The Civil War


Published on

Published in: Education
1 Like
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Total views
On SlideShare
From Embeds
Number of Embeds
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

The Civil War

  1. 1. The Civil War 1861-1865
  2. 2. The Missouri Debate • In 1819 Missouri applied to join the Union as a SLAVE State. • By 1820 Maine also wanted to join the Union as a free state Should it be allowed to join the U.S. as a SLAVE state even though it is north of the Ohio River??
  3. 3. The Missouri Compromise 1820 • Created by Henry Clay • Missouri admitted as a SLAVE state and Maine is admitted as a FREE state • Missouri Compromise line was drawn along the latitude line 36°30‘ across the Louisiana Territory • Balance of Power in the Senate stays the same • 12 FREE states • 12 SLAVE states
  4. 4. Ohio River
  5. 5. The Compromise of 1850 • In 1849, California wanted to join the United States as a FREE State
  6. 6. The Compromise of 1850 •Henry Clay’s plan, The Compromise of 1850 had five main parts: 1. California admitted as a free state 2. Voters in Utah and New Mexico Territory would decide the slavery question according to popular sovereignty (vote)
  7. 7. The Compromise of 1850 3. The slave trade would end in Washington D.C. 4. Very strict Fugitive Slave Law – All states would have to help in returning runaway slaves to their owners 5. Border dispute between Texas and New Mexico was settled
  8. 8. Effects of the Compromises: • Congress attempts to control the spread of slavery into US territories while trying to keep a balance of free states and slave states. It’s not an easy task! • Compromise of 1850 nullified the Missouri Compromise • Fugitive Slave Law creates tension between North and South in enforcing the law.
  9. 9. Uncle Tom’s Cabin • In 1852, Harriet Beecher Stowe wrote a novel named Uncle Tom’s Cabin about an old slave beaten to death by his owner and other stories about slaves and their lives
  10. 10. Effects of Uncle Tom’s Cabin: • It became very popular and created strong emotions against slavery • In the North many people were turned against slavery • In the South, the book was hated and criticized
  11. 11. Kansas – Nebraska Act 1854 • Stephan Douglas, Senator from Illinois, introduced a new law to open up western territory to settlers: – Two new territories are created: Nebraska and Kansas – The settlers in these territories would decide on the issue of slavery by popular sovereignty (vote)
  12. 12. “Bleeding Kansas” • Anti-slavery people and Pro-slavery people moved to Kansas to support or oppose slavery • The struggle soon turned VIOLENT: – May 21, 1856: pro-slavery settlers attacked an anti-slavery town. – John Brown, an abolitionist, and his men wanted revenge, so they attacked a pro-slavery town, killing five men • Newspapers started to call the territory “ Bleeding Kansas ”
  13. 13. Effects of The Kansas Nebraska Act and “Bleeding Kansas”: • The Republican Party is formed after the Whig Party splits: – Northern Whigs form the Republican Party – Southern Whigs join the Democratic Party • Violence is now used to push against the spread of slavery • North fears spread of slavery into territories.
  14. 14. Dred Scott – Slavery Issue Goes to Court • Dred Scott was a slave from Missouri. • After living with his owner in Wisconsin, a FREE state, Scott sued in court for his freedom when he returned to Missouri. – He claimed living in Wisconsin for several years had made him a free man
  15. 15. Dred Scott Case: Key Questions 1. Was Dred Scott a citizen who had the right to bring a case to federal court? 2. Did the time Scott spent in Wisconsin make him a free man? 3. Did Congress even have the POWER and AUTHORITY to make any laws about Slavery? 4. Were FEDERAL slavery laws legal under the Constitution?
  16. 16. Effects of the Dred Scott Case: • Decision 1: Dred Scott could not sue for his freedom because he WAS NOT AN AMERICAN CITIZEN !!!  No African American, slave or free, was or could ever be a citizen • Decision 2: Missouri Compromise was UNCONTITUTIONAL and ILLEGAL!!!  Slaves are property and banning slavery in a territory is the same as taking property away from owner.  Congress should be protecting the property rights of slaveholders not banning slavery
  17. 17. Lincoln vs. Douglas Debates • As a member of the new Republican Party, Abraham Lincoln ran against Stephan Douglas for Senator of Illinois. • During a series of debates they discussed the issue of slavery – Douglas argued that under popular sovereignty, the people should be the ones to decide if slavery would be allowed in a state – Lincoln argued that slavery went against the Declaration of Independence and that slaves deserved the same basic rights it guaranteed.
  18. 18. Effects of the Lincoln vs. Douglas Debates • Republicans and Democrats line up along the issue of slavery • Democrats split over support of Douglas – Southern Democrats did not support him – Northern Democrats support him • Abraham Lincoln and The Republicans gain national recognition and support.
  19. 19. John Brown’s Raid on Harper’s Ferry • John Brown led a small militia to Harper’s Ferry, Virginia where they took over a federal arsenal, stole weapons • Brown was hoping the slaves in the area would rise up with him, but they did not. • The local militia surrounded and captured him • He was tried and hanged
  20. 20. The Effects of John Brown’s Raid: • Northerners saw him as a martyr, courageous, crazy but admirable. • Southerners saw him as a terrorist and claimed the Republican Party supported John brown • John Brown “prophesied” that only bloodshed would rid the country of slavery. I John Brown am now quite certain that the crimes of this guilty, land: will never be purged away; but with Blood. I had as I now think: vainly flattered myself that with out very much bloodshed; it might be done.
  21. 21. Election of 1860 • Republican candidate: Abraham Lincoln, representative from Illinois • Democratic Party is split with different candidates • Southern states threaten to secede if Lincoln in wins election, believing he will end slavery.
  22. 22. Effects of the Election of 1860 • Lincoln easily won and on Dec. 20, 1860 South Carolina voted to leave the United States, Six more states followed their lead • February 1861, The Southern states that seceded formed the Confederate States of America and elected Jefferson Davis as its first president.
  23. 23. Major Events of the Civil War
  24. 24. Election of 1860: Lincoln's First Inaugural Address • In his 1st Inaugural address he pledged that there would be no war unless, the South started it • His goal is to PRESERVE THE UNION! • Stop the Spread of Slavery, not necessarily end it. He announced “… we are not enemies , but friends. We must not be enemies . Though passion may have strained , it must not break our bonds of affection.
  25. 25. South Carolina Secedes from the Union Dec. 20, 1860 • On December 20, 1860, South Carolina became the first state to secede (withdraw) from the United States • They call their new nation: ____________________________ and elect _____________________ as their President.
  26. 26. Jefferson Davis’ First Inaugural Address “As a necessity, not a choice, we have resorted to the remedy of separation; and henceforth our energies must be directed to the conduct of our own affairs and the perpetuity of the Confederacy which we have formed.”
  27. 27. Presidents and Military Leaders of the Civil War
  28. 28. o 16th President o Republican Party o Wants to Preserve the Union. Abraham Lincoln
  29. 29. • Fought in the Mexican American War • Leader of the Union Army • Defeated Robert E. Lee to end Civil War • 18th President of US Ulysses S. Grant
  30. 30. o President of Confederate States of America o Fought in the Mexican American War o Was a U.S. Senator and Secretary of State o Believed in States’ Rights Jefferson Davis
  31. 31. • Leader of the Confederate Army • Highly experienced combat engineer • Graduated top of class at West Point. Robert E. Lee
  32. 32. Battle of Ft. Sumter (S. Carolina) April 12, 1861 • first battle of the Civil War • Lincoln sent reinforcements to the Union Fort • Confederate Army attacked the fort and took control. • Motived Northerners to join Union Army
  33. 33. Battle of Antietam Sept. 17, 1862 • Union Army suffered many defeats before this victory • Bloodiest one day battle • 23,000 casualties (6,000 dead) • It was the victory Lincoln was waiting for to usher in the Emancipation Proclamation.
  34. 34. Emancipation Proclamation Jan. 1863 • Lincoln emancipated ONLY the slaves in the Confederate States, not in the Border States. • He didn’t want to anger the slave owners in the Union. • He did this to weaken the South’s ability to fight • He waited until the North won a battle to do the announcement (Antietam)
  35. 35. Battle of Vicksburg May 1863-July 1863 • Union Victory, first for Ulysses S. Grant • Gave Grant reputation of feared military leader • Grant and army surround the Confederates, cutting off supplies until they surrendered • Union gained control of the Mississippi River splitting the South.
  36. 36. Battle of Gettysburg July 1863 • TURNING POINT OF THE WAR! • 3 day battle • Gen. Lee tried to invade the North. • Terrible Losses  – 51,000 Casualties – 7,786 dead
  37. 37. Gettysburg Address Nov. 1863 • Lincoln came to dedicate a cemetery for those killed in the battle • Speech moved many to continue fighting despite the devastation the war brought. • Reminded that, “all men were created equal” and that they had a “government of the people, by the people, for the people.”
  38. 38. Abraham Lincoln’s 2nd Inaugural Address Jan. 1865 • Gen William Tecumseh Sherman leads his destructive march across the South, helping Lincoln get reelected. • Lincoln says war will not end until the guilt of slavery is paid for • When war is over the nation must come back together in peace • “With malice towards none, with charity for all…let us strive…to bind up the nation’s wounds…”
  39. 39. Lee’s Surrender at Appomattox Courthouse April 9, 1865 • Union forces captured the Confederate capital, Richmond, VA. and Gen. Lee was severely outnumbered Lee surrendered to Gen. Grant and was allowed to return home. • The war was over. • William Carney and Phillip Bazaar receive Congressional Medal of Honor William Carney
  40. 40. Abraham Lincoln’s Assassination April 14, 1865
  41. 41. • April 14, 1865 Lincoln attends a play at Ford’s Theater in Washington, D.C. • Actor John Wilkes Booth went into the President’s box and shot Lincoln in the head • Lincoln dies the next morning