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1
Managing
Corporate Performance
with Balanced Scorecard
2
You can download these
excellent slides at :
www.HR-Management-Slides.com
3
Contents :
1. Corporate Performance Scorecard
2. Strategy Map Framework
3. Four Perspectives in Balanced Scorecard
4. Identifying Key Performance Indicators
5. Strategy Map in Corporate Functions (HR, IT,
Finance and Marketing)
4
Corporate
Performance Management
5
Performance Management Framework
Identifying
Defining
Measuring
Monitoring
Reporting
Key
Performance
Indicators
Company
strategy
Vision
Mission
Strategy
Strategy Map
6
Three critical components for effective process of
performance management
Performance
Management
Infrastructure
Performance
Management
Culture
Performance
Management
Process
Performance management
cycle is continuous and
consistent
Culture that is based
on performance
accountability
Logistic support and
performance management
administration
Performance Management Component
7
STRATEGY
Plan and Execute
Monitor and Evaluate
Reward and Coach
Set Measures and Target
Performance Management Cycle
8
Managing Performance with
Balanced Scorecard
Balanced Scorecard is a management tool that
provides stakeholders with a comprehensive
measure of how the organization is progressing
towards the achievement of its strategic goals.
9
• Balances financial and non-financial measures
• Balances short and long-term measures
• Balances performance drivers (leading
indicators) with outcome measures (lagging
indicators)
• Leads to strategic focus and organizational
alignment.
Managing Performance with
Balanced Scorecard
10
4 Perspectives in Balanced Scorecard
If we succeed, how will
we look to our
shareholders?
Financial Perspective
To achieve our vision,
how must we look to our
customers?
Customer Perspective
To satisfy our customers,
which processes must we
excel at?
Internal Perspective
To achieve our vision, how
must our organization learn
and improve?
Learning & Growth
Perspective
The Strategy
11
Strategy and Balanced Scorecard
Mission –
Why We
Exist
Vision –
What We
Want to Be
Values –
What’s
Important
to Us
Strategy :
Our Game
Plan
Strategy
Map :
Translate the
Strategy
Balanced
Scorecard :
Measure and
Focus
Strategic
Outcomes
Satisfied
Shareholders
Delighted
Customers
Excellent
Processes
Motivated
Workforce
12
• The strategy map framework is presented in the
following slides.
• This framework describes the types of strategic
target that should be presented in each perspective,
namely the financial perspective, customers, internal
business process, and learning & growth perspective.
Strategy Map Framework
13
Cost Efficiency
Long-term Shareholder
Value
Revenue Growth
Price Availability BrandServiceQuality
Operations
Management
Processes
Human Capital
Customer
Management
Processes
Innovation
Processes
Regulatory
and Social
Processes
Organization Capital Information Capital
Strategy Map Framework
Financial
Customer
Internal Process
Learning & Growth
14
Financial Perspective
• In private companies, the financial perspective is the
main objective (ultimate goal) – without having to
sacrifice the interests of other relevant stakeholders
(community, environment, government, etc.)
• In the financial perspective, the strategic goal is the
long-term shareholder value. This goal is driven by
two factors, namely : revenue growth and cost
efficiency.
15
Long-term
Shareholder Value
Revenue Growth
Improve Cost Structure
Increase Asset Utilization
Cost Efficiency
Strategic Objectives in Financial
Expand Revenue
Opportunities
Enhance Customer Value
16
Customer Perspective
• This perspective is very instrumental, because without
customers, how can a company survive?
• Customer perspective covers the following elements:
• Customer acquisition
• Customer retention
• Customer profitability
• Market share
• Customer satisfaction
17
Price Availability BrandServiceQuality
Customer Acquisition
Customer Satisfaction
Customer Retention Customer Profitability
Market Share
Strategic Objectives in Customer
18
Internal Process Perspective
• This perspective reflects the processes in key business
that should be optimized in order to meet the needs of
the customers.
• There are four main themes in this perspective, namely:
• Operations Management Process
• Customer Management Process
• Innovation Process
• Regulatory and Social Process
19
Operations
Management
Processes
Customer
Management
Processes
Innovation
Processes
Regulatory
and Social
Processes
Processes that
produce and
deliver products
and services
Processes that
enhance customer
value
Processes that
create new
products and
services
Processes that
improve
communities and
the environment
• Supply
• Production
• Distribution
• Selection
• Acquisition
• Retention
• Growth
• New Ideas
• R&D Portfolio
• Design/
Develop
• Launch
• Environment
• Safety &
Health
• Employment
• Community
Strategic Objectives in Internal Process
20
Learning & Growth Perspective
• This perspective reflects the capability that a company
should have, namely:
• Human Capital
• Organization Capital
• Information Capital
• This perspective shows us that good human resource
development system, organizational system and
information system forms a solid foundation for improving
company performance.
21
Human Capital
Organization
Capital
Information
Capital
• Skills
• Knowledge
• Attitude
• Systems
• Database
• Networks
• Culture
• Leadership
• Organization
Development
Strategic Objectives in
Learning & Growth
22
Strategy Map Template
• The following slide displays the strategy map template
comprising of four perspectives : financial, customer,
internal business process, and learning & growth.
23
Improve
Cost Efficiency
Enhance Long-term
Shareholder Value
Increase Revenue Growth
Enhance
Brand Image
Build High
Performance Products
Achieve
Operational
Excellence
Develop Strategic
Competencies
Drive Demand
through Customer
Relation
Management
Manage Dramatic
Growth through
Innovation
Implement Good
Environmental
Policy
Build Learning
Culture
Expand Capabilities with
Technology
Strategy Map Template
Financial
Customer
Internal Process
Learning & Growth
Expand
Market Share
24
Identifying Key Performance
Indicators (KPI)
25
Vision
Mission
and Values
Strategy
Finance
Customer
Internal Business
Process
HR
Development
Key Performance
Indicators
Key Performance
Indicators
Key Performance
Indicators
Strategic Objectives
KPI = Measurement or
indicator that provides
information on how far we
have succeeded in
achieving the strategic
objectives
Key Performance Indicators (KPI)
26
• The measure of success must show clear, specific and
measurable performance indicators.
• The measure of success should be declared explicitly and in
detail so that it is clear what is being measured.
• Costs to identify and monitor the measure of success should
not exceed the value that will be known from the measurement.
Guidelines in Formulating the KPI
KPI Guidelines
27
Relevant to the
Strategic Objective
Does KPI have a linkage with the strategic
objectives?
Controllable Are the KPI achievements still under control?
Actionable Can any action be taken to improve the
performance?
Simple Is the KPI easy to explain?
Credible Is the KPI not easy to manipulate?
KPI Guidelines
28
KPI Family Dimension
Productivity Measures employee output (units/
transactions/ dollars), the uptime levels and
how employees use their time (sales-to-
assets ratio, dollar revenue from new
customers, sales pipeline).
Measures the ability to meet and/or exceed
the requirements and expectations of the
customer (customer complaints, percent
returns, DPMO -- defects per million
opportunities).
Quality
29
KPI Family Dimension
Profitability Measures the overall effectiveness of the
management organization in generating
profits (profit contribution by
segment/customer, margin spreads).
Measures the point in time (day/week/
month) when management and employee
tasks are completed (on-time delivery,
percent of late orders).
Timeliness
30
KPI Family Dimension
Process
Efficiency
Measures how effectively the management
organization incorporates quality control, Six
Sigma and best practices to streamline
operational processes (yield percentage,
process uptime, capacity utilization).
Measures how effectively the management
organization leverages existing business
resources such as assets, bricks and mortar,
investments (sales per total assets, sales per
channel, win rate).
Resource
Utilization
31
KPI Family Dimension
Cost
Savings
Measures how successfully the management
organization achieves economies of scale and
scope of work with its people, staff and
practices to control operational and overhead
costs (cost per unit, inventory turns, cost of
goods).
Measures the ability of the management
organization to maintain competitive economic
position in the growth of the economy and
industry (market share, customer
acquisition/retention, account penetration).
Growth
32
KPI Category Dimension
DirectThe actual raw data value as measured (e.g.,
sales volume).
Percent
The comparison of the changes in
performance of one value relative to the
same value at a different time, geography,
etc. (e.g., percentage change in sales vs.
last year).
33
KPI Category Dimension
Simple
Ratio
The comparison of one value relative to another to
provide a benchmark for comparison of
performance (e.g., average sales per day).
Index
A combination of several separate measures
added together that result in an overall indicator
of performance (e.g., (company sales
growth)/(industry sales growth) for a specific
geography).
34
KPI Category Dimension
Composite
Average
The addition of the weighted averages of several
similar measures that result in an overall composite
indicator of performance (e.g., customer satisfaction
composite is mixture of results from surveys, focus
groups and product returns).
Statistics
Multiple measures such as mean, variance,
standard deviation and variance that capture the
spread and distribution of the performance
measures (e.g., sales distribution by demographics,
geography, channel).
35
Strategy Map for
Corporate Functions (HR, IT, Finance and
Marketing)
36
Vision
Mission
Strategy
Integration between Corporate and
Division/Department
Corporate
Scorecard
Division
Scorecard
The Division Scorecard
is built by referring to the
corporate scorecard
37
Financial
Customer
Internal Process
Learning & Growth
Corporate
Finance
Corporate
Marketing
Production
Supply Chain
R & D
Corporate HR
Info
Technology
Corporate and Division Scorecard
38
Corporate and Division Scorecard
• Division Scorecard is formulated by looking at the four
perspectives in Corporate Scorecard.
• As shown in the previous slides, the learning & growth
perspective provides guidelines for developing scorecard at
the Human Resource and IT divisions, while the internal
process perspective provides guidelines for developing
scorecard at the supply chain division or R&D.
39
Corporate and Division Scorecard
Sample from GE Lighting Business Group
Level of Organization Financial Customer Internal Process Learning & Growth
Corporate Scorecard Increase profit margin Improve customer Increase inventory turns Increase level of
satisfaction level Improve internal process employee competency
Division Scorecard Optimize cost of production Improve customer Increase inventory turns Increase level of
Reduce inventory levels satisfaction level Improve internal process employee competency
Plant Scorecard Optimize cost of production Increase percent of Increase inventory turns Number of "on the
Increase yields ratio on time delivery Reduce number of defects job training" delivered
Increase labor productivity Reduce customer per million Number of performance
Reduce inventory levels complaints per million Improve quality incoming coaching session
materials
Maintain optimum equipment
speed
Frontline Employee Reduce waste Reduce equipment downtime Number of "on the
Scorecard Reduce overtime Reduce number of poor job training" attended
Increase production rates solders Number of performance
Reduce number of cracked coaching session
bulbs attended
The above example shows how the scorecard at corporate level is
cascaded to division level, and further to plant level and employee level.
40
Division Strategy Map Template
• The strategy map for HR Division, Information Technology
Division, Finance Division, and Marketing Division are
presented in the following slides.
41
Optimize HR Efficiency
Drive Long term
Shareholder Value
Enhance People & Organizational
Effectiveness
Achieve HR
Process
Excellence
Develop Strategic &
Functional HR Competencies
Build Strategic
Employee
Competencies
Drive
Organizational
Performance
Enhance Technology
for HR
Create Climate for
HR Action
HR Strategy Map Template
Financial
Customer
HR Internal Process
Learning & Growth
Create Positive Work
Environment
Provide Quality
HR Service
Provide High
Performance People
42
Optimize IT Efficiency
Drive Long term
Shareholder Value
Enhance IT Impact on
Enterprise Outcome
Maintain a
Reliable IT
Infrastructure
Develop Strategic &
Functional IT Competencies
Develop Effective
Decision
Support System
Propose and Deliver
Transformational
Applications
Enhance IT Tools that
Enhance the IT Function
Promote Customer-
focused Culture
IT Strategy Map Template
Financial
Customer
IT Internal Process
Learning & Growth
Deliver Consistent, High
Quality IT Service
Provide Business Units with
Innovative IT Solutions
43
Optimize Financial Efficiency
Drive Long term
Shareholder Value
Enhance Finance Effectiveness on
Enterprise Outcome
Achieve Finance
Process
Excellence
Develop Strategic &
Functional Finance
Competencies
Develop Financial
Information to
Improve Decision
Making
Ensure Compliance
with Regulatory
Requirements
Use Technology to Improve
Financial Information
Delivery
Finance Strategy Map Template
Financial
Customer
Finance Internal Process
Learning & Growth
Deliver Responsive & Efficient
Finance Operations
Provide Clear & Reliable
Required Disclosure
Promote Customer-
focused Culture
44
Optimize Marketing Efficiency
Drive Long term
Shareholder Value
Increase Sales
Revenue
Develop Innovative
Marketing
Communication
Program
Develop Strategic &
Functional Marketing
Competencies
Develop
Marketing Business
Intelligence
Accelerate
New Product
Development
Ideas
Enhance Technology
for Marketing
Foster Creative Thinking
& Innovative Solutions
Marketing Strategy Map Template
Financial
Customer
Internal Process
Learning & Growth
Create Satisfied and
Loyal Customers
Enhance Brand
Image
Develop Effective
Customer Relation
Management
45
Recommended Further Readings:
1. Robert Kaplan and David Norton, Strategy Map : Converting Intangible
Assets into Tangible Outcomes, HBS Press
2. Robert Kaplan and David Norton, Alignment : Using the Balanced
Scorecard to Create Corporate Synergies, HBS Press
46
End of Material

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Balanced scorecard ppt slides

  • 2. 2 You can download these excellent slides at : www.HR-Management-Slides.com
  • 3. 3 Contents : 1. Corporate Performance Scorecard 2. Strategy Map Framework 3. Four Perspectives in Balanced Scorecard 4. Identifying Key Performance Indicators 5. Strategy Map in Corporate Functions (HR, IT, Finance and Marketing)
  • 6. 6 Three critical components for effective process of performance management Performance Management Infrastructure Performance Management Culture Performance Management Process Performance management cycle is continuous and consistent Culture that is based on performance accountability Logistic support and performance management administration Performance Management Component
  • 7. 7 STRATEGY Plan and Execute Monitor and Evaluate Reward and Coach Set Measures and Target Performance Management Cycle
  • 8. 8 Managing Performance with Balanced Scorecard Balanced Scorecard is a management tool that provides stakeholders with a comprehensive measure of how the organization is progressing towards the achievement of its strategic goals.
  • 9. 9 • Balances financial and non-financial measures • Balances short and long-term measures • Balances performance drivers (leading indicators) with outcome measures (lagging indicators) • Leads to strategic focus and organizational alignment. Managing Performance with Balanced Scorecard
  • 10. 10 4 Perspectives in Balanced Scorecard If we succeed, how will we look to our shareholders? Financial Perspective To achieve our vision, how must we look to our customers? Customer Perspective To satisfy our customers, which processes must we excel at? Internal Perspective To achieve our vision, how must our organization learn and improve? Learning & Growth Perspective The Strategy
  • 11. 11 Strategy and Balanced Scorecard Mission – Why We Exist Vision – What We Want to Be Values – What’s Important to Us Strategy : Our Game Plan Strategy Map : Translate the Strategy Balanced Scorecard : Measure and Focus Strategic Outcomes Satisfied Shareholders Delighted Customers Excellent Processes Motivated Workforce
  • 12. 12 • The strategy map framework is presented in the following slides. • This framework describes the types of strategic target that should be presented in each perspective, namely the financial perspective, customers, internal business process, and learning & growth perspective. Strategy Map Framework
  • 13. 13 Cost Efficiency Long-term Shareholder Value Revenue Growth Price Availability BrandServiceQuality Operations Management Processes Human Capital Customer Management Processes Innovation Processes Regulatory and Social Processes Organization Capital Information Capital Strategy Map Framework Financial Customer Internal Process Learning & Growth
  • 14. 14 Financial Perspective • In private companies, the financial perspective is the main objective (ultimate goal) – without having to sacrifice the interests of other relevant stakeholders (community, environment, government, etc.) • In the financial perspective, the strategic goal is the long-term shareholder value. This goal is driven by two factors, namely : revenue growth and cost efficiency.
  • 15. 15 Long-term Shareholder Value Revenue Growth Improve Cost Structure Increase Asset Utilization Cost Efficiency Strategic Objectives in Financial Expand Revenue Opportunities Enhance Customer Value
  • 16. 16 Customer Perspective • This perspective is very instrumental, because without customers, how can a company survive? • Customer perspective covers the following elements: • Customer acquisition • Customer retention • Customer profitability • Market share • Customer satisfaction
  • 17. 17 Price Availability BrandServiceQuality Customer Acquisition Customer Satisfaction Customer Retention Customer Profitability Market Share Strategic Objectives in Customer
  • 18. 18 Internal Process Perspective • This perspective reflects the processes in key business that should be optimized in order to meet the needs of the customers. • There are four main themes in this perspective, namely: • Operations Management Process • Customer Management Process • Innovation Process • Regulatory and Social Process
  • 19. 19 Operations Management Processes Customer Management Processes Innovation Processes Regulatory and Social Processes Processes that produce and deliver products and services Processes that enhance customer value Processes that create new products and services Processes that improve communities and the environment • Supply • Production • Distribution • Selection • Acquisition • Retention • Growth • New Ideas • R&D Portfolio • Design/ Develop • Launch • Environment • Safety & Health • Employment • Community Strategic Objectives in Internal Process
  • 20. 20 Learning & Growth Perspective • This perspective reflects the capability that a company should have, namely: • Human Capital • Organization Capital • Information Capital • This perspective shows us that good human resource development system, organizational system and information system forms a solid foundation for improving company performance.
  • 21. 21 Human Capital Organization Capital Information Capital • Skills • Knowledge • Attitude • Systems • Database • Networks • Culture • Leadership • Organization Development Strategic Objectives in Learning & Growth
  • 22. 22 Strategy Map Template • The following slide displays the strategy map template comprising of four perspectives : financial, customer, internal business process, and learning & growth.
  • 23. 23 Improve Cost Efficiency Enhance Long-term Shareholder Value Increase Revenue Growth Enhance Brand Image Build High Performance Products Achieve Operational Excellence Develop Strategic Competencies Drive Demand through Customer Relation Management Manage Dramatic Growth through Innovation Implement Good Environmental Policy Build Learning Culture Expand Capabilities with Technology Strategy Map Template Financial Customer Internal Process Learning & Growth Expand Market Share
  • 25. 25 Vision Mission and Values Strategy Finance Customer Internal Business Process HR Development Key Performance Indicators Key Performance Indicators Key Performance Indicators Strategic Objectives KPI = Measurement or indicator that provides information on how far we have succeeded in achieving the strategic objectives Key Performance Indicators (KPI)
  • 26. 26 • The measure of success must show clear, specific and measurable performance indicators. • The measure of success should be declared explicitly and in detail so that it is clear what is being measured. • Costs to identify and monitor the measure of success should not exceed the value that will be known from the measurement. Guidelines in Formulating the KPI KPI Guidelines
  • 27. 27 Relevant to the Strategic Objective Does KPI have a linkage with the strategic objectives? Controllable Are the KPI achievements still under control? Actionable Can any action be taken to improve the performance? Simple Is the KPI easy to explain? Credible Is the KPI not easy to manipulate? KPI Guidelines
  • 28. 28 KPI Family Dimension Productivity Measures employee output (units/ transactions/ dollars), the uptime levels and how employees use their time (sales-to- assets ratio, dollar revenue from new customers, sales pipeline). Measures the ability to meet and/or exceed the requirements and expectations of the customer (customer complaints, percent returns, DPMO -- defects per million opportunities). Quality
  • 29. 29 KPI Family Dimension Profitability Measures the overall effectiveness of the management organization in generating profits (profit contribution by segment/customer, margin spreads). Measures the point in time (day/week/ month) when management and employee tasks are completed (on-time delivery, percent of late orders). Timeliness
  • 30. 30 KPI Family Dimension Process Efficiency Measures how effectively the management organization incorporates quality control, Six Sigma and best practices to streamline operational processes (yield percentage, process uptime, capacity utilization). Measures how effectively the management organization leverages existing business resources such as assets, bricks and mortar, investments (sales per total assets, sales per channel, win rate). Resource Utilization
  • 31. 31 KPI Family Dimension Cost Savings Measures how successfully the management organization achieves economies of scale and scope of work with its people, staff and practices to control operational and overhead costs (cost per unit, inventory turns, cost of goods). Measures the ability of the management organization to maintain competitive economic position in the growth of the economy and industry (market share, customer acquisition/retention, account penetration). Growth
  • 32. 32 KPI Category Dimension DirectThe actual raw data value as measured (e.g., sales volume). Percent The comparison of the changes in performance of one value relative to the same value at a different time, geography, etc. (e.g., percentage change in sales vs. last year).
  • 33. 33 KPI Category Dimension Simple Ratio The comparison of one value relative to another to provide a benchmark for comparison of performance (e.g., average sales per day). Index A combination of several separate measures added together that result in an overall indicator of performance (e.g., (company sales growth)/(industry sales growth) for a specific geography).
  • 34. 34 KPI Category Dimension Composite Average The addition of the weighted averages of several similar measures that result in an overall composite indicator of performance (e.g., customer satisfaction composite is mixture of results from surveys, focus groups and product returns). Statistics Multiple measures such as mean, variance, standard deviation and variance that capture the spread and distribution of the performance measures (e.g., sales distribution by demographics, geography, channel).
  • 35. 35 Strategy Map for Corporate Functions (HR, IT, Finance and Marketing)
  • 36. 36 Vision Mission Strategy Integration between Corporate and Division/Department Corporate Scorecard Division Scorecard The Division Scorecard is built by referring to the corporate scorecard
  • 37. 37 Financial Customer Internal Process Learning & Growth Corporate Finance Corporate Marketing Production Supply Chain R & D Corporate HR Info Technology Corporate and Division Scorecard
  • 38. 38 Corporate and Division Scorecard • Division Scorecard is formulated by looking at the four perspectives in Corporate Scorecard. • As shown in the previous slides, the learning & growth perspective provides guidelines for developing scorecard at the Human Resource and IT divisions, while the internal process perspective provides guidelines for developing scorecard at the supply chain division or R&D.
  • 39. 39 Corporate and Division Scorecard Sample from GE Lighting Business Group Level of Organization Financial Customer Internal Process Learning & Growth Corporate Scorecard Increase profit margin Improve customer Increase inventory turns Increase level of satisfaction level Improve internal process employee competency Division Scorecard Optimize cost of production Improve customer Increase inventory turns Increase level of Reduce inventory levels satisfaction level Improve internal process employee competency Plant Scorecard Optimize cost of production Increase percent of Increase inventory turns Number of "on the Increase yields ratio on time delivery Reduce number of defects job training" delivered Increase labor productivity Reduce customer per million Number of performance Reduce inventory levels complaints per million Improve quality incoming coaching session materials Maintain optimum equipment speed Frontline Employee Reduce waste Reduce equipment downtime Number of "on the Scorecard Reduce overtime Reduce number of poor job training" attended Increase production rates solders Number of performance Reduce number of cracked coaching session bulbs attended The above example shows how the scorecard at corporate level is cascaded to division level, and further to plant level and employee level.
  • 40. 40 Division Strategy Map Template • The strategy map for HR Division, Information Technology Division, Finance Division, and Marketing Division are presented in the following slides.
  • 41. 41 Optimize HR Efficiency Drive Long term Shareholder Value Enhance People & Organizational Effectiveness Achieve HR Process Excellence Develop Strategic & Functional HR Competencies Build Strategic Employee Competencies Drive Organizational Performance Enhance Technology for HR Create Climate for HR Action HR Strategy Map Template Financial Customer HR Internal Process Learning & Growth Create Positive Work Environment Provide Quality HR Service Provide High Performance People
  • 42. 42 Optimize IT Efficiency Drive Long term Shareholder Value Enhance IT Impact on Enterprise Outcome Maintain a Reliable IT Infrastructure Develop Strategic & Functional IT Competencies Develop Effective Decision Support System Propose and Deliver Transformational Applications Enhance IT Tools that Enhance the IT Function Promote Customer- focused Culture IT Strategy Map Template Financial Customer IT Internal Process Learning & Growth Deliver Consistent, High Quality IT Service Provide Business Units with Innovative IT Solutions
  • 43. 43 Optimize Financial Efficiency Drive Long term Shareholder Value Enhance Finance Effectiveness on Enterprise Outcome Achieve Finance Process Excellence Develop Strategic & Functional Finance Competencies Develop Financial Information to Improve Decision Making Ensure Compliance with Regulatory Requirements Use Technology to Improve Financial Information Delivery Finance Strategy Map Template Financial Customer Finance Internal Process Learning & Growth Deliver Responsive & Efficient Finance Operations Provide Clear & Reliable Required Disclosure Promote Customer- focused Culture
  • 44. 44 Optimize Marketing Efficiency Drive Long term Shareholder Value Increase Sales Revenue Develop Innovative Marketing Communication Program Develop Strategic & Functional Marketing Competencies Develop Marketing Business Intelligence Accelerate New Product Development Ideas Enhance Technology for Marketing Foster Creative Thinking & Innovative Solutions Marketing Strategy Map Template Financial Customer Internal Process Learning & Growth Create Satisfied and Loyal Customers Enhance Brand Image Develop Effective Customer Relation Management
  • 45. 45 Recommended Further Readings: 1. Robert Kaplan and David Norton, Strategy Map : Converting Intangible Assets into Tangible Outcomes, HBS Press 2. Robert Kaplan and David Norton, Alignment : Using the Balanced Scorecard to Create Corporate Synergies, HBS Press