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A Comparison of 5
popular Models for
Managing Business
     Change


       Jan 2013
Change Management Models- a Comparison

•   George Box, a statistician, famously wrote that "essentially, all models are wrong, but some
    are useful” . The field of change management continues to prove him right.

•   Organizational change management (OCM) is a structured approach in an organization for
    ensuring that changes are smoothly and successfully implemented, and that the lasting
    benefits of change are achieved. That is easier said than done.

•   Nevertheless, there are many management consultants, clinical psychologists and social
    scientists who have carried out extensive research on the dynamics of change and proposed
    models and frameworks to understand the same.

•   We present here a comparison of five popular models. By no means is this list complete. The
    complexity and unpredictability of human behavior will ensure that the field of change
    management will continuously produce more frameworks to study and more models to adopt.
Kotter’s Eights Steps to Change                                                          John Kotter’s (1996) eight steps to transforming
                                                                                         organizations are based upon analysis of 100 different
                                                                                         organizations going through change. His research
                                                                                         highlighted eight key lessons which he converted into a
                                                                                         practical eight-step model. Although represented by Kotter
                                                                                         in a linear fashion, experience suggests that it is better to
                                                                                         think of the steps as a continuous cycle to ensure that the
                                                                                         momentum of the change is maintained.



                Establish a                          Form a
                                                                                        Develop a vision            Communicate
                 Sense of                        powerful, guidin
                                                                                          & Strategy                  the vision
                 Urgency                           g coalition



              Remove
                                                  Plan and create                         Consolidate               Anchor in the
             Obstacles &
                                                  short-term wins                            gains                    culture
           empower action



                     Benefits                                                                                  Limitations
   1.     Focus on buy-in of employees as the                                                     1.    The model is clearly top-down, it
          focus for success                                                                             gives no room for co-creation or
   2.     Clear steps which can give a                                                                  other forms of true participation.
          guidance for the process                                                                2.    Can lead to frustrations among
   3.     Fits well into the culture of classical                                                       employees if the stages of
          hierarchies                                                                                   grief and individual needs are not
                                                                                                        taken into consideration.

   More at :http://www.kotterinternational.com/our-principles/changesteps/changesteps
The ideas of Bridges(1991) on transition provide a good
                                                                                 understanding of what is going on when an organizational
Bridge’s Transition Model                                                        change takes place. He differentiates between change
                                                                                 and transition, according to him Change is a situational
                                                                                 and happens without people transitioning and transition is
                                                                                 psychological and is a three phase process where people
                                                                                 gradually accept the details of the new situation and the
                                                                                 changes that come with it.




                       ENDING                                    NEUTRAL ZONE                    NEW BEGINNING
          End what ‘used to be’; identify                   Individuals within the              Gain acceptance of the
          who is losing what, openly                        organization feel disoriented       purpose; Communicate a
          acknowledge the loss, mark                        with falling motivation and         picture of how the new
          the endings and continuously                      increasing anxiety. Ensure that     organization will look and feel
          repeat information about what                     people recognize the neutral        ; Communicate and gain a
          is changing and why.                              zone and treat it as part of the    step-by-step understanding of
                                                            organization's change process.      how the organization will
                                                                                                change




                   Benefits                                                                           Limitations
 1.     You can use the model to                                                           1.   While the model is useful for
        understand how people feel as you                                                       implementing change, it's not a
        guide them through change. It                                                           substitute for other change
        clarifies the psychological effect of                                                   management approaches. It cant
        change.                                                                                 be used as an independent change
                                                                                                management model.
 More at : http://www.mindtools.com/pages/article/bridges-transition-model.htm
Roger’s Technology Adoption Curve
                                                                   The technology adoption lifecycle model, based on his
                                                                   theory of diffusion of innovation(1962), describes the
                                                                   adoption or acceptance of a new product or innovation,
                                                                   according to the demographic and psychological
                                                                   characteristics of defined adopter groups. The process of
                                                                   adoption over time is typically illustrated as a classical
                                                                   normal distribution or "bell curve." The model indicates
                                                                   that the first group of people to use a new product is
                                                                   called "innovators," followed by "early adopters." Next
                                                                   come the early and late majority, and the last group to
                                                                   eventually adopt a product are called "laggards.”

                                                                   The curve creates the foundation of 5 step process of
                                                                   technology adoption- Knowledge, Persuasion, Decision,
                                                                   Implementation, Confirmation




                        Benefits                                                   Limitations
      1.      Helps in creating an understanding                       1.   People need not fall into one Change
              of the audience for change.                                   Adoption Category; they drift from
      2.      Provides inputs to identify opinion                           category to category depending on the
              makers and influencers.                                       specific change/innovation.
                                                                       2.   The adoption terms are accurate only in
                                                                            hindsight; they tell you nothing about
                                                                            how a population might respond to a
                                                                            change/innovation.
 More at : http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Diffusion_of_innovations
The Change Curve is based on a model originally
Kubler- Ross Five Stage Model                    developed in the 1960s by Elisabeth Kubler-Ross to
                                                 explain the grieving process. She proposed that a
The Change Curve                                 terminally ill patient would progress through 5 stages of
                                                 grief when informed of their illness. By the 1980s, the
                                                 Change Curve was a firm fixture in change management
                                                 circles. The curve, and its associated emotions, can be
                                                 used to predict how performance is likely to be affected by
                                                 the announcement and subsequent implementation of a
                                                 significant change.




                                                               Limitations
                                                 1.     Not all change is bad. This model
                                                        assumes the worst reaction to
                Benefits                                change.
 1.   An individual’s reaction to change is      2.     It is difficult to identify the
      well captured, this forms a good                  transition between stages.
      foundation to develop                      3.     Difficult to apply to a group
      communication strategy
                                              More at :
                                              http://www.exeter.ac.uk/media/universityofexeter/humanresources/documents/learningdevelopm
Developed in 1998 by Prosci, after research with more
                                                                         than 300 companies undergoing major change projects.
   Prosci’s ADKAR Model                                                  ADKAR is a goal-oriented change management model
                                                                         that allows change management teams to focus their
                                                                         activities on specific business results. The model was
                                                                         initially used as a tool for determining if change
                                                                         management activities like communications and training
                                                                         were having the desired results during organizational
                                                                         change.




                                                                                                Benefits
                                                                                 1.   It encapsulates the business/process
                                                                                      dimension of change and the
                                                                                      individual dimension of change
                                                                                 2.   Provides a clear management
                                                                                      checklist to manage change


                                                                                             Limitations
                                                                                 1.   Misses out on the role of
                                                                                      Leadership and principles of
                                                                                      programme management to
                                                                                      create clarity and provide
                                                                                      direction to chnage
More at : http://www.change-management.com/tutorial-adkar-overview.htm
For more information on how PeopleWiz can help you in managing
      change, request for CM information pack by writing to
                 info@peoplewizconsulting.com or
                              visit
           http://www.peoplewizconsulting.com/change

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Change Management Models- a comparison

  • 1. A Comparison of 5 popular Models for Managing Business Change Jan 2013
  • 2. Change Management Models- a Comparison • George Box, a statistician, famously wrote that "essentially, all models are wrong, but some are useful” . The field of change management continues to prove him right. • Organizational change management (OCM) is a structured approach in an organization for ensuring that changes are smoothly and successfully implemented, and that the lasting benefits of change are achieved. That is easier said than done. • Nevertheless, there are many management consultants, clinical psychologists and social scientists who have carried out extensive research on the dynamics of change and proposed models and frameworks to understand the same. • We present here a comparison of five popular models. By no means is this list complete. The complexity and unpredictability of human behavior will ensure that the field of change management will continuously produce more frameworks to study and more models to adopt.
  • 3. Kotter’s Eights Steps to Change John Kotter’s (1996) eight steps to transforming organizations are based upon analysis of 100 different organizations going through change. His research highlighted eight key lessons which he converted into a practical eight-step model. Although represented by Kotter in a linear fashion, experience suggests that it is better to think of the steps as a continuous cycle to ensure that the momentum of the change is maintained. Establish a Form a Develop a vision Communicate Sense of powerful, guidin & Strategy the vision Urgency g coalition Remove Plan and create Consolidate Anchor in the Obstacles & short-term wins gains culture empower action Benefits Limitations 1. Focus on buy-in of employees as the 1. The model is clearly top-down, it focus for success gives no room for co-creation or 2. Clear steps which can give a other forms of true participation. guidance for the process 2. Can lead to frustrations among 3. Fits well into the culture of classical employees if the stages of hierarchies grief and individual needs are not taken into consideration. More at :http://www.kotterinternational.com/our-principles/changesteps/changesteps
  • 4. The ideas of Bridges(1991) on transition provide a good understanding of what is going on when an organizational Bridge’s Transition Model change takes place. He differentiates between change and transition, according to him Change is a situational and happens without people transitioning and transition is psychological and is a three phase process where people gradually accept the details of the new situation and the changes that come with it. ENDING NEUTRAL ZONE NEW BEGINNING End what ‘used to be’; identify Individuals within the Gain acceptance of the who is losing what, openly organization feel disoriented purpose; Communicate a acknowledge the loss, mark with falling motivation and picture of how the new the endings and continuously increasing anxiety. Ensure that organization will look and feel repeat information about what people recognize the neutral ; Communicate and gain a is changing and why. zone and treat it as part of the step-by-step understanding of organization's change process. how the organization will change Benefits Limitations 1. You can use the model to 1. While the model is useful for understand how people feel as you implementing change, it's not a guide them through change. It substitute for other change clarifies the psychological effect of management approaches. It cant change. be used as an independent change management model. More at : http://www.mindtools.com/pages/article/bridges-transition-model.htm
  • 5. Roger’s Technology Adoption Curve The technology adoption lifecycle model, based on his theory of diffusion of innovation(1962), describes the adoption or acceptance of a new product or innovation, according to the demographic and psychological characteristics of defined adopter groups. The process of adoption over time is typically illustrated as a classical normal distribution or "bell curve." The model indicates that the first group of people to use a new product is called "innovators," followed by "early adopters." Next come the early and late majority, and the last group to eventually adopt a product are called "laggards.” The curve creates the foundation of 5 step process of technology adoption- Knowledge, Persuasion, Decision, Implementation, Confirmation Benefits Limitations 1. Helps in creating an understanding 1. People need not fall into one Change of the audience for change. Adoption Category; they drift from 2. Provides inputs to identify opinion category to category depending on the makers and influencers. specific change/innovation. 2. The adoption terms are accurate only in hindsight; they tell you nothing about how a population might respond to a change/innovation. More at : http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Diffusion_of_innovations
  • 6. The Change Curve is based on a model originally Kubler- Ross Five Stage Model developed in the 1960s by Elisabeth Kubler-Ross to explain the grieving process. She proposed that a The Change Curve terminally ill patient would progress through 5 stages of grief when informed of their illness. By the 1980s, the Change Curve was a firm fixture in change management circles. The curve, and its associated emotions, can be used to predict how performance is likely to be affected by the announcement and subsequent implementation of a significant change. Limitations 1. Not all change is bad. This model assumes the worst reaction to Benefits change. 1. An individual’s reaction to change is 2. It is difficult to identify the well captured, this forms a good transition between stages. foundation to develop 3. Difficult to apply to a group communication strategy More at : http://www.exeter.ac.uk/media/universityofexeter/humanresources/documents/learningdevelopm
  • 7. Developed in 1998 by Prosci, after research with more than 300 companies undergoing major change projects. Prosci’s ADKAR Model ADKAR is a goal-oriented change management model that allows change management teams to focus their activities on specific business results. The model was initially used as a tool for determining if change management activities like communications and training were having the desired results during organizational change. Benefits 1. It encapsulates the business/process dimension of change and the individual dimension of change 2. Provides a clear management checklist to manage change Limitations 1. Misses out on the role of Leadership and principles of programme management to create clarity and provide direction to chnage More at : http://www.change-management.com/tutorial-adkar-overview.htm
  • 8. For more information on how PeopleWiz can help you in managing change, request for CM information pack by writing to info@peoplewizconsulting.com or visit http://www.peoplewizconsulting.com/change