Intel microprocessors


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Based on public information but has not been updated since I left Intel in 2007.May

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Intel microprocessors

  1. 1. Intel Microprocessors Dileep Bhandarkar
  2. 2. 1971: 4004 Microprocessor • The 4004 was Intels first microprocessor. This breakthrough invention powered the Busicom calculator and paved the way for embedding intelligence in inanimate objects as well as the personal computer. Introduced November 15, 1971 108 KHz, 50 KIPs , 2300 10m transistors
  3. 3. 1972: 8008 Microprocessor • The 8008 was twice as powerful as the 4004. A 1974 article in Radio Electronics referred to a device called the Mark-8 which used the 8008. The Mark-8 is known as one of the first computers for the home --one that by todays standards was difficult to build, maintain and operate.
  4. 4. 1974: 8080 Microprocessor • The 8080 became the brains of the first personal computer--the Altair, allegedly named for a destination of the Starship Enterprise from the Star Trek television show. Computer hobbyists could purchase a kit for the Altair for $395. Within months, it sold tens of thousands, creating the first PC back orders in history.
  5. 5. 1978: 8086-8088 Microprocessor • A pivotal sale to IBMs new personal computer division made the 8088 the brains of IBMs new hit product--the IBM PC. The 8088s success propelled Intel into the ranks of the Fortune 500, and Fortune magazine named the company one of the "Business Triumphs of the Seventies."
  6. 6. 1982: 286 Microprocessor • The Intel 286, originally known as the 80286, was the first Intel processor that could run all the software written for its predecessor. This software compatibility remains a hallmark of Intels family of microprocessors. Within 6 years of its release, an estimated 15 million 286- based personal computers were installed around the world.
  7. 7. 1985: Intel386™ Microprocessor • The Intel386™ microprocessor featured 275,000 transistors--more than 100 times as many as the original 4004. It was a Intel’s first 32- bit chip.
  8. 8. 1989: Intel486™ DX CPU Microprocessor • The Intel486™ processor generation really meant you go from a command-level computer into point-and-click computing. "I could have a color computer for the first time and do desktop publishing at a significant speed," recalls technology historian David K. Allison of the Smithsonians National Museum of American History. The Intel486™ processor was the first to offer a built-in math coprocessor, which speeds up computing because it offloads complex math functions from the central processor.
  9. 9. 1993: Intel® Pentium® Processor • The Intel Pentium® processor allowed computers to more easily incorporate "real world" data such as speech, sound, handwriting and photographic images. The Intel Pentium brand, mentioned in the comics and on television talk shows, became a household word soon after introduction. • 22 March 1993 • 66 MHz • 3.1 M transistors • 0.8µ
  10. 10. P61995: Intel® Pentium® Pro Processor • Intel® Pentium® Pro processor was designed to fuel 32-bit server and workstation applications, enabling fast computer-aided design, mechanical engineering and scientific computation. Each Intel® Pentium Pro processor is packaged together with a second speed-enhancing cache memory chip. The powerful Pentium® Pro processor boasts 5.5 million transistors. • 1 November 1995 • 200 MHz • 0.35µ • 1st x86 to implement out of order execution.
  11. 11. P55C1997: Intel® Pentium® Processor with MMX™ Technology • 8 January 1997 • 0.35µ • 200 MHz • 4.5M transistors
  12. 12. Klamath1997: Intel® Pentium® II Processor • The 7.5 million-transistor Intel® Pentium II processor incorporates Intel® MMX™ technology, which is designed specifically to process video, audio and graphics data efficiently. It was introduced in innovative Single Edge Contact (S.E.C) Cartridge that also incorporated a high-speed cache memory chip. • 7 May 1997 • 0.25µ • 300 - 450 MHz • External L2 cache
  13. 13. 1998: Intel® Pentium II Xeon Processor • The Intel® Pentium II Xeon processors were designed to meet the performance requirements of mid- range and higher servers and workstations. Consistent with Intels strategy to deliver unique processor products targeted for specific markets segments, the Intel® Pentium II Xeon processors feature technical innovations specifically designed for workstations and servers that utilize demanding business applications such as Internet services, corporate data warehousing, digital content creation, and electronic and mechanical design automation. Systems based on the processor can be configured to scale to four or eight processors and beyond.
  14. 14. Mendocino1999: Intel® Celeron® Processor • Continuing Intels strategy of developing processors for specific market segments, the Intel® Celeron® processor was designed for the value PC market segment. • First integrated L2 cache -128 KB • 19M transistors • 300 MHz • 0.25µ • 24 August 1998
  15. 15. Katmai1999: Intel® Pentium® III Processor • The Intel® Pentium® III processor features 70 new instructions-- Internet Streaming SIMD Extensions -- that dramatically enhance the performance of advanced imaging, 3-D, streaming audio, video and speech recognition applications. It was designed to significantly enhance Internet experiences, allowing users to do such things as browse through realistic online museums and stores and download high- quality video. The processor incorporates 9.5 million transistors, and was introduced using 0.25-micron technology. • 26 Feb 1999 • 500 MHz
  16. 16. Tanner1999: Intel® Pentium® III Xeon™ Processor • The Intel® Pentium III Xeon™ processor extends Intels offerings to the workstation and server market segments, providing additional performance for e- Commerce applications and advanced business computing. The processors incorporate the Intel® Pentium III processors 70 SIMD instructions, which enhance multimedia and streaming video applications. The Intel® Pentium III Xeon processors advance cache technology speeds information from the system bus to the processor, significantly boosting performance. It is designed for systems with multiprocessor configurations.
  17. 17. Coppermine1999: Intel® Pentium® III Processor – 0.18µ • 25 Oct 1999 • Integrated 256KB L2 cache • 733 MHz • 28 M transistors • First Intel microprocessor to hit 1 GHz on 8-Mar-2000
  18. 18. Cascades2000: Intel® Pentium® III Xeon™ Processor • Intels Pentium III Xeon processors were specially designed to meet the scalability, availability and manageability needs of the server market segment. • 22 May 2000 • 145M transistors • 2 MB integrated L2 cache • 0.18µ
  19. 19. Willamette2000: Intel® Pentium® 4 Processor – 0.18µ • The processor debuted with 42 million transistors and circuit lines of 0.18 microns, 29 years after Intels first microprocessor. The Intel® Pentium® 4 processors initial speed was 1.5 GigaHertz. If automobile speed had increased similarly over the same period, you could now drive from San Francisco to New York in about 13 seconds. • 20 Nov 2002 • 256K integrated L2 cache • Double clocked inner core • 100 MHz quad pumped bus • Hit 2 GHz on 27 Aug 2001 • Simultaneous Multi-threading
  20. 20. Tualatin2001: Intel® Pentium® III Processor – 0.13µ
  21. 21. Northwood2001: Intel® Pentium® 4 Processor – 0.13µ • 27 August 2001 • 55 million transistors • 2 GHz • 512KB L2 cache • 14 Nov 2002: 3.06 GHz • 23 June 2003: 3.2 GHz
  22. 22. Merced2001: Intel® Itanium™ Processor • The Itanium™ processor is the first in a family of 64-bit products from Intel. Designed for high-end, enterprise-class servers and workstations, the processor was built from the ground up with an entirely new architecture based on Intels Explicitly Parallel Instruction Computing (EPIC) design technology. May 2001 • 800 MHz • 25M transistors • 0.18µ • External L3 cache
  23. 23. Foster2002: Intel® Xeon™ MP Processor • 12 March 2002 • 1.6 GHz • 1MB L3 cache • 108 M transistors • 0.18µ
  24. 24. McKinley2002: Intel® Itanium™ 2 Processor - 0.18µ • The Itanium™ 2 processor is the second member of the Itanium processor family, a line of enterprise-class processors. The family brings outstanding performance and the volume economics of the Intel® Architecture to the most data- intensive, business-critical and technical computing applications. It provides leading performance for databases, computer-aided engineering, secure online transactions, and more. • 8 July 2002 • 1 GHz • 221 M transistors • 3 MB L3 cache
  25. 25. Madison2002: Intel® Itanium™ 2 Processor - 0.13µ • 30 June 2003 • 1.5 GHz • 6 MB L3 cache • 410 M transistors
  26. 26. Banias2003: Intel® Pentium® M Processor • The first Intel® Pentium® M processor, the Intel® 855 chipset family, and the Intel® PRO/Wireless 2100 network connection are the three components of Intel® Centrino™ mobile technology. Intel Centrino mobile technology is designed specifically for portable computing, with built-in wireless LAN capability and breakthrough mobile performance. It enables extended battery life and thinner, lighter mobile computers. • 12 March 2003 • 130 nm • 1.6 GHz • 77 million transistors • 1 MB integrated L2 cache
  27. 27. Prescott2004: Intel® Pentium® 4 Processor – 90 nm • 1MB L2 cache • 64-bit extensions • 120 million transistors • 3+ GHz frequency
  28. 28. Dothan 2004: Intel® Pentium® M Processor (90 nm)• Banias shrink with the cache doubled to 2 MB
  29. 29. Cedar Mill2005: Last Netburst Microarchitecture Core (65nm) 2 MB L2 Cache
  30. 30. YonahIntel’s 1st Monolithic Dual Core • January 2006 • Intel® CoreTM Duo Processor • 90 mm2 • 151M transistors • 65 nm The Core Duo is also famous for being the first Intel processor to ever be used in Apple Macintosh computers .
  31. 31. Merom Intel® CoreTM Duo Processor 90 mm2 151M transistors Intel® CoreTM 2 Duo Processor 143 mm2 291M transistors• Intel® Wide Dynamic Execution• Intel® Advanced Digital Media Boost• Intel® Advanced Smart Cache• Intel® Smart Memory Access• Intel® Intelligent Power Capability• Intel® 64 Architecture
  32. 32. MontecitoItanium 2: First Billion Transistor DualCore Chip (90nm) 1MB L2I 2 Way Multi-threading Dual- core 2x12MB L3 Caches Arbiter 1.72 Billion Transistors
  33. 33. 2006: Intel® Core™ Micro-architectureProducts Intel® Wide Dynamic 14 Stage Pipeline Execution Server Intel® Process: Intelligent 65nm Power Capability Die size: 143 mm2 Intel® Advanced Execution core area: Desktop Smart Cache 36 mm2 Intel® Smart Transistor count: Memory 291 M Access Execution core Intel® transistor count: Advanced 19 M Mobile Digital Media Boost World Class Performance & Energy Efficiency
  34. 34. 2006: Tulsa  Large shared 16M L3 PADS cache  Two cores on single die at ≥3 GHz coreCORE frequency – Four threads per processor with HT 16 MBy on each core  65nm processClock unCore LLC technology  1.3 M transistors  150 & 95 Watt SKUsCORE – Intel Cache Safe Technology – Intel Virtualization PADS technology
  35. 35. October 2006: The World’s First x86 Quad-Core Processor 4MB 4MB L2 Cache L2 Cache Core Core Core Core 1066/1333 MHz
  36. 36. Penryn Dual Core Die Photo 6 MB L2 Cache 45 nm next generation Intel® CoreTM2 family processor410 million transistors for dual core, 820 million for quad core World’s first working 45 nm CPU Production in the 2H’07
  37. 37. Moore’s Law in Action: Microprocessors Advance 1.0µm 0.8µm 0.6µm 0.35µm 0.25µm 0.18µm 0.13µm 90nm 65nmIntel 486™ProcessorPentium®ProcessorPentium® II/IIIProcessorPentium® 4ProcessorIntel® CoreTM DuoProcessorIntel® CoreTM 2 DuoProcessor Source: Intel