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New England Colonization (Full PPT, AP)

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New England Colonization (Full PPT, AP)

  1. 1. “As soon as the coin in the coffer rings, The soul from purgatory springs.” --Johann Tetzel,16th C. The sale of indulgences shown in A Question to a Mintmaker, woodcut by Jörg Breu the Elder of Augsburg, circa 1530.
  2. 2.   The Protestant Martin Luther began the reformation in 1517 Reformation with his 95 Thesis protesting the corruption of the Catholic Church. Luther’s movement was supported by others throughout Europe: – John Calvin, French theologian, reformer and resident of Switzerland, he founded the school of theology known as Calvinism – John Knox, Scottish Calvinist and leader of the Scottish Reformation. – Huldrych Zwingli, founder of Swiss reformed tradition. – Menno Simons, Anabaptist leader who formalized Mennonite religion – Henry VIII & Thomas Cramer – Church of England
  3. 3.  Protestant Sects Break Off 1522: Parallel to Luther’s work in Germany, a Swiss Reform movement began in Switzerland by Ulrich Zwingli.  1529 – 1536: The political separation of the Church of England from Rome under John Calvin Henry VIII. Aspects of Protestantism were later introduced under Queen Elizabeth.  1560 - Scottish Reformation decisively shaped the Church of Scotland and all other Presbyterian churches worldwide.
  4. 4. Reformation Traditions 1517 Luther - Melanchthon Lutheranism Episcopal Lutheran 1532 Calvin - Beza French-Swiss 1519 Zwingli - Bullinger German-Swiss 1525 Grebel – Manz - Simonsz Swiss Brethren 1536 Henry VIII - Cranmer English 08/09/2009 Reformed Presbyterian Scottish Presbyterian Dutch Reformed } Anabaptist Congregational Mennonites English Separatists English Baptists Anglican Episcopal Church of England
  5. 5. Reformation Traditions Timeline of major Protestant branches and movements 08/09/2009
  6. 6. Basic Protestant Beliefs  Sola scriptura (“by scripture alone”) says that the Bible (rather than Church tradition or the Church’s interpretations of the Bible) is the primary and supreme source of authority for all Christians.  This does not exclude other sources of authority, rather it places the Bible superior to all else.  Sola fide (“by faith alone”) holds that salvation comes by grace through faith alone in Jesus as the Christ, rather than through good works.
  7. 7. The Rise of Puritanism • Puritans were a large grouping of English Protestant reformers in the 16th and 17th centuries, who generally followed the teachings of John Calvin. • Wanted to “purify” the Church of England, which they still viewed as largely Catholic and corrupt. • Began in the reign Elizabeth I of England in 1558 as an activist movement within the Church of England. Continued throughout the 17th century.
  8. 8. Puritan Beliefs     Believed the Church of England needed to be “purified” to end continued corruption Did not recognize the system of bishops that ran the Church of England. Recognized the individual congregation as the only biblically sanctioned organized unit. Began their congregations with a covenant between a group of believers and God. Each congregation elected their ministers, all of whom were university-trained and who could be voted out by the congregation.
  9. 9. Puritan Beliefs (cont.)  Believed that Adam’s sin broke his covenant with God, and therefore man deserved perpetual damnation.  God then made a later covenant with Christ, whose death offered grace to a small minority of people known as the “Saints.”  Believed that because the identity of the Saints had long since been determined by God (predestination), there was nothing anyone could do to win salvation.
  10. 10. Puritan Beliefs (cont.)  No one could be entirely sure about who was one of the elect, but if a person was saved, he or she naturally lived a godly life. Thus, their conduct might indicate whether or not they were saved.  Recognized states by which he or she might experience knowledge of redemption:  God revealed to individuals the heights to which he/she must aspire and then the recipient experienced a profound sense of inadequacy and despair that served as a prelude to redemption or “saving grace.”
  11. 11. Separatists (“Pilgrims”) in Salem (1621) vs. Puritans in Boston (1630)
  12. 12. Separatists Separatist Beliefs:  Puritans who believed only “visible saints” [those who could demonstrate in front of their fellow Puritans their elect status] should be admitted to church membership.  Because the Church of England enrolled all the king’s subjects, Separatists felt they had to share churches with the “damned.”  Therefore, they believed in a total break from the Church of England.
  13. 13. Puritan sects who joined or refused to join the Church of England 08/09/2009 14
  14. 14. Sources of Puritan Migration
  15. 15. The Pilgrim Separatists   Ship set sail in 1620  102 passengers  Mayflower Compact  08/09/2009 From England → To Amsterdam, Holland → To Plymouth, England → To Massachusetts, America Plymouth Colony: first permanent New England settlement
  16. 16. The Mayflower 1620  a group of 102 people [half Separatists]  Negotiated with the Virginia Company to settle in its jurisdiction.  Non-Separatists included Captain Myles Standish. Plymouth Bay way outside the domain of the Virginia Company.  Became squatters without legal right to land & specific authority to establish a govt.
  17. 17. The Mayflower Compact November 11, 1620
  18. 18. The Mayflower Compact November 11, 1620 Written and signed before the Pilgrims disembarked from the ship. Not a constitution, but an agreement to form a crude govt. and submit to majority rule.  Signed by 41 adult males. Led to adult male settlers meeting in assemblies to make laws in town meetings.
  19. 19. Plymouth Rock 08/09/2009
  20. 20. 08/09/2009 21
  21. 21. 08/09/2009 22
  22. 22. 08/09/2009 23
  23. 23. Covenant Theology “Covenant of Grace”:  Between Puritan communities and God. Requires an active faith, and softens predestination. Although God chooses the elect, the relationship is a contract in which punishment for sins is a judicially proper response to disobedience “Social Covenant”:  Between members of Puritan communities    with each other. Required mutual watchfulness. No toleration of deviance or disorder. No privacy.
  24. 24. That First Year…. Winter of 1620-1621  Only 44 out of the original 102 survived. None chose to leave in 1621 when the Mayflower sailed back. Fall of 1621  First “Thanksgiving.”  Colony survived with fur [especially beaver], fish, and lumber. Plymouth stayed small and economically unimportant.  1691  only 7,000 people  Merged with Massachusetts Bay Colony.
  25. 25. William Bradford Self-taught scholar. Chosen governor of Plymouth 30 times in yearly elections. Worried about settlements of non-Puritans springing up nearby and corrupting Puritan society.
  26. 26. Colonizing New England
  27. 27. The MA Bay Colony 1629  non-Separatist Puritans got a royal (1630) charter to form the MA Bay Co.  Wanted to escape attacks by conservatives in the Church of England.  They didn’t want to leave the Church, just its “impurities.” 1630  1,000 people set off in 11 wellstocked ships  Established a colony with Boston as its hub. “Great Migration” of the 1630s  Turmoil in England [leading to the English Civil War] sent about 70,000 Puritans to America.  Not all Puritans  20,000 came to MA.
  28. 28. First Seal of MA Bay
  29. 29. John Winthrop Well-off attorney and manor lord in England and Puritan preacher Famous for his sermon “A Model of Christian Charity” discussing a “City Upon the Hill” of Christian believers Became 1st governor of Mass. John Winthrop  Believed that he had a “calling” from God to lead there.  Served as governor or deputy-governor for 19 years.
  30. 30. Land Division in Sudbury, MA: 16391656
  31. 31. Colonies : 1650 08/09/2009 32
  32. 32. 08/09/2009
  33. 33. Pilgrims v. Puritans Population: Many Dates: Early (1620) Later (1629-30) Social class: Poor class Upper middle class Education: Uneducated Educated Church status: Separatists from Church of England Loyal to Church of England Location: Settled in Plymouth Salem, Boston Leaders: 08/09/2009 Few Wm. Bradford, Wm. Brewster John Endicott, Miles Standish, John Winthrop
  34. 34. Puritan Myths vs. Reality “Haunting fear that someone, somewhere may be happy” Books, music, beer, rum, swam, skated, bowled Wore black Blue, violet, green, yellow Narrow minded +100: Oxford & Cambridge “Dumme Doggs” Established Harvard after 6 years Women sheltered Literate, well read, managed household Song-less Sang a capella, in unison Minority 1776: 75% of Puritan roots
  35. 35. The New England Primer (1683) 08/09/2009
  36. 36. Education in Puritan New England Private Education (to age 6):  Reading, writing taught at home Grammar School (7-10 years):  Grammar, Rhetoric, Arithmetic, Latin, Greek, Hebrew 08/09/2009 College/University (3 years):  Arts: Grammar, Logic, Rhetoric, Arithmetic, Geometry, Astronomy  Philosophies: Metaphysics, Ethics, Natural Science Seminary (3 years): Taught in Latin, trivium & quadrivium
  37. 37. Cotton Mather  1663-1728  Best-known New England Puritan divine of his generation  Published 450 books and pamphlets  Accused, unfairly, of instigating the Salem witchcraft trials 08/09/2009
  38. 38. The Bible in New England  New England colonies were sometimes called “Bible Commonwealths” because they sought guidance of biblical scripture for all aspects of citizen’s lives  Scripture was the authority in criminal cases 08/09/2009
  39. 39. • • • • • • • • • • • 08/09/2009 The Bible in Translation Wycliffe 1380 Gutenberg Tyndale Coverdale Matthew Taverner Great Geneva Bishops’ Rheims-Douai (NT) King James 1450 1525 1535 1537 1539 1539 1560 1568 1582 1611 Less than 100 years: 9 translations
  40. 40. The Geneva Bible  1560 in Geneva  Used by the Pilgrims & Puritans in New England  1560 – 1630:  2000 editions  Bible of Shakespeare, Bunyan, Cromwell’s Army 08/09/2009
  41. 41. The King James Bible  Committee of English scholars between 1607-1611  "Authorized Version”  1st carried by John Winthrop to Massachusetts in 1630  Supplanted Geneva Bible 08/09/2009
  42. 42.  Decline of Puritan Religion 1643: 11% church membership  Preaching of the “Jeremiad”  1657: Half-Way Covenant  Secularized state  1677: Solomon Stoddard, acceptance of the unconverted in the Church  Secularized church  1691: Massachusetts a Royal Colony  No religious bans 08/09/2009  1692: Salem Witch Trials
  43. 43. 08/09/2009 44
  44. 44. Salem Witch Trials 08/09/2009
  45. 45. Characteristics of New England Settlements Low mortality  average life expectancy was 70 years of age. Many extended families. Average 6 children per family. Average age at marriage:  Women – 22 years old  Men – 27 years old.
  46. 46. Patriarchy Authoritarian male father figures controlled each household. Patriarchal ministers and magistrates controlled church congregations and household patriarchs.
  47. 47. Puritan “Rebels” Young, popular minister in Salem.  Argued for a full break with the Anglican Church.  Condemned MA Bay Charter. • Did not give fair compensation to Indians.  Denied authority of civil govt. to regulate religious behavior. Roger Williams 1635  found guilty of preaching newe & dangerous opinions and was exiled.
  48. 48. Rhode Island 1636  Roger Williams fled there.  MA Bay Puritans had wanted to exile him to England to prevent him from founding a competing colony.  Remarkable political freedom in Providence, RI • Universal manhood suffrage  later restricted by a property qualification. • Opposed to special privilege of any kind  freedom of opportunity for all. RI becomes known as the “Sewer” because it is seen by the Puritans as a dumping ground for unbelievers and religious dissenters  More liberal than any other
  49. 49. Puritan “Rebels” Intelligent, strong-willed, well-spoken woman. Threatened patriarchal control. Antinomialism [direct revelation]  Means “against the law.”  Carried to logical extremes Puritan doctrine of predestination. Anne Hutchinson  Holy life was no sure sign of salvation.  Truly saved didn’t need to obey the law of either God or man.
  50. 50. Anne Hutchinson’s Trial Puritan leaders 1638  she confounded the for days. Eventually bragged that she had received her beliefs DIRECTLY from God. Direct revelation was even more serious than the heresy of antinomianism. WHY?? Puritan leaders banished her  she & her family traveled to RI and later to NY.  She and all but one member of her family were killed in an Indian attack in Westchester County.  John Winthrop saw God’s hand in this!
  51. 51. New England Spreads Out
  52. 52. New England Colonies, 1650
  53. 53. Puritans vs. Native Americans Indians especially weak in New England  epidemics wiped out ¾ of the native popul. Wampanoags [near Plymouth] befriended the settlers.  Cooperation between the two helped by Squanto. 1621  Chief Massasoit signed treaty with the settlers.  Autumn, 1621  both groups celebrated the First Thanksgiving.
  54. 54. The First Thanksgiving? In 1863, President Lincoln proclaimed Thanksgiving an official US holiday.
  55. 55. The Pequot Wars: Pequots  very powerful tribe in CT river valley. 1637 1636- 1637  Pequot War  Whites, with Narragansett Indian allies, attacked Pequot village on Mystic River.  Whites set fire to homes & shot fleeing survivors!  Pequot tribe virtually annihilated an uneasy peace lasted for 40 years.
  56. 56. A Pequot Village Destroyed, 1637
  57. 57. King Philip’s War (1675-1676} Only hope for Native Americans to resist white settlers was to UNITE. Metacom [King Philip to white settlers]  Massasoit’s son united Indians and staged coordinated attacks on white settlements throughout New England.  Frontier settlements forced to retreat to Boston.
  58. 58. King Philip’s War (1675-1676} The war ended in failure for the Indians  Metacom beheaded and drawn and quartered.  His son and wife sold into slavery.  Never a serious threat in New England again!!
  59. 59. Population of the New England Colonies
  60. 60. Population Comparisons: New England v. the Chesapeake
  61. 61. Terms to Know • • • • • • • • • • 08/09/2009 Martin Luther John Calvin William Bradford John Winthrop Protestant Reformation Doctrine of Justification Predestination Separatists Puritans “Pilgrims”

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