American Revolutionary War


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American Revolutionary War

  1. 1. Part 2 Chapter 2: The Revolutionary War
  2. 2. <ul><li>The Sharpening Contradictions between Britain and the Colonies </li></ul>
  3. 3. (1) The Situation Before 1763 <ul><li>Colonies dependant on England </li></ul><ul><li>Later become independent </li></ul><ul><li>Colonist wanted independence </li></ul><ul><li>With growth, England exercises more strict policies upon the Colonists </li></ul><ul><li>Tried to take more profit </li></ul><ul><li>Taxes on Imports and Exports </li></ul>
  4. 4. (2) The Stamp Act and the Townshend Acts <ul><li>1763: King George III and prime minister George Grenville made 3 decisions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Raising the import taxes and taxes more goods </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Closing the frontier to further settlement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Place an army of 10,000 men in America to “protect” the colonies </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. The Stamp Act <ul><li>1765 the Stamp Act passed by Parliament </li></ul><ul><li>Imposed on all colonists </li></ul><ul><li>Tax on all printed paper (i.e. Ship’s papers, legal documents, newspapers, publications) </li></ul><ul><li>Money collected was to help pay for the cost of the defending and protecting of the American Frontier </li></ul>
  6. 6. Opposition to the Stamp Act <ul><li>Previous taxes did not raise money and were approved by Colonial legislatures </li></ul><ul><li>Declared that the colonies can only be taxed by their own legislatures </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Colonists did not have representation in Parliament </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Merchants boycotted English goods and the Stamp Act </li></ul><ul><li>Faced with opposition and loss of trade, Parliament repeals the Stamp Act in 1766 </li></ul>
  7. 7. The Townshend Acts <ul><li>1767 originated by Charles Townshend </li></ul><ul><li>Place customs duties on imports of glass, lead, paints, paper, and tea </li></ul><ul><li>Massachusetts Assembly dissolved(1768) </li></ul><ul><li>Lead to the Boston Massacre </li></ul><ul><li>Boycott decreased British Trade, 1770-tax repealed except on tea->lead to the Boston Tea Party </li></ul>
  8. 8. The Boston Massacre
  9. 9. The Boston Massacre(cont) <ul><li>March 5, 1770-Outside of the Customs house in Boston </li></ul><ul><li>Crowd harasses the soldiers with insults and snowballs </li></ul><ul><li>Soldiers fire and 3 colonists are killed and 8 wounded, two of which later die </li></ul><ul><li>2 of the soldiers found guilty, branded as convicts and released </li></ul>
  10. 10. Committees of Correspondence <ul><li>1772-Formed by the urging of Samuel Adams </li></ul><ul><li>In protest against the change of the Crown paying the royal governor and judges instead of the colonial assembly </li></ul><ul><li>Important contribution to the planning of the First Continental Congress </li></ul>
  11. 11. Boston Tea Party: Background <ul><li>British East India Company: controlled all tea trading between India and the British Colonies </li></ul><ul><li>Colonists refused to purchase the taxed British Tea and smuggled tea from Holland </li></ul><ul><li>As the result, the British East India Company was in danger of going out of business </li></ul><ul><li>1773 the Tea Act allowed the British East India Company to sell directly to the Colonies enabling them to sell cheaper than the smuggled tea </li></ul>
  12. 12. Boston Tea Party(cont) <ul><li>Revived the issue of taxation without representation </li></ul><ul><li>Colonies demand the removal of the tax and dockworker refuse to unload the tea </li></ul><ul><li>December 16, 1773, a group of men calling themselves the “Sons of Liberty” dressed as Indians boarded three ships and dumped 342 chests of tea valued at $70,000 into the water </li></ul>
  13. 13. Intolerable Acts <ul><li>Boston Port Bill-Closed Boston Harbor to everything except British ships </li></ul><ul><li>Quartering Act-Colonists must house and feed British troops </li></ul><ul><li>Administration of Justice Act-British officials could not be tried in Colonial courts for crimes but only in Britain </li></ul><ul><li>Massachusetts Government Act-British Governor in charge of all town meetings in Boston </li></ul><ul><li>Quebec Act-Extended Canadian Borders to cut off the western colonies of Connecticut, Massachusetts, and Virgina </li></ul><ul><li>Led to the First Continental Congress </li></ul>
  14. 14. 2. The Unity of the Colonies: the First Continental Congress <ul><li>1774-Representatives from each colony met in Philadelphia (except Georgia) </li></ul><ul><li>Gathered to discuss the Intolerable Acts </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Relationship with Britain </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How to assert their rights </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To appear united in their reply to Britain </li></ul></ul><ul><li>They did not to seek independence </li></ul>
  15. 15. The First Continental Congress(cont) <ul><li>3 Purposes: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Compose a statement of colonial rights </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Identify parliament’s violation of those rights </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provide a plan to convince Britain to restore these rights </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Agreed to boycott British goods and to agreed to meet again in May 1775 if Britain did not change their policies </li></ul>
  16. 16. <ul><li>“ Minute Men”-a member of the militia of the American Colonies, who would be ready for battle in a minute’s notice </li></ul><ul><li>“ I know not what course others may take, but as for me, give me liberty or give me death” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Patrick Henry </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. 3. The Fire at Lexington <ul><li>Battle of Lexington and Concord </li></ul><ul><ul><li>April 19, 1775, 700 British troops dispatched to Concord, Massachusetts, to seize munitions the Patriots had been stockpiling </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Paul Revere rides to warn the Minutemen </li></ul><ul><li>British troops find 70 Minutemen waiting for them </li></ul><ul><li>“ Shot heard around the world” </li></ul>
  18. 19. The Second Continental Congress <ul><li>Established the militia as the Continental Army </li></ul><ul><li>Elected George Washington as Commander in Chief of the Continental Army </li></ul><ul><li>Decided to draw up the Declaration of Independence </li></ul>
  19. 20. The Declaration of Independence <ul><li>Main points: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Government should protect these rights, if not, it is the duty of the people to overthrow it </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>List of grievances or justifications </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Colonists have the right to be free </li></ul></ul>
  20. 21. 4. Progress of the War <ul><li>American Revolution 1775-1783 </li></ul><ul><li>After Bunker Hill, Americans were declared “rebels” and a law was passed to close all American seaports </li></ul><ul><li>Spring of 1776 England hired 20,000 Hessian troops to be sent to America </li></ul><ul><li>British advantage of military strength </li></ul><ul><li>Colonies advantage was that they were 7,000 miles away from England </li></ul>
  21. 22. Progress of the War: North <ul><li>Summer of 1776 the English land 30,000 Hessian and British troops on Staten Island, New York </li></ul><ul><li>Led by General Richard and William Howe </li></ul><ul><li>England’s powerful navy commands the sea </li></ul><ul><li>Washington flees from New York, crosses the Delaware River </li></ul><ul><li>The Battle of Trenton-December 26, 1776, crossed the river on Christmas night and took the British troops by surprise, 1000 taken prisoners </li></ul><ul><li>Battle of Monmouth-June 28, 1778, last large battle in the North </li></ul><ul><li>1780-West Point-Benedict Arnold arranged to hand over West Point to the British-plot was discovered and Arnold escaped to the British </li></ul>
  22. 23. Progress of the War: The Turning Point <ul><li>Battle of Saratoga-1777 General Burgoyne(British) surrenders to General Horatio Gates(American; general of the Southern Continental Army) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Saved New York and the whole of New England </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>This victory made it possible for the Americans to make a treaty of alliance with France </li></ul></ul>
  23. 24. Progress of the War: Help From France <ul><li>Benjamin Franklin send as the diplomat to France </li></ul><ul><li>After the victory at Saratoga, the King of France made two agreements with Franklin </li></ul><ul><ul><li>France would join the war against England </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Agreed to trade with America </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Spain and Holland join France against England </li></ul><ul><ul><li>This tied up England’s naval resources </li></ul></ul>
  24. 25. Progress of the War: War in the West <ul><li>1779 Clark captures Kaskaskia </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pacified Indians who were stirred up by the British </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Checked the activities of the British among the Indians </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gave the US claim on the territory between the Appalachian Mountains and the Mississippi River </li></ul></ul>
  25. 26. Progress of the War: War in the South <ul><li>1778 Savannah is captured in the first event of the Southern Campaign </li></ul><ul><li>Washington reaches Yorktown with the French soldiers and fleet </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Shut off escape, English navy defeated by the French </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>October 18, 1781, Cornwallis surrenders </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Peace negotiation, final treaty signed in Paris </li></ul></ul>
  26. 27. Treaty of Paris <ul><li>Brought an end to the Revolutionary War </li></ul><ul><li>Britain recognizes United States independence </li></ul><ul><li>Borders from the Great Lakes to Florida and as far West to the Mississippi </li></ul><ul><li>In turn, the Americans agreed to respect the property of the loyalists and to allow British merchants collect debts owed to them </li></ul>
  27. 28. Significance of the War <ul><li>A new republic emerged and marked a new beginning of American history </li></ul><ul><li>Encouraged other colonies ruled by the Spanish and promoted the national liberation struggle of other colonies in the world </li></ul>
  28. 29. The Confederation and the Constitution <ul><li>1781 Articles of Confederation accepted </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Gave to little power to the central government </li></ul></ul><ul><li>1787 Constitutional Convention to revise the Articles </li></ul><ul><li>Constitution of 1787 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Congress was to be made up of two houses: House of Representatives and the Senate </li></ul></ul>
  29. 30. Federalists and Anti-Federalists <ul><li>Federalists- Advocated a strong federal government and supported the US constitution </li></ul><ul><li>Anti-Federalists- Opposed the new constitution because they felt a strong central government defeated the purpose of the war with Britain. Believed that the Constitution would not protect the power of the States or the freedom of the people </li></ul>
  30. 31. The Bill of Rights <ul><li>1791 </li></ul><ul><li>Freedom of religion, speech, assembly, and petition </li></ul><ul><li>Right to bear arms </li></ul><ul><li>No Quartering </li></ul><ul><li>Search and Seizure </li></ul><ul><li>Due process, freedom from self-incrimination, double jeopardy </li></ul><ul><li>Right to a speedy and public trial </li></ul><ul><li>Trial by jury </li></ul><ul><li>Excessive bail, cruel and unusual punishments </li></ul><ul><li>Other rights of the people </li></ul><ul><li>Power reserved to the states </li></ul>
  31. 32. Chapter 2: The American War of Independence <ul><li>1) The Stamp Act and the Townshend Acts </li></ul><ul><li>2) the Boston Massacre and Committees of Correspondence </li></ul><ul><li>3) the Boston “Tea Party” and the “Intolerable Acts” </li></ul><ul><li>4) The First and the Second Continental Congress </li></ul><ul><li>5)The Articles of the Confederation </li></ul><ul><li>6) The Bill of Rights </li></ul><ul><li>7) the Constitutional Convention </li></ul><ul><li>Minute Men </li></ul><ul><li>Declaration of Independence </li></ul><ul><li>The battle of Saratoga </li></ul><ul><li>Battle of Trenton </li></ul>