the vision is defined, it should be repetitively communicated in clear, simple terms, and expanded.Empower broad based actions as necessary.To maintain employees’ motivation, leaders must allow the team to generate short-term wins. The leader will then leverage those wins to change what needs to be changed in the firm (systems, processes, or behaviors.). The leader must “walk the talk” by making sure the new values are reinforced. Finally, the company must have in place a mechanism for monitoring the progress of the change.Next, is a follow on slide to this, this slide is going to talk about the kind of behavior expected from these actions, once taken.
  6. As a reminder of the ‘actions’ we have just talked about: The first step is toStep 1: Establish a sense of urgency - People will start telling each other, “let’s go, we need to change things!”.Step 2: Create a guiding coalition – Buy in ofa group powerful enough to guide a big change is formed and they start to work together well.Step 3: Develop a new vision and strategy - The guiding team develops the right vision and strategy for the change effort.Step 4: Communicate the change vision - People begin to buy into the change and this shows in their behavior.Step 5: Empower broad-based action - More people feel able to act, and do act, on the vision.Step 6: Generate short-term wins - Momentum builds, as more and more people try to fulfill the vision, while fewer and fewer resist change.Step 7: Consolidate gains and generate more change - People make wave after wave of changes until the vision is fulfilled.Step 8: Anchor new approaches in the culture - People keep behaving in new ways despite the pull of tradition, turnover of change leaders, etc.Now, let’s have a look at few important guidelines for managing change
  7. Be sure you have the resources to carry through on implementing the change and the available technical and leadership capacity/bandwidth to lead it. Nothing is worse than launching change that stagnates and fails because management fails to lead- You may communicate your vision, direction and objectives before you communicate your plan. Communications to all stakeholders becomes critical. Communications sounds easy; just tell people what you are doing and why. However, savvy leaders know that communications is as challenging as it is essential. Some of the rules of communication to be followed in planning your own communications strategy are as follows:Communicate with your audience in mind. Tailor communications (same facts different emphasis) to each affected group. This can often best be done best through the leadership of each stakeholder group.However, be sure you only communicate what you know to be true not what you speculate or hope to be trueTypically, someone needs to hear and/or see the same message at least three times before it is retained/understood, particularly if it represents a change in what they previously believed to be true.Use multiple channels of communication, including group presentations, one on one In the final analysis, each person’s individual supervisor is usually the key. Script Q&amp;A (so that multiple presenters in multiple locations deliver the same facts) Be flexible on the details, but plan to stay the course.
  8. Resistance: understanding a phenomena that is natural to all of us“The normal reaction to change is resistance.”You may have heard this statement many times before, but do we really know if it is true, and how this simple statement can impact our change management work? Do we really believe that resistance is normal, or are we like many business leaders who are surprised by, and disappointed with, employees who resist change?A common mistake made by many business leaders is to assume that by building Awareness of the need for change, they have also created a Desire to engage in that change. The assumption is that one automatically follows the other. Some managers may fall into the trap: If I design a &quot;really good” solution to a business problem, my employees will naturally embrace that solution. In both cases, resistance from employees takes these managers by surprise and they find themselves unprepared to manage that resistance. For exampleA financial services group wanted to consolidate its call centers across several divisions as a cost-savings initiative. A consultant was hired to design the best solution and implement the change. The project just started when rumors began to spread through several departments: “This organizational change is not good for the company.” Supervisors and key managers were resisting the change. In some cases they would not show up for design reviews or they would simply skip key decision-making meetings. Information requested by the consultant was withheld or half-complete.At breaks and around the coffee pot, employees complained about the consolidation effort. Both employees and managers were distracted from their day-to-day work and productivity suffered. Key managers were rumored to quit if the change was implemented.After several months of difficulties and delays, the consultants finally declared the call center consolidation in jeopardy. With the project at a stand-still, the executive sponsor requested an emergency briefing with his leadership team. They quickly identified a department head in one of the call centers as the focal point for the resistance. Arguments against the consolidation – initiated by this manager – were spreading throughout the ranks. It turned out that his supervisors were the same people who were resisting the change and presumably threatening to leave the organization. The only recourse at this point was reassignment or termination of this department head. However, both options would have negative fall-out for the company and the affected manager. The executive sponsor was faced with a stalled project and a potentially lose-lose decision for a long-tenured manager. Resistance to the change was spreading like wildfire.This executive sponsor is not the first or last business leader to be taken by surprise when employees resist change. The underlying principle at work here, as with many changes, is recognizing that resistance is normal, and that our success with change is dependent on how we plan for, recognize and manage resistance. So why do employees resist change? From personal experience, we all know that change creates anxiety and fear. The current state has tremendous holding power, and the possibility of losing what we have grown accustom to (and comfortable with) creates worry and anxiety. For many employees, the future state of workplace changes is often unknown or ill-defined, and this uncertainly creates fear about what lies ahead. These physical and emotional reactions are powerful enough by themselves to create resistance to change. It is likely that each of us have experienced these reactions in our own lives, whether at work or at home. But there is more to resistance than our emotional response. From a change management perspective, we must examine the other drivers that influence an employee’s resistance to change.A good place to start is the nature of the change itself and how this change is impacting the employee:“Were they involved with designing the change?” “Do they know why the change is being made?” “Do they believe that the reasons for making the change are valid?” “Do they trust the ‘senders’ of the change messages within the organization?” “How will the change impact them and their personal situation?”You can begin to appreciate why resistance to change is a normal and natural reaction to change. Even when individuals can align a change with their own self-interest and belief system, the uncertainty of success and fear of the unknown can block change and create resistance. The question, therefore, is not if we will encounter resistance to change, but rather how we support our employees through the change process and manage that resistance. We must, at some point, ask the question: How much resistance might we avoid if we would apply change management effectively?Consider this basic thought process: If resistance to change is a normal and natural reaction, then resistance should be expected. If resistance is expected, then our planning activities should be designed to mitigate that resistance. If our change management strategies and plans are designed to prevent and manage resistance, then we are not surprised by or unprepared for resistance when it happens. (1)Parochial self interestIndividuals are more concerned with the implications for themselves (2)Misunderstanding Communications problems Inadequate information (3)Low tolerance of changeSense of insecurity Different assessment of the situation (4) Disagreement over the need for change
  9. One method to overcome resistance is based on 5 tools proposed by John Kotter(Professor of Leadership at the Harvard Business School). All 5 tools are founded on the method of negotiation.(1) Education and communication: this is useful where inaccurate or missing information is contributing to employee resistance. (2) Participation and involvement: “People sustain what they help create”. Present the problem to a group of employees and let them collect and analyze data, then select a solution. (3- Facilitation and support (such as training or emotional support): reduce resistance caused by fear and anxiety.(4) Cooptation (such as giving a key resister a key role in the change): to be used when other tactics fail or are too costly. (5) Simply forcing the change or coercion: a fast way of pushing through a change. Useful when speed is necessary but carries some risks (i.e. bitterness of employees). Even in this case negotiation takes place to convince the authority power to exercise coercion on the group.This is taken from the book Leading Change, by John KotterWe can manage resistance early and at its source. In many cases we can prevent resistance or greatly reduce it. We also can stop treating resistance as a “problem employee” or a trouble area. We can understand the many factors that drive resistance, and manage them accordingly, both professionally and with respect for the employees going through change. If we do a really good job at managing change, we will find that change management can shift from preventing and managing resistance to engaging employees and building enthusiasm and passion around the change.The three critical and relevant lessons for change management practitioners related to employee resistance are:Do not react to resistance with surprise; expect it and plan for it. Make resistance management a core element of your change management plans and engage employees in the change process as early as possible.  Be patient with individuals as they work their way through the change process. Enable business leaders and managers to become effective change leaders and teach them how to manage resistance effectively. At the same time, be watchful for persistent and prolonged resistance from managers or business leaders. This level of resistance is a sign of a weak sponsor coalition and can threaten a project and compromise your success. Assess resistance not only from an individual perspective, but also based on the larger organizational context, including culture, history and how much other change is going on within that person’s team or department. Change is equally about the individual as it is the community to which they belong.
  10. Best Practices Read, re-read and read Prosci&apos;s benchmarking report– being familiar with best practices will enable you to answer questions about change management with confidence and credibility. Best Practices in Change Management benchmarking report also includes some important findings you can use to position change management in your organization including the costs and consequences of applying change management late on a project and the correlation between effective change management and meeting objectives, staying on schedule and staying on budget. Best Practices teaches us effective methods, efficient ways and powerful tools for managing and leading change – become the subject matter expert in change management.  Business Case Based on the business case for the project, develop a solid business case for change management – remember change management is all about benefit realization. Weave as many of the four benefits of change management – benefit realization, risk mitigation, return on investment and certainty of return – into your change management business case as possible. The stronger you can make the connection between effective change management and realizing project benefits, the stronger your business case will be. Then be ready to defend your business case and educate others about the true bottom line benefit of change management.  Be Specific In planning Sponsor Roadmap activities, be specific with your requests and support your executives fully. Sponsors are often time starved and removed from the potential day-to-day impacts of a change – they need a trusted advisor or coach to help keep them active and visible. Remember, the success of the project is their success, so if you can help them to achieve better results, you’ll win their respect, admiration and support. But be specific with those requests. Executives have limited time and multiple demands – they will value you if you can design and support them in ways that minimize the time requirement and maximize the impact of their actions.  Be Assertive If you approach your executives with timidity, they think you lack confidence and you’ll fail to make your point. Nobody likes to hear about more problems, especially executives who already feel under the gun – give them solutions. Remember you are backed by Best Practice research and methodologies that can help your organization achieve higher levels of success. They need to hear and know this. You may be a pioneer in your organization, with knowledge others don’t have – your task is to boldly move forward with ideas, answers and solutions to the problems that may be plaguing your past and current projects. Don’t wait for someone to ask you for help – assert yourself!  Bring in an Expert Sometimes you need the support of an outside expert to break-through a wall. An outsider has the independence to challenge traditional thinking, breakdown paradigms and “teach the old dogs new tricks”. Use those experts to send a clear message and help bring executives to their own ah-ha moments regarding change management. Then, make sure you are poised to be assertive, armed with Best Practices, have a solid business case and be specific with your requests.  Good luck and remember to share your experiences.
  11. These are few simple best practice guidelines for any type of change, could be strategic, cultural, people, or systems.---To successfully implement any type of change you have time and be willing to put in a lot of effort.---Communication is key ---Involve other people and carry them alongIt is important that managers are aware that it can take individuals up to a year or two to adjust fully to sudden changes. As we have mentioned earlier, The emotions people feel tend to come in a particular order we all know as the change curve.To help people through this curve, there must be visible leadershipFirst class communication processYour commitment to explore resistance and do something to address thisOngoing support and coaching systemInclusion of people in communication and problem solvingReward is vital, give feedback and show that you recognise achievements