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New England Colonization

Thanks to Susan J. Pojer at Horace Greely High School for the basis of this presentation.

1 of 50
The Settlement of New England
08/09/2009 Lutheranism Episcopal Anabaptist Congregational Mennonites English Separatists English Baptists Anglican Episcopal Church of England Reformation Groups } Reformed Presbyterian Scottish Presbyterian Dutch Reformed Lutheran 1517 Luther - Melanchthon French-Swiss 1532 Calvin - Beza German-Swiss 1519 Zwingli - Bullinger Swiss Brethren 1525 Grebel – Manz - Simonsz English 1536 Henry VIII  - Cranmer
08/09/2009
Separatists vs.  Puritans
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New England Colonization

Editor's Notes

  1. The reign of Elizabeth I witnessed the establishment of the Church of England as the Episcopal or Anglican community. It was a church defined by Elizabeth’s discomfort with the Roman Catholicism and Protestantism. The church adopted a Lutheran willingness to affirm a measure of political headship over the church, liturgical ritual in worship, and a mild Calvinism in theology. This troubled many, particularly those who had been influenced by Calvinism with its emphasis on simplicity in worship style. A movement gradually emerged in England as an alternative to Episcopalianism: Puritanism. This movement was suppressed during the reign of Elizabeth. Peregrine Falcon? In the Roman Empire visitors came to Rome speaking many different kinds of strange Latin. They were called “Peregrinus” or strangers . In later English, the spelling and pronunciation changed to Pilgrims.
  2. Scrooby (Nottinghamshire, North England) separatists Some of these separatist groups immigrated to Holland. In 1620 one of the separatist congregations sailed for New England on the Mayflower. The ship sailed from Plymouth, England, on September 16, 1620, with 102 passengers, including 32 children. Two people died, two were born. The ship was headed for Virginia, where the colonists had been authorized to settle. As a result of cross-winds and dangerous sand bars, the vessel failed to make good its course, and on November 21 the Mayflower rounded the end of Cape Cod and dropped anchor off the site of present-day Provincetown, Massachusetts. On December 21, an area having been selected, the Pilgrims disembarked from the Mayflower near the head of Cape Cod and founded Plymouth Colony, the first permanent settlement in New England. The Pilgrims were probably more than 500 mi northeast of their intended destination in the Hudson River area of present day New York. The patent for their settlement in the New World, issued by the London Company, was no longer binding, and some among the passengers desired total independence from their shipmates. To prevent this, 41 of the adult male passengers, including John Alden, William Bradford, William Brewster, John Carver, Miles Standish, and Edward Winslow, gathered in the cabin of the Mayflower and formulated and signed the Mayflower Compact; all adult males were required to sign. This compact consolidated the passengers into a “civil body politic,” which had the power to frame and enact laws appropriate to the general good of the planned settlement. All colonists were bound to obey the ordinances so enacted. This compact established rule of the majority, which remained a primary principle of government in Plymouth Colony until its absorption by the Massachusetts Bay Colony in 1691.
  3. Governor William Bradford wrote, “They had now no friends to welcome them nor inns to entertain or refresh their weather-beaten bodies; no houses or much less towns to repair to. … And for the season, it was winter. … What could they see but a hideous and desolate wilderness? … What could now sustain them but the Spirit of God and his grace?”
  4. 201 vs. 40,000-50,000 Both of these colonies united in 1691 to form Massachusetts
  5. Puritans were not opposed to parties. They certainly did not have sexual hang-ups. They were not prudes. It’s true that promiscuity was absent from colonial New England. But for husband and wife, sex was important, and Puritan families were routinely large. A spouse could be punished by the authorities for withholding sex from his or her partner. Puritans were not teetotalers. Scholars estimate the Puritans had a rum-consumption rate that surpasses the alcohol-consumption rate in the twentieth century. They were intense lovers and intense haters. They were intensely reverent. They were alarmed about secularism, though they would have called it infidelity . The Puritans also feared the rising generation would not measure up to the piety of their fathers and mothers. They often talked about loss of faith in their children. Puritans had the yearning to build a Christian civilization, a new world order . Creating this was the adventure of a lifetime. In John Winthrop’s famous speech aboard the Arbella , the Puritans fixed on what I would call “a world-regenerative creed.” They believed, “We are reforming not only Anglicanism and Christendom but the whole world.” Ministers were enormously respected, people for whom the laity literally traveled the ends of the earth. The most famous case would be Anne Hutchinson, who convinced her family to follow her minister, John Cotton, to America. In America, only two “theocracies” have lasted for any length of time: the Puritans in New England, and the Mormons in Utah. The Puritans’ charter was revoked in 1689, so the Puritans could no longer compel assent. They had to tolerate Quakers and Anglicans. This created a real crisis of meaning: How do we survive in a pluralistic world? Today, we take religious toleration for granted. What would terrify us would be the exact opposite—a theocracy, such as we see in the Middle East. They exerted an influence in American culture disproportionate to their numbers. For instance, they gave us a world-regenerative creed, a vision that America is “a city set upon a hill.” That vision infuses American literature, foreign policy—our entire sense of identity. Listen to Jimmy Carter, Ronald Reagan, George Bush, or Bill Clinton. They often speak of “destiny” and “providence.” Or civil-rights leaders speak of a dream of equal treatment under the law. All of these people are drawing from Puritan roots, whether they know it or not.
  6. Puritan ABCs: The New England Primer (1683) taught both the alphabet and faith. the letter U , for example, was remembered by Uriah’s beauteous wife Made David seek his Life. The primer was so popular, Benjamin Franklin was printing it nearly a century later.
  7. By 5 or 6 could read and write (private school or home schooling) Latin school for 7 years: Grammar, Rhetoric, Arithmetic, Latin, Greek, Hebrew (not in seminary) College: 3 years Seminary: 3 years Grammar, Logic, Rhetoric, Arithmetic, Geometry & Astronomy Metaphysics, Ethics, Natural Science, Ancient History, … all taught in Latin 99% literacy, even on the frontier
  8. The plain style is perhaps best known for the simple four-part outline all Puritan preachers used: Text : The preacher would “open up” a text—to explain one by one all the words, ideas, and concepts within a Bible verse (or verses). Doctrine : The preacher then stated in a single statement a “theological Axiom, either consisting in the express words of Scripture, or flowing from them by immediate consequence.” Uses : Next, the doctrine needed to be “established,” or proven to be in harmony with the rest of the Bible, and its general implications explained. The preacher would refute any objections that could be raised and point out the practical “uses” of the doctrine for consolation or correction. Applications : While the “uses” were generally discussed in the third person, the “applications” dropped directly into the second person and allowed the preacher to ask whether the congregation had taken the “doctrine” to heart. The plain sermon’s outline and logical development made memorization easy and encouraged note taking by the people for review at home.
  9. By 1643, only 11% held church membership, excluding many wealthy Jeremiad: lamenting the loss of original fervor and exhorted people to amend their ways Puritan concept of church : all who give proof of regeneration, together with their children. Children are considered saints because they shared the covenant with their parents (sign: infant baptism) Problem : second generation (children) grew to maturity without a conversion. Are they members of the church? What about the children of the unsaved 2 nd generation? Yes : concept of church is altered No : no political privilege Result : Children of 2 nd generation could be church members and be baptized – but could not participate in the Lords Supper or Church elections. Further decline : membership granted to anyone of an ethical life. Solomon Stoddard : allowed unconverted to the Lord’s Table (they might become saved) – Grandfather of Jonathan Edwards Witch Trials : gave Puritanism a “black eye”
  10. One of the most infamous episodes in Puritan history was the Salem Witch Trials of the 1690’s. The view of the day was that the affliction of Samuel Parris’s daughter and several others was caused by colonists who were in league with the devil. Had this been the case, a witch hunt would have been appropriate. Some recent historians have tried to find a sociological root for it. Others have suggested that the problem stemmed from demonic influence exerted through the girls that the accused were actually the innocent.
  11. In February 1692, several young Salem girls, after they were caught practicing magic, claimed they had been afflicted by witches. Their parents begun searching for the witches, and hysteria mounted, especially as pastor Samuel Parris proclaimed, “In this very church, God knows how many Devils there are!” A public witch-hunt soon arrested 150 people; 19 were hanged for witchcraft, and one man was executed for refusing to testify. But witch-hunts did arise in other New England towns—Ambridge in 1659, Hartford in 1662–63, Boston in 1688, and infamously in Salem Village (now Danvers) in 1692. What tensions rose to the surface in 1692 and resulted in this witch-hunt? some tensions originated in the religious expectations of Puritanism. One expectation was that believers fulfill, to the best of their ability, their moral duties. Another was that they examine their motives—in Puritan parlance, their “hearts”—to see whether they had sufficiently repented of sin and trusted entirely in the mercy of Christ. Puritanism intensely and regularly posed this question: Are you sincere? Answering this question often resulted in self-doubt and uncertainty. One woman, Mary Toothaker, “had thoughts she was rather the worse for her baptism and had wished she had not been baptized because she had not improved it as she ought to have done.” Puritans practiced the ritual of confession, and confession became crucial to witch-hunting. To confess was to make visible the hidden sin that lurked in everyone. This was a crucial step, and well accepted, in the process of salvation. When men and women joined the church in early New England, for instance, they were asked to confess their sins. The magistrates and ministers who questioned the accused at Salem asked them to reveal their hidden allegiance to Satan. Because Puritans felt heavily the weight of their sin, and because confession was an integral part of their lives, we should not be surprised that some fifty men and women confessed to having joined with the Devil. The Puritans believed that God had entered into a special relationship with godly people. This relationship obliged them to purge themselves of sins, personal and communal, that inevitably accumulated. The ministers and magistrates in New England believed witch hunting, and the public executions that concluded it, cleansed the community of evil. 19 women and 2 dogs hanged. Puritan dream was that they’d establish “Kingdom of God” in America… a “City on a hill” Children would be saints, and beget children who were saints The dream failed in 100 years they forgot one things: God has no grandchildren. And the monopoly of church membership being required for civic office so angered a Virginian lawyer that he wrote “The Bill of Religious Freedom” Who?: Thomas Jefferson One of 3 things on his tombstone.