The French and Indian War


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The French and Indian War

  1. 1. The French and Indian War By Brad Dougherty & Peter Shim
  2. 2. Origins of the War <ul><li>By the 1750’s, English and French settlements were expanding </li></ul><ul><li>The French had claimed a region of the interior stretching from The Great Lakes south to Louisiana </li></ul><ul><li>To secure their hold, the French built up communities and fortresses </li></ul>
  3. 3. Origins of the War (cont’d) <ul><li>The English were preparing to spread across the Appalachian Mtns. </li></ul><ul><li>In 1749 a group of Virginia businessmen secured 500,000 acres of Ohio Valley land for settlement </li></ul><ul><li>The French, in an effort to keep the English from expanding, constructed new fortresses in the Ohio Valley </li></ul>
  4. 4. Origins of the War (cont’d) <ul><li>The English interpreted this as a threat to their settlements and began to make military preparations </li></ul>
  5. 5. Claims to North America before 1750
  6. 6. Beginning of the War <ul><li>In the summer of 1745, the governor of Virginia sent a militia force into the Ohio Valley to challenge French expansion </li></ul><ul><li>This militia was led by an inexperienced young colonel named George Washington </li></ul>
  7. 7. Fort Necessity <ul><li>Washington built a small fort called Fort Necessity </li></ul><ul><li>After an unsuccessful attack on the French, the French trapped Washington and his troops inside the fort </li></ul><ul><li>After a third of his troops were killed, Washington was forced to surrender </li></ul>
  8. 8. 1754 - 1756 <ul><li>Primarily a North American Conflict </li></ul><ul><li>Dominated by French </li></ul><ul><li>Most Indian tribes allied with the French </li></ul><ul><li>Colonists had to manage the war themselves </li></ul>
  9. 9. 1756 – 1758 <ul><li>Governments of France and Britain formally opened hostilities </li></ul><ul><li>In 1757, the English secretary of state William Pitt started to bring the war effort under control of the British government </li></ul><ul><li>This caused resentment from the colonists </li></ul><ul><li>By 1758, the friction between the colonists and the British threatened to bring the war efforts to a halt </li></ul>
  10. 10. 1758 - 1760 <ul><li>This caused Pitt to relax some of the policies </li></ul><ul><li>Resulted in an immediate increase in colonist support </li></ul><ul><li>Pitt dispatched a large number of additional troops </li></ul><ul><li>In July 1759, the fortress of Louisbourg was captured by Jeffrey Amherst and James Wolfe </li></ul><ul><li>In September, Quebec fell to Wolfe and his army </li></ul><ul><li>A year later, the French formally surrendered </li></ul>
  11. 11. Land Reorganization <ul><li>Britain gained control over half the North American continent, including: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>French Canada </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>All French territorial claims east of the Mississippi River </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Spanish Florida </li></ul></ul><ul><li>In return, Britain gave Cuba and the Philippines back to Spain </li></ul><ul><li>France compensated its Spanish ally for the loss of Florida by giving it title to all of Louisiana west of the Mississippi River </li></ul>
  12. 12. Effects on the British Empire <ul><li>Meant that expansion could continue westward into the New World </li></ul><ul><li>Caused substantial debt </li></ul><ul><li>Generated much resentment towards the colonists </li></ul><ul><li>Set plans in motion to have greater control over the colonies </li></ul>
  13. 13. Effects on the Indian Tribes <ul><li>All the tribes that had allied with the French were now left alienated, and on bad terms with the British </li></ul><ul><li>The Iroquois continued to contest British control of the Ohio River Valley </li></ul>
  14. 14. Effects on American Colonists <ul><li>Learned to unite </li></ul><ul><li>Left lots of space to colonize, but the British decided otherwise </li></ul><ul><li>The British proclaimed that no one could settle west of the Allegheny Mtns. </li></ul><ul><li>They set up a permanent army, paid for by the colonists’ taxes, to keep them from expanding </li></ul><ul><li>This infuriated the colonists </li></ul><ul><li>These policies became a major part in the reasons behind the American Revolution </li></ul>
  15. 15. Bibliography <ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>