Haitian Revolution

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Haitian Revolution

  1. 1. Most successful slave revolt in history! Most successful slave revolt in history! 2nd independentnation in the New World! 2nd independentnation in theNew World! Proved that enlightenment ideals applied to all people! Proved that enlightenment ideals applied to all people!
  2. 2. •Known as Saint Dominique, Haiti was a French colony and the world's leading sugar producer. It had over 800 sugar plantations and made more profit than all 13 American colonies combined.
  3. 3. •A few French families made huge profits from sugar, while most Haitians, nearly 500,000 were African slaves Haitian Population Enslaved Africans 90% White 6% Free People of 4% Color
  4. 4. •Most slaves worked on plantations and they outnumbered their masters dramatically. White masters thus used brutal methods to terrorize slaves and keep them powerless.
  5. 5. When the French Revolution began, white settlers on Haiti called for independence. Boukman Dutty, a Haitian slave called on the slaves to have their own revolution!
  6. 6. In 1791, about 100,000 slaves rose in revolt. They burned the sugar cane in the fields and killed hundreds of slave owners. The uprising touched off 13 years of civil war in which both sides suffered massacres.
  7. 7. Toussaint L’Ouverture Wanted to end slavery and gain Independence for Haiti! He was an educated former slave! * Rallied slaves to revolt in 1791 – Led armies against French, Spanish and British. By 1801, he took control of the territory, freed the slaves and created a constitution. Led first successful slave revolt in New World – Total independence for Haiti in 1804
  8. 8. Yes, of course we agree.. Why don’t you come to Paris to discuss this further. • L'Ouverture urged Haitians to fight to the death against the invaders. • However, in May, Toussaint agreed to halt the revolution if the French would end slavery. • When Napoleon Bonaparte took power in France, he decided to reclaim the rich sugar plantations of Saint Dominique. In January 1802, 16,000 French troops landed in Saint Dominique to get rid of Toussaint. I want St. Dominique back! We will stop fighting if you agree to end slavery forever on St. Dominique!
  9. 9. • Despite the agreement, the French soon accused him of planning another uprising. • The French sent Toussaint to an icy prison in the French Alps. Ten months later, in 1803, the Haitian leader died. “In overthrowing me, you have done no more than cut down the trunk of the tree of the black liberty in St.Domingue- it will spring back from the roots, for they are numerous and deep.” - Toussaint L’Ouverture “In overthrowing me, you have done no more than cut down the trunk of the tree of the black liberty in St.Domingue- it will spring back from the roots, for they are numerous and deep.” - Toussaint L’Ouverture In your own words, explain this quote by Toussaint L’Ouverture. Touissant was captured and died in French Prison. Touissant was captured and died in French Prison.
  10. 10. Who do you think will win this war? Why? Who do you think will win this war? Why? After Toussaint’s death, Haiti was restored to French domination and slavery was re-implemented. However, The taste of freedom that Toussaint had enabled the Haitians to feel was not in vain. They continued to fight the French in a brutal revolution. After Toussaint’s death, Haiti was restored to French domination and slavery was re-implemented. However, The taste of freedom that Toussaint had enabled the Haitians to feel was not in vain. They continued to fight the French in a brutal revolution.
  11. 11. • 50,000 French soldiers, officers, doctors, and sailors may have died from yellow fever. • Napoleon abandoned Haiti and sold the French territory in North America to the United States (the Louisiana purchase). • • Led by General Dessalines, the Haitian army fought a brutal war against the French army. •First black colony to free itself from European control. •First black colony to free itself from European control.
  12. 12. Jean-Jacques DessalinesJean-Jacques Dessalines •Later assassinated in a revolt. •1820: Haiti became an independent republic •Later assassinated in a revolt. •1820: Haiti became an independent republic •Proclaimed himself Emperor of Haiti •Proclaimed himself Emperor of Haiti•1804: After the French surrendered, Dessalines ordered the mass killings of the remaining white population in Haiti. 3,000-5,000 people were killed •1804: After the French surrendered, Dessalines ordered the mass killings of the remaining white population in Haiti. 3,000-5,000 people were killed
  13. 13. The Impact of Change The Impact of Change •Haiti signed an agreement with the French to pay reparations. •The United States led an economic embargo against Haiti. •The country was crippled by years of war, its agriculture devastated, its formal commerce nonexistent, and the people uneducated and mostly unskilled. •Haiti signed an agreement with the French to pay reparations. •The United States led an economic embargo against Haiti. •The country was crippled by years of war, its agriculture devastated, its formal commerce nonexistent, and the people uneducated and mostly unskilled. Was the Haitian Revolution a success? Explain.
  14. 14. Why do you think there is a statue of Simon Bolivar in Central Park in NYC? Do Now:
  15. 15. Results of Revolutions •1820 - Haiti was second independent nation in the New World! •Haiti was crippled by years of war, its agriculture was devastated •Lack of education and skilled labor led to instability •1820 - Haiti was second independent nation in the New World! •Haiti was crippled by years of war, its agriculture was devastated •Lack of education and skilled labor led to instability •South American nations received their independence from Spain •Bolivar’s dream of a united Gran Colombia failed – split into Venezuela, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru and Bolivia •Reliance on cash crops and lack of democratic traditions led to rule of dictators. •South American nations received their independence from Spain •Bolivar’s dream of a united Gran Colombia failed – split into Venezuela, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru and Bolivia •Reliance on cash crops and lack of democratic traditions led to rule of dictators.
  16. 16. SUMMARY BEFORE AFTER POLITICAL ECONOMIC SOCIAL Ruled by Viceroys, who were controlled by Monarchs of Mother Country. No political rights for majority of people Ruled by wealthy Creoles called Caudillos, strong man rule. No political rights for majority of people Unequal trade relationship that benefited Spain - Mercantilism Unequal trade relationship that benefited Great Britain and the U.S. – Spheres of Influence Peninsulares at the top of the social ladder, followed by creoles, who had special treatment. The rest of the population were restricted Creoles at the top of the ladder had special treatment. The rest of the population were restricted. What Really Changed?What Really Changed?

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