Chapter 4 Thirteen English Colonies


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Formation of the orginal 13 colonies

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Chapter 4 Thirteen English Colonies

  1. 1. The Thirteen English Colonies Chapter 4 pp. 100 - 133
  2. 2. Section 1: The New England Colonies <ul><li>The New England Colonies were founded by political and social reformers and developed tightly knit towns and villages. </li></ul>
  3. 3. The Massachusetts Bay Colony <ul><li>Founded by a group of English called Puritans , who didn’t want to separate from the Church of England, but reform it. </li></ul><ul><li>John Winthrop was the colony’s first governor. </li></ul><ul><li>The Colony was run by the General Court , an assembly of elected representatives (had to be male members of the Puritan Church). </li></ul>
  4. 4. Connecticut and Rhode Island <ul><li>A minister named Thomas Hooker founded Connecticut because he believed the Mass. Bay Colony’s government was too powerful . </li></ul><ul><li>Fundamental Orders of Connecticut : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Male church members AND property owners could vote. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The governor’s power was limited . </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Another minister, Roger Williams , founded Rhode Island because he thought the Puritan Church was too powerful. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Unlike Puritan Massachusetts, religious tolerance was practiced in Rhode Island. </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Anne Hutchinson Speaks Out <ul><li>Anne Hutchinson questioned the Puritan church’s teachings , claiming God spoke to her. </li></ul><ul><li>She was sent out of Mass. and settled in Rhode Island . </li></ul>
  6. 6. Life in New England Towns and Villages <ul><li>Puritan Church on Sunday (Sabbath) was mandatory and lasted all day. </li></ul><ul><li>Government centered on town meetings , where settlers discussed issues together. </li></ul><ul><li>Farming was difficult, so the economy was based on shipbuilding, fishing and whaling . </li></ul>
  7. 7. Section 2: The Middle Colonies <ul><li>The Middle Colonies attracted a wide variety of immigrants who settled on farms and in the cities of Philadelphia and New York. </li></ul>
  8. 8. New York and New Jersey <ul><li>New Netherland becomes New York </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Settled by the Dutch Protestants . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>New Amsterdam became a trading center. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Peter Stuyvesant (the governor) surrendered the colony to England in 1664. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>New Jersey Separates from New York </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Proprietary Colony – Governed by a friend of the king for yearly payment. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Royal Colony – Directly controlled by the English crown. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Religiously tolerant and practiced representative government. </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. The Founding of Pennsylvania <ul><li>Quakers led by William Penn </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Quakers were a religious group of Protestant reformers who were persecuted for very different beliefs than the English church. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>All people ( men and women, nobles and commoners ) were equal “in God’s sight.” including Native Americans. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Philadelphia became the capital of the colony (Greek for “Brotherly Love”) </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Life in the Middle Colonies <ul><li>The majority of people farmed. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cash Crops (sold for money) included wheat, barley, rye. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>There were also artisans and craftsmen who made many items by hand including clocks, watches, guns and glassware. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Section 3: The Southern Colonies <ul><li>The large tobacco and rice plantations of the Tidewater region contrasted with the settlements of hunters and farmers of the back country. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Lord Baltimore’s Colony of Maryland <ul><li>The Mason-Dixon Line divided Maryland and Pennsylvania. </li></ul><ul><li>Sir George Calvert, wanted to start a Catholic colony in America. He died, but his son, Lord Baltimore did start the colony. </li></ul><ul><li>The Colony Assembly of Maryland passed the Act of Toleration , granting religious freedom to Catholics. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Bacon’s Rebellion (Virginia) <ul><li>The governor of Virginia refused to take actions against Native Americans after bloody clashes over land. </li></ul><ul><li>Bacon’s Rebellion: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Nathaniel Bacon led raids against Native villages, then attacked Jamestown . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The rebellion ended after Bacon died and 23 of his followers were hanged. </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. The Carolinas <ul><li>Both North and South Carolina were started by 8 English nobles . </li></ul><ul><li>North Carolina was settled by poor farmers from Virginia , while South Carolina was larger and settled by both English and other immigrants . </li></ul><ul><li>Carolina farms eventually grew into plantations worked by slaves . </li></ul><ul><li>Rice was their cash crop as well as indigo (a plant used for purple dye). </li></ul>
  15. 15. <ul><li>James Oglethorpe started a colony to allow English debtors to make a “fresh start.” </li></ul><ul><li>Oglethorpe paid off a person’s debt in return for their work on the colony near the Savannah River . </li></ul>Georgia
  16. 16. Two Ways of Life <ul><li>Tidewater Plantations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Large farms where tobacco, rice (and later cotton ) was grown. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Anywhere from 20-100 slaves worked the fields or in the large, central house as cooks or servants. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The Backcountry South </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Small fields of tobacco, beans, corn, or peas. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Farms were self-sustainable , and slavery was almost non-existent. </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Growth of Slavery and the Slave Trade <ul><li>Slaves were brought to America as early as 1619 . </li></ul><ul><li>The Middle Passage : slaves were brought across the Atlantic Ocean in horrible conditions. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>10% of slaves died during the journey. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Slave codes meant to control slaves were created out of racism . </li></ul><ul><li>Slaves were treated as property not people. </li></ul>
  18. 18. Section 4: Roots of Self-Government <ul><li>During the late 1600’s and 1700’s, England regulated colonial trade , while in each colony a governor carried out laws passed by the colony’s legislature. </li></ul>
  19. 19. England Regulates Trade <ul><li>Mercantilism – economic theory that a nation becomes strong by controlling trade. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Exports should outnumber imports . </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Navigation Acts were passed by English Parliament and benefitted both England and the Colonies. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Regulated ships and their cargo to and from England and the colonies. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Colonial merchants and shipbuilders had a guaranteed market for their goods. </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. The Triangle Trade (p. 122) <ul><li>Draw the Triangle Trade on your map in your notes based on the drawing on the board. </li></ul>
  21. 21. Colonial Government <ul><li>Each colony had a legislature , whose job was to make the laws for the colony) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Upper House – Governor’s appointed advisors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lower House – Elected officials with the “power of the purse.” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>A Bill of Rights </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Written freedoms the government promises to protect. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The English Bill of Rights protected jury trials and checks on the power of a ruler. </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. Section 5: Life in the Colonies <ul><li>During the 1700’s, England’s 13 colonies became societies with their own ideas and traditions . </li></ul>
  23. 23. Colonial Society <ul><li>Social Classes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Gentry – Wealthy planters, merchants, ministers, lawyers, royal officials </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Middle Class – Farmers and Craftspeople </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Indentured Servants – signed contracts to work for someone who paid for their passage to the colonies. When finished indentured servants received “freedom dues” (tools and land). </li></ul></ul>Gentry Middle Class Indentured Servants Slaves* (Most Africans in America were slaves)
  24. 24. The Great Awakening <ul><li>A religious movement during the 1730’s and 40’s that made people feel they could worship independently . </li></ul><ul><li>People then began to question how they were being governed by the British government . </li></ul>
  25. 25. Education in the Colonies <ul><li>New England </li></ul><ul><ul><li>First public schools supported by taxes </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Middle and Southern Colonies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Private schools educated children of the wealthy . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tutors traveled and taught at private homes. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Some boys learned trades in apprenticeships </li></ul><ul><li>Some girls went to dame schools or learned house skills from their mothers </li></ul>
  26. 26. The Enlightenment <ul><li>Thinkers in Europe during the late 1600’s and 1700’s (such as John Locke ) started to stress human reasoning as a way of studying society . </li></ul><ul><li>Educated Americans (such as Benjamin Franklin ) began to talk about these ideas. </li></ul>