The colonial experience

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The colonial experience

  1. 2. Exploration of the New World: SPAIN <ul><li>The 1500s was the century of SPAIN </li></ul><ul><li>Why? </li></ul><ul><li>GOLD, GLORY, & GOD </li></ul>
  2. 3. GOLD : Desire to find a trade route to India/Southeast Asia to break the Italian/Arab monopoly on the spice trade
  3. 4. Age of Discovery
  4. 5. http://www.ucalgary.ca/applied_history/tutor/eurvoya/vasco.html
  5. 6. GLORY : The desire for adventure, born out of the Renaissance
  6. 7. GOD : The desire to convert native “heathens” to Christianity
  7. 8. DEVELOPMENTS <ul><li>Columbus discovers the “New World” in 1492 </li></ul>
  8. 9. DEVELOPMENTS <ul><li>Ponce de Leon explores and names Florida in 1513 </li></ul>
  9. 10. DEVELOPMENTS <ul><li>Cortez conquers the Aztecs of Mexico </li></ul>
  10. 11. DEVELOPMENTS <ul><li>Conquistadores explore southwest & California coast </li></ul>
  11. 12. Exploration of the New World: ENGLAND <ul><li>1600s was the century of ENGLAND </li></ul><ul><li>How? </li></ul><ul><li>The defeat of Spanish Armada in 1588 </li></ul>
  12. 13. DEVELOPMENTS <ul><li>Why? </li></ul><ul><li>Religious Persecution </li></ul><ul><li>The Great Puritan Migration: </li></ul><ul><li>1625 - 1628 </li></ul>
  13. 14. THE FIRST COLONIES
  14. 15. First attempt at colonization : Sir Walter Raleigh, The Lost Colony, in 1587
  15. 16. First permanent colony: Jamestown, VA 1607
  16. 17. It would not be until 1733 when all 13 English Colonies were established
  17. 19. Colony – a group of people in one place who are ruled by a parent country elsewhere
  18. 20. Regions <ul><li>New England </li></ul>Southern Middle Colonial
  19. 21. Southern Colonies <ul><li>Virginia (Jamestown) 1607 </li></ul><ul><li>Maryland 1632 </li></ul><ul><li>Carolina 1660’s </li></ul><ul><li>Georgia 1730’s </li></ul>
  20. 22. Common Characteristics of Southern Colonies <ul><li>• Spread Out • </li></ul><ul><li>• Plantation Economic System • </li></ul><ul><li>• Land and Crops are not rotated • </li></ul><ul><li>• Cash Crops • </li></ul><ul><li>• Slave Labor • </li></ul><ul><li>• County form of local government • </li></ul><ul><li>• Less well organized churches and schools • </li></ul>
  21. 23. Agriculture was the primary economic activity in the southern colonies.
  22. 24. Farmers specialized in raising a single cash crop (grown for sale rather than farmer’s use)
  23. 25. Indentured servants (agreed to work for planters in the colonies in exchange for passage to America)  early members of the colonial workforce.
  24. 26. African slaves eventually became the primary source of plantation labor.
  25. 27. Wealthy planters dominated the South’s economic, social, and political life.
  26. 28. Women could not vote or own property . However, they were valuable sources of labor on farms and plantations.
  27. 29. Indentured servants had few rights while in bondage, and faced hardships afterward
  28. 30. Slaves were treated as property and forced to work for life without pay .
  29. 31. Virginia 1607 (Jamestown ) <ul><li>John Smith 1610 </li></ul><ul><li>John Rolfe (tobacco) </li></ul><ul><li>1619 House of Burgesses </li></ul><ul><li>First Black Workers Arrives </li></ul><ul><li>1620 Women Arrive </li></ul>Carolina 1660’s <ul><li>Charter from Charles II </li></ul><ul><li>North is more </li></ul><ul><li>Democratic </li></ul><ul><li>South is more </li></ul><ul><li>Economically </li></ul><ul><li>advanced with </li></ul><ul><li>port in </li></ul><ul><li>Charleston </li></ul>
  30. 32. Jamestown, VA The first permanent colony <ul><li>The Virginia Company chose a governor & council to run Jamestown </li></ul>
  31. 33. Jamestown survived because of TOBACCO
  32. 34. The House of Burgesses (1619) – 22 men met w/ governor to advise him; the beginnings of colonial self-government
  33. 35. The House of Burgesses was the first representative body in the New World
  34. 36. The House of Burgesses is an example of representative democracy (Indirect democracy)
  35. 37. Historic Charleston, SC
  36. 38. Georgia 1730’s <ul><li>James Oglethorpe </li></ul><ul><li>Debtors from British prisons </li></ul><ul><li>Gets support from British to keep Spanish at bay </li></ul>Maryland 1632 <ul><li>Haven for Catholics </li></ul><ul><li>Maryland Toleration Act - for Christian settlers 1649 </li></ul>
  37. 39. Remember: Maryland was a haven for CATHOLICS (land of Queen Mary)
  38. 40. <ul><li>Massachusetts </li></ul><ul><li>Rhode Island </li></ul><ul><li>Connecticut </li></ul><ul><li>New Hampshire </li></ul>New England Colonies
  39. 41. Common Characteristics of New England Colonies <ul><li>Rocky Soil / Subsistence Farming </li></ul><ul><li>Good Harbors </li></ul><ul><li>No Frontier Towns </li></ul><ul><li>Few Immigrants </li></ul><ul><li>Less Tolerant </li></ul><ul><li>Good Rivers </li></ul><ul><li>Town Meetings </li></ul>
  40. 42. Massachusetts <ul><li>Pilgrims 1620 separatist Plymouth </li></ul><ul><li>Mayflower Compact </li></ul><ul><li>Theocracy </li></ul><ul><li>Puritans 1630 Boston </li></ul><ul><li>John Winthrop </li></ul><ul><li>Absorb Plymouth by 1690 </li></ul>Rhode Island <ul><li>Roger Williams </li></ul><ul><li>Baptists could not </li></ul><ul><li>stand how Native </li></ul><ul><li>Americans were </li></ul><ul><li>treated </li></ul><ul><li>Close to Religious </li></ul><ul><li>Freedom </li></ul>
  41. 43. Pilgrims landed in Plymouth Rock, MA in 1620
  42. 45. Plymouth was the second permanent colony in the New World
  43. 46. Plymouth colony recreated
  44. 47. The Mayflower Compact
  45. 48. Signing of the Mayflower Compact
  46. 49. The Mayflower Compact established that the 41 men would make the laws for the community
  47. 50. The Mayflower Compact established a direct democracy
  48. 51. The legacy of the Mayflower Compact in New England is town hall meetings
  49. 52. The Puritans <ul><li>The Pilgrims were Puritans </li></ul><ul><li>The Puritans were followers of John Calvin </li></ul><ul><li>They wanted to establish a theocracy – a government run to enforce the laws of God </li></ul><ul><li>NO separation between Church & State </li></ul><ul><li>The Puritans wanted to establish a model Christian society </li></ul><ul><li>The Puritans persecuted and drove out non-believers </li></ul>
  50. 53. The Puritans
  51. 54. Connecticut <ul><li>Outcast from Mass. </li></ul><ul><li>Conn. New Haven Thomas Hooker </li></ul><ul><li>Fundamental Order of Connecticut, which was the 1 st Constitution written. </li></ul>New Hampshire <ul><li>Broke away from Mass. due to fur traders and trappers </li></ul>
  52. 55. The Fundamental Orders of Connecticut: First Colonial Constitution (1639)
  53. 56. A diversified economy developed in New England. Rocky soil and cold temperatures limited farming .
  54. 57. Good harbors led to shipbuilding , fishing , and iron production (major industries) Industries  growth of cities  problems (sanitation, overcrowding, etc)
  55. 58. Merchants and business owners were the most powerful members of society.
  56. 59. The absence of large-scale agriculture meant fewer slaves were brought to the North Free blacks were common, but enjoyed fewer rights than whites
  57. 60. Less tolerant due to Puritan influence
  58. 61. Middle Colonies <ul><li>Pennsylvania </li></ul><ul><li>New York </li></ul><ul><li>New Jersey </li></ul><ul><li>Delaware </li></ul>
  59. 62. Common Characteristics of Middle Colonies <ul><li>“ Bread Basket” </li></ul><ul><li>Most fertile soil (Penn & New York) </li></ul><ul><li>Good harbors and rivers </li></ul><ul><li>Immigration in 1700’s </li></ul><ul><li>led to diverse population </li></ul><ul><li>Town meeting and County government </li></ul>
  60. 63. Pennsylvania <ul><li>Quaker have started by William Penn </li></ul><ul><li>1682 founded Philadelphia </li></ul>New York <ul><li>Taken from the Dutch New Holland, turned over to the British Duke of York </li></ul>
  61. 64. New Jersey <ul><li>Grant of land to two proprietors </li></ul>Delaware <ul><li>Founded by Swedes taken over by Penn. </li></ul>
  62. 65. Characteristics of ALL Colonies <ul><li>Better off economically </li></ul><ul><li>Highest standard of living </li></ul><ul><li>More Religious and Political Freedom </li></ul><ul><li>Economic Opportunities </li></ul><ul><li>Same rights as British (according to Jamestown Charter) </li></ul><ul><li>3000 miles away from “Home” (Britain) </li></ul>
  63. 66. The colonists had no separate identity (the development of an “American” identity will come later)
  64. 67. Religion in the colonies <ul><li>Although many colonists came to America seeking religious freedom, it was hard to find . </li></ul><ul><li>Many colonies had an “ official ” church (Puritan in New England, Anglican in Virginia, etc.) </li></ul><ul><li>Challenging the authority or beliefs of the church could lead to severe punishment or expulsion. </li></ul><ul><li>Great Awakening – 1740s religious revival  creation of new churches, greater religious toleration, and new colleges (Princeton, Brown) </li></ul>
  65. 68. Education in the Colonies <ul><li>New England – universal education so everyone could read the Bible and understand the laws. </li></ul><ul><li>Middle Colonies – Education was widespread, but not universal. </li></ul><ul><li>Southern Colonies – limited to children of wealthy; distances between farms made schooling difficult. </li></ul><ul><li>Most women received little formal education. </li></ul><ul><li>Early colleges founded to train men for ministry . </li></ul>

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